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User Interface Design

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Reviewing Design portion of SDLC

Reviewing Design portion of SDLC

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  • GUI uses windows, menus, icons, and a mouse. It is the most common type of interfaces most students are likely to use personally and for developing systems.
  • Navigation examples. – buttons & menus Input example – forms for adding new customers Output examples – reports and webpages
  • Novice prefer interfaces with low density and more experienced uses like higher density. The book suggests using < 50% white space for novice users and approach 90% for the more experienced users.
  • Consider adding menus with all available functions for Novice and adding shortcuts for the expert Where there is low employee turnover, some training can lessen the impact of less precise interfaces
  • Example; many users are familiar with the Web, so the use of web-like interfaces can reduce the amount of learning required. Can reuse their web knowledge to reduce the learning curve of the new system.
  • What is Input Design? Designing screens used to enter the information, as well as any forms users write or type information What is the goal of input design? To capture information for the system simply and easily. Reflect the nature of the inputs and ways to simplify their collection.
  • Basic Principles Use Online and Batch Processing Appropriately Capture Data at the Source Minimize Keystrokes
  • Online Processing Immediately records the transaction. Used when it is important to have real-time information about the business process . Think of online processing as (TicketMaster) – You buy your seats online and immediately after those seats are no longer available. Batch Processing Collects inputs and enters them at a later time in a batch. Used when real-time processing information Think of Batch processing as (Time cards) – They are entered in at the end of the day or end of the week.
  • Capture data at the source - is the most important principle of input design. Capturing data at the source eliminates duplicate work, decreases processing time, decreases cost because its not being done twice, and reduces probability of error. When too many people handle something it increases a chance for error or it being misplaced.
  • Capturing data at the source can be done in many ways. Such as Source Data Automation – Using special hardware devices to automatically capture data without requiring anyone to type it. Examples of this are Bar Code Reader – Supermarket checkout Optical Character Recognition - Checks Magnetic Stripe Readers – Credit Cards Smart Cards – Credit Card Sized Calculators Radio Frequency Identification Tag (RFID) – Broadcast its information to electronic readers.
  • Minimize Keystrokes System should never ask for information that can be obtained in another way. (retrieving from database or a calculation) This can be done using lookups, drop down lists, and default values.
  • In Input Design there are different Types of Inputs Such As Data items linked to fields Text which is Used to enter text & can have a fixed length & can be scrollable. Numbers which are Used to enter numbers and Can automatically be formatted to currency or a date. And Selection Box which Enables the user to select a value from a predetermined list. Should be arranged in a meaningful order. (alphabetical, most frequently used) Examples of selection boxes include Check Boxes Radio buttons On screen list boxes Drop-down list boxes Combo buttons Scroll bars (Slider)
  • Here is an example of an input form. It has text box to enter your name, radio buttons to select your major, Check boxes to select software your comfortable using, On screen list box to select your hair color, drop down list box to select where you were born, and a slider to chose the level of interest.
  • Input Validation also referred to as (Edit Checks) is used To prevent invalid information from entering the system 1 Completeness Check – that all required data have been entered. 2 Format Check – that data are of the right type and in the right format. 3 Range Check – that numeric data are within correct minimum and maximum values 4 Check Digit Check – check digits are added to numeric codes 5 Consistency Check – that combinations of data are valid. 6 Database Check – Compare data against a database or file.
  • Here is more of a detailed description of input validation. A lot of it is pretty self explanatory.
  • Basic Principles of Output Design to present information so users can accurately understand it with the least effort Understand Report Usage Read cover to cover because all information is needed. Used as references to find information or to identify specific items. Frequency is either Real-time reports like (Stock Market Quotes) or Batch Reports like (Totals, Summaries, Historical Averages)
  • Manage information Load - Give managers only the information they need and nothing more. Most managers get too much information. Minimize Bias - The order of presentation should match the way in which the information is used. The problem with bias is that it can be very subtle and it can be introduced unintentionally By the way data is sorted.
  • Detail Reports – detailed information about all the items requested Summary reports – lists summary information about all items Turnaround document – Outputs that “turn around” and become inputs Graphs – Charts used in addition to and instead of tables and numbers.
  • User interface Design principles - Layout of the screen, form, or report. Design should help user be aware of content and context. Should be aesthetically pleasing. Designed to support first-time users and experienced users. User interface Design Process – Develop, design, define, prototype, and evaluation. Navigation Design – Make the system simple to use. Simplify the recovery for mistakes. Input Design – Capture accurate information for the system using online or batch processing, capture data at the source, minimize keystrokes and validate data entered. Output Design – Present information so users can accurately understand it. Design reports to minimize overload and bias. Types of reports in output design are – detail reports, summary reports, exception reports, turnaround documents, and graphs.
  • Any Questions?
  • Transcript

    • 1. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Group 13 Jason Reifman Keni Osada Chris Verdin Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 2. IS 431 Chapter 9 Introduction Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 3. IS 431 Chapter 9 Introduction Who’s presenting what? Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 4. IS 431 Chapter 9 Introduction What to expect from Chapter 9:
      • Introduction of several fundamental user design principles
      • Overview of the user interface design process
      • Overview of the navigation, input, and output components that are used in interface design
      • Focus on Web-based interfaces and graphical user interfaces (GUI)
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 5. IS 431 Chapter 9 Introduction Key Terms
      • Types of Interfaces
      • User Interfaces - how the system will interact with external entities. [Focus of the chapter]
      • System Interfaces - how systems exchange information with other systems.
      • Fundamental parts of a User Interface
      • Navigation mechanism - provides the way for users to tell the system what to do.
      • Input mechanism - defines the way the system captures information.
      • Output mechanism - defines the way the system provides information to users or other systems.
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 6. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design Goal Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 7. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design
      • Layout
      • Content awareness
      • Aesthetics
      • User experience
      • Consistency
      • Minimize user effort
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 8. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design Layout organizes areas of the screen or document for different purposes.
      • Standard Windows or Macintosh approach for screen layout
            • Navigation area (top)
            • Status area (bottom)
            • Work area (middle)
      • Info can be presented in multiple areas
      • Like areas should be grouped together
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 9. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design Layout continued…
      • Areas and information should minimize user movement from one to another
      • Ideally, areas will remain consistent in
        • Size
        • Shape
        • Placement for entering data
        • Reports presenting retrieved data
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 10. fig_09_02 fig_09_02
    • 11. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design Content Awareness Users should always be aware of where they are in the system and what is being displayed.
      • All interfaces should have titles
      • Menus should show
        • where you are
        • where you came from to get there
      • It should be clear what info is within each area
      • Be sure to select fields and field labels carefully
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 12. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design Content Awareness continued…
      • Be sure to select fields and field labels carefully
      • Content Awareness applies to the information a form or report contains.
        • It is important to include the preparation date (the print or completion date) so the age of the info is known.
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 13. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design Aesthetics Designing interfaces that are pleasing to the eye.
      • Interfaces need to be functional and inviting to use
      • Avoid squeezing in too much, particularly for novice users
      • Design text carefully
        • Be aware of font and size
        • Avoid using all capital letters
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 14. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design Aesthetics continued…
      • Colors and patterns should be used carefully
        • Test quality of colors by trying the interface on a black/white monitor
        • Use colors to separate or categorize items
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 15. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design User Experience Designing the user interface with the users’ level of computer experience in mind.
      • How easy is the program to learn?
        • Usually a concern for Novice Users
      • How easy is the program to use?
        • Usually a concern for Expert Users
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 16. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design User Experience & new techology What the future holds for user interface. Microsoft’s Surface Touchscreen technology is becoming more and more prevalent. What type of effect will it have on business transactions? Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 17. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design Consistency Enables users to predict what will happen next.
      • * Probably the single most important factor in making a system easy to use
      • Reduces learning curve
      • Considers items within an application and across applications
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 18. IS 431 Chapter 9 Principles for User Interface Design Minimize User Effort The interface should be simple and minimize the number of clicks or keystrokes to move from one part of the system to another.
      • “ Three click rule”
        • Commonly used by interface designers
        • Users should be able to go from the start or main menu of a system to the information or action they want in no more than three mouse clicks or three keystrokes
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 19. IS 431 Chapter 9 Overview
      • Five step process
      • Whole Process is repeated until no improvements are found.
      • e.g. Prepare design >> D esign >> Evaluation
      • 5 steps
      • Use scenario development
      • Structure design
      • Standards design
      • Design prototyping
      • Evaluation
      User Interface Design Process Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 20. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process Use Scenario Development Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 21. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process Use Scenario Development
      • Simple narrative description
      • Describes ONLY the common use of system
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 22. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process Interface Structure
      • Defines basic components of the interface
      • Uses interface structure d iagram (ISD)
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 23. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process Interface Standards
      • Basic design elements that are common across individual screens, forms, and reports
      • Ensures consistency of interface across the system
      • 5 elements
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 24. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process Interface Standards 1. Interface Metaphor Set of user interface visuals, actions, and procedures from real world that is used as a model for the computer system. e.g. File and folder representation of operating system, Desktop representation 2. Interface Template Defines general appearance of all screens Defines standard placement and order for common interface action Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 25. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process Interface Standards 3. Interface Objects Fundamental building blocks of the system such as entities and data stores e.g. Shopping Cart 4. Interface Actions Actions within interface objects e.g. add item, delete item, modify amount , etc 5. Interface Icons Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 26. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process Interface Design Prototyping
      • Simulation of interface
      • 3 approaches
        • Storyboard
        • HTML Prototype
        • Language Prototype
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 27. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process
      • Storyboard
      • Hand drawn picture of screen
      • Hand drawn cartoon of flow of information
      Interface Design Prototyping Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 28. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process
      • HTML Prototype
      • Series of web pages created with HTML that shows the fundamental parts of the system
      Interface Design Prototyping Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 29. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process
      • Language Prototype
      • Design prototype built in programming language or programming tool (e.g. Visual Studio)
      Interface Design Prototyping Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 30. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process Interface Evaluation
      • Evaluation should be performed before the system is build
      • Identifying design problem saves time and money
      • Most evaluation involves 5 to 10 users
      • 4 common approaches
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 31. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process
      • Heuristic Evaluation
      • No involvements of users
      • At least three members of project team check to ensure that the interface satisfies design principal
      • Walk-though Evaluation
      • Evaluated by operators of the system
      • Project team member walk through the interface with the user
      Interface Evaluation Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 32. IS 431 Chapter 9 User Interface Design Process Interface Evaluation
      • Interactive Evaluation
      • One-on-one evaluation by a user and a member of project team
      • Formal Usability Testing
      • Usually done for commercial software or product developed for large organization
      • Uses only language prototype
      • User test a system without any assistance
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 33. IS 431 Chapter 9 Navigation Design
      • What for?
      • Enable user to enter command and navigate though the system
      • Show messages to user about whether his or her action was success or failure
      • The goal is to make the system as simple as possible to use
      • Why navigation design is necessary?
      • For prevent mistakes by user
      • Simplify recovery from mistakes
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 34. IS 431 Chapter 9 Navigation Design
      • Grammar Order
      • Object-action order
      • Action-object order
      • Grammar order should be consistent throughout the whole system
      • Most system today uses object-action order
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 35. IS 431 Chapter 9 Navigation Design Types of Navigation Control
      • Language
      • Command language
      • Natural language
      • Menus
      • Menu bars, drop-down menus, pop-up menus, etc
      • Most common type of navigation today
      • Direct manipulation
      • User enter command by working directly with interface object
      • e.g., dragging file from folder to desktop
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 36. IS 431 Chapter 9 Navigation Design Messages
      • There are any types of messages (error message, confirmation message, etc)
      • Message should be easy to understand
      • It should requires acknowledgement by a user
      • It can be either text or icon
      • In case of error
      • It must explain corrective action as clearly and as explicitly as possible
      • In case of complicated error, it should display additional information to encourage users to take further action
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 37. IS 431 Chapter 9 Navigation Design Messages Example of inappropriate error message Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 38. IS 431 Chapter 9 Input Design
      • What is Input Design?
      • Designing screens used to enter the information, as well as any forms users write or type information in.
      • What is the goal of input design?
      • To capture information for the system simply and easily.
      • Reflect the nature of the inputs and ways to simplify their collection.
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 39. IS 431 Chapter 9 Input Design
      • Basic Principles
      • Use Online and Batch Processing Appropriately
      • Capture Data at the Source
      • Minimize Keystrokes
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 40. IS 431 Chapter 9 Input Design
      • Online Processing
      • Immediately records the transaction.
      • Used when it is important to have real-time information about the business process .
      • Batch Processing
      • Collects inputs and enters them at a later time in a batch.
      • Used when real-time processing information
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 41. IS 431 Chapter 9 Input Design
      • Capture data at the source - is the most important principle of input design.
      • Why capture data at the source?
      • Eliminates duplicate work
      • Decreases processing time
      • Decreases cost
      • Reduces probability of error
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 42. IS 431 Chapter 9 Input Design
      • Source Data Automation – Using special hardware devices to automatically capture data without requiring anyone to type it.
      • Bar Code Reader – Supermarket checkout
      • Optical Character Recognition – Checks
      • Magnetic Stripe Readers – Credit Cards
      • Smart Cards – Credit Card Sized Calculators
      • Radio Frequency Identification Tag (RFID) – Broadcast its information to electronic readers.
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 43. IS 431 Chapter 9 Input Design
      • Minimize Keystrokes
      • System should never ask for information that can be obtained in another way. (retrieving from database or a calculation)
      • Lookups
      • Drop down lists
      • Default Values
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 44. IS 431 Chapter 9 Input Design
      • Types of Inputs
      • Data items linked to fields
      • Text – Used to enter text & can have a fixed length & can be scrollable.
      • Numbers – Used to enter numbers. Can automatically be formatted to currency or a date.
      • Selection Box – Enables the user to select a value
      • from a predetermined list.
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 45. IS 431 Chapter 9 Input Design Types of Input Forms Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 46. IS 441 Chapter 9 Input Design
      • Input Validation (Edit Checks)
      • To prevent invalid information from entering the system
      • Completeness Check
      • Format Check
      • Range Check
      • Check Digit Check
      • Consistency Check
      • Database Check
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 47. IS 441 Chapter 9 Input Design Input Validation (Edit Checks) continued Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 48. IS 431 Chapter 9 Output Design
      • Basic Principles
      • to present information so users can accurately understand it with the least effort
      • Understand Report Usage
        • Read cover to cover because all information is needed.
        • Used as references to find information or to identify specific items.
        • Frequency is either Real-time reports or Batch Reports
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 49. IS 431 Chapter 9 Output Design
      • Basic Principles continued
      • to present information so users can accurately understand it with the least effort
      • Manage Information Load – Give managers only the information they need and nothing more.
      • Minimize Bias – The order of presentation should match the way in which the information is used.
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 50. IS 431 Chapter 9 Output Design Types of Outputs Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 51. IS 431 Chapter 9 Summary
      • User Interface Design Principles
      • The User Interface Design Process
      • Navigation Design
      • Input Design
      • Output Design
      Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End
    • 52. IS 431 Chapter 9 The End Any Questions? Introduction Principles for User Interface Design User Interface Design Process Navigation Design Input Design Output Design Summary End