Topic : Improving reach and efficiency of public
Team co-ordinator : Kunal chakraborty
Team members : Anshu Negi
Divyansh Pratap Singh
Introduction to Public Distribution System
• Public Distribution System (PDS) is an Indian food security system. Established by the Government of India
under Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution and managed jointly with state
governments in India, it distributes subsidized food and non-food items to India's poor. Major commodities
distributed include staple food grains, such as wheat, rice, sugar, and kerosene, through a network of Public
distribution shops, also known as Ration shops established in several states across the country. Food
Corporation of India, a Government-owned corporation, procures and maintains the Public Distribution
• In terms of both coverage and expenditure , it is considered to be the most important food security network.
The introduction of rationing in India dates back to the 1940s Bengal famine. This rationing system was
revived in the wake of acute food shortage during the early 1960s, prior to the Green Revolution.
• Public distribution Shop is also known as Fair Price Shop(FPS). Under PDS scheme, each family below the
poverty line is eligible for 35Kgs of rice or wheat every month while a house hold above the poverty line is
entitled to 15Kgs of foodgrains on a monthly basis.
1. Major problem faced in PDS
1. The Fair price shops are found to be insufficient and marked with various malpractices like diverting the grains to an
open market for higher gains , selling poor quality grains, irregular opening of shops , etc.
2. With the introduction of three types of ration cards, the price of commodities for APL families is high as in open
3. It is common to find that ration shops regularly have unsold stock of poor quality grains left. This has proved to be a
big problem. When ration shops are unable to sell, a massive stock of food grains pile up with the FCI.
4. Rural areas be neglected over urban areas.
5. Diversion of PDS commodities to the open market.
6. Lack of transparent and accountable arrangements food delivery.
Population covered under each schemes of PDS Percentage of each scheme under PDS
Problem faced in Tamil Nadu and Chhattisgarh due to PDS
The major problem due to PDS are faced in two states i.e. Tamil Nadu and Chhattisgarh
1. Tamil Nadu :-
The problem faced in Tamil Nadu due to PDS is that after assigning the Aadhar
number to each family member of different families, they got to know that out of 6.7
crore people, 4 crore are children below 5yrs of age, due to which their Aadhar card has
not been made. In Tamil Nadu every card holder gets 20 kgs of rice free every month.
In respect of AAY beneficiaries, 35 kgs of rice is given monthly.
Totally 1.85 crore family cards get free rice. To feed them the state government requires
at least 36.78 lakh tonnes a year.
2. Chhattisgarh :-
The main problem in Chhattisgarh is that there are more poor people as compared to
Steps taken by the Indian government to improve
Public Distribution System
Efforts of Chhattisgarh for PDS computerization are relatively more mature than other
States/UTs. Chhattisgarh has created a unified ration card database and bar-coded ration
cards are issued.
In Andhra Pradesh the state has taken initiatives for computerization of the ration card
household data. A household survey was carried out for a large number of parameters of
which ration card details were a subset. Bar-coded coupons were also introduced in the
State. Aadhaar enrolment is currently in progress .
In NCT of Delhi, a database containing a total of 13,67,154 ration cards have been
cleansed and migrated to the NIC system. Allocation and ration card management
application modules have been customized for the Delhi Government by NIC. The Ration
Card survey data has been digitized and laminated cards have been issued.
In Gujarat also Bar Coded ration card and biometric based bar-coded coupon system is
In Haryana the State proposes to issue smart cards at each level of the distribution chain,
i.e. to the transporter, the FPS dealer and the consumer.
In Karnataka the government does not follow the smart card system they have introduced
the finger scanning system and voice scanning system. The details of family members are
been taken by them during the first step of verification of data.
• In Kerala A computerization project namely Target Efficient Transparent Rationing and Allocation (TETRA)for PDS
is being implemented. The TETRA application comprises of modules for Ration Card management and food grain
allocation and lifting.
• In Madhya Pradesh the government has developed and implemented a web based FPS allocation and off take monitoring
software. Bar coded coupons are proposed to be distributed to the beneficiaries, who will use them to avail of their
• In Tamil Nadu there are Ration Card data that has been digitized and ration cards are being issued through the online
application software at district level.
Government using IT in PDS :-
Creation of central beneficiary database – Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, etc.
Cleaning up of databases through use of biometrics – Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, etc.
Maintenance of Ration Card database using web based application software – Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, etc.
Issuance of TPDS commodities through:
a. Bar-coded Ration card – Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, etc.
b. Smart Card based ration cards – Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Haryana, Orissa, etc.
c. Food Coupons– Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, etc.
Online biometric verification before transaction – Gujarat.
Automated allocation every month using web-based application– Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat
Generation of delivery order, truck challans, receipts and movement of commodities between
Distribution Centers are being carried out through an application software – Chhattisgarh.
Automated assessment of transportation requirements and optimum utilization of trucks –
Use of GPS for tracking movement of trucks – Tamil Nadu.
Availability of PDS related information on website such as list of Ration Card holders, FPS list,
allocation, month-wise lifting and sales by FPS etc. –Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu.
SMS alerts sent to registered beneficiaries / citizens, vigilance committees for a designated FPS
whenever PDS commodities are dispatched from a godown – Chhattisgarh, etc.
Steps that must be taken to improve PDS
• In every state there must be the implementation of ration cards.
• Every person’s Aadhar card must be made and this must be mandatory.
• The children below 18 years of age should also have there temporary Aadhar card so that the also must have
• There must be a finger print scanning system in every ration shops.
• There must be the exact details of the food that is produced by farmers then sent to the government and after
then to FPS.
• The government must check the details of every family member regularly.
• The government should open more Fair Price Shops.
• The food storages must be increased in larger number.
• Proper care of godown must be taken.
• There must be a committee between common man and the government.
• Every packet or sacks must be provided with a unique bar code and its data must be fed in a proper place so
that if any government member required to see it they must get the exact data of the food.
• There must be brain storming sessions between government, common , and the mediators between them with
the media every month or in every six months.
• Accurate Electronic weighing machine must be given to the FPS and ration shops by the government.
• The states having less per capita income must have large number of Fair Price Shops.
• Awareness among the citizens of India regarding PDS must be given.
• PDS should be biased more among rural areas then the urban areas.
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOLUTION
• Exact number of population must be known by the government so that exact amount of food can be provided.
• Ration card should be renewed after every one year or in a minimum possible time so that the information
about the family members can be updated.
• In rural areas the population is increasing at a higher rate than the urban areas , so there must be larger number
• For the information regarding PDS regular seminar must be conducted in rural as well as urban areas so that
the citizen get to know there rights .
• If there is a wastage of food then that food must be send to poultry farms for feeding purpose.
• There must be a proper Tracking System or GPS for the trucks carrying the food . Which are used to send
food in various FPS in various states.
• Unique bar code must be given to every sacks and there data must be kept so that if there is an corruption
(Ghapla) regarding the food the government get to know about it so that they can find the culprit.
• Digital and accurate weighing machines should be provided in the FPS, ration shops etc. so that illiterate ones
also get to know the exact quantity. And the shopkeepers cannot do any corruption.
• There must be a implementation of new act in which if any person does any type of corruption regarding
PDS , gets a severe punishment.
• District Magistrate (DM) should take this work very seriously.
• Magazines- India today
• Newspapers – Times of India, THE Hindu.
• News channels- IBN7 , Aaj TAK, etc.
• Sites – www.google.com, www.pdscvc.nic.in, www.en.wikipedia.org, etc.