Plugging The Leaks
Improving reach and efficiency of the Public Distribution System
TEAM NAME : AASMAAN
NAVEEN KUMAR RUBAL PRAKASH
UTKARSH KUMAR ABHYUDAYA MISHRA
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PATNA.
Despite for the Indian Government spending Rs 85000cr,
about 230 million people strive for food in India
In fact to provide Re 1 to the poor, the GOI spends Rs 3.75 but due to corruption in PDS
only Rs 0.375 reaches finally.
• Identification Error
Rs 4,360 cr of the subsidy goes to the non-poor in 2012-13.
• Leakage at Different Levels
57% of the PDS does not reach the intended people, due
to leakage at different levels.
Approx Rs 380 cr & 1.7 lakhs Tonnes of food grains were wasted
In 2012-2013 due to storage problem .
Approx Rs 339 cr & 18.4 lakhs Tonnes of food grains were wasted
In 2012-2013 due to transportation problem .
Non-transparency at different levels and lack of Public Awareness.
Virtually non existence vigilance machinery at the grass root level.
• Weak & corrupt Administration
Undue political interference, lack of adequate supervision
over PDS operation at field level and laxity which often does
not result in any punishment to culprit found at the supervisory.
Distribution of Food
via PDS ration shops
Mn Tons 41.5 48.9
PDS Food Received
by the population ,
Mn Tons 13.2 25.3
% Leakage of Food
via PDS ration shops
Ministry of Finance
according to NSS
A Major Problem : Corruption
Problem:-An ADB study suggests that only 10%
of poor receive intended benefits on the subsidies
offered by the Public Distribution System (PDS) in
India. The country facing the problem today
is not one of shortage of food grains but of
managing the surplus.
Corrupt implementing machinery and sleepy and sloppy programme where there is freedom
to play with its great objectives with impunity to derive unlawful pecuniary benefits.
India State hunger
India’s GHI 2008 score is
23.7 which ranks it 66th out
of 88 countries
“57% of the PDS food grain does not reach the intended people.”
The whole power of controlling the PDS will be exercised by the District
This decentralises the powers to the state.
Smart cum ATM cards for all citizens, with the Thumb Impressions(of
atleast 2members in a family) as their password.
It would result from surveys done on a regular basis conducted by NSS
and asserted by UIDs. The Smart Cards will be registered with Mobile
no. and bank account of the people.
All food grains will come properly packed with a unique barcode on
each of them.
Each packet contains the amount of food grain which the GOI seeks to
provide to each person. This ensures efficient distribution system.
The packing of food supplies will be done by electronic system.
Toll Free No.
Internet Complaint Box to make the people aware of their rights and
latest government schemes and also to Register complaints.
Brief of The Proposed Solution :-
Licence to the FPS are given on Storage basis.
FPS owners earn Commission on the supplies they render and amount
of food grains they store.
punishment to culprit found in providing wrong information in survey
Web Portal containing all the information about PDS, visible to all
A separate Login Section for Monitoring Committee & concerned
officers to manage information on procurement , allocation and off
take at all levels of the distribution system.
Distribution of supplies is done on district level basis.
Each district is responsible for procurement and deliver of food grains
in its area.
In case of shortage of Food Grains in a District, it collects supplies from
its surrounding nearby districts having surplus.
Removes exclusion errors thereby covering maximum people.
Government saves Rs 19000cr in this system by reducing corruption.
Effective handling of complaints.
Error free and correct allotment and movement of foodgrains to FPS
PDS Network with the aim of providing support in the areas of development, Operations
and maintenance of technology, supply chain management and transparency.
Implementing the plan :-
The PDS network will be managed by a District management system
supported by Central as well as state government
Decentralization of Operations
Private Trade in Food grains: – Private
Agencies Can also contribute to the
work of Block & FPs
Competitive Grain Procurement
Effective, efficient and transparent
Accessibility of Location
Assurance of Product Delivery (at the
desired time , in the desired size , in
the ownership status
System Transparency and
Individual beneficiary tracking
Shifting of power from political hand
to administrative hand
DISTRICT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is responsible for implementation and monitoring
Name, photo, Address, Bank
account , UID no., Mobile no.,
biometrics category in which the
beneficiary falls and the monthly
entitlement of the beneficiary,
Data stored on smart cum ATM card
Data is developed on the basis of
survey, verified by bank, UID, LPG
card and other cards(PAN, D.L,
Credit, visa card, etc.)
Verification of data or identity
Working of card
Distribution of card
Using biometrics as a tool for
authentication of identity of
Response on complete transactionRegister complaints.
• Swapping the card
• Fingerprint reader.
• Scanning barcode on packets
• Providing sealed packets of
• Updating system
• Conformation message on
registered mobile no.
• Circulating updated
information to district
• Getting information through
• Filling complain through toll
• Online Complaint Box to make
the people aware of their
rights and latest government
schemes and also to Register
MULTI-APPLICATION SMART CARD (MASC)
Through this system , MASC will be accepted by FPS anywhere in India.
District food &
District management system
At Centre – Manages fund, does survey and set up guidelines to the System.
e.g.– set MSP(Minimum Support Price), Subsidized Price, Amount of food grain allotted
to the people
At State – Manages fund (optional) & does survey of the system.
At District – District Level Management System
At block -- F.P.S level supply team
Provides food grains to FPS and private Agencies.
Keeps a store of food grains atleast one month in advance
Collects supplies from
farmers, other districts
and provides it to other
districts & block .
Provides Food grains
to the block and
of food grains at all
Deals with money
IVRS and SMS
Keeps a Check of
of other Teams
Barcoded packet cost
Technical team(5×4.5lakh pa)
Finance team(6×4.6lakh pa)
Card Swapping Machine
Smart card cost
# An average of 2.65cr of additional funding will be required, per district annually.
Toll Free No. cost
Proposed funding will be provided by the central govt.
Total funding required for implementing this scheme(for whole country) will be 1714.65cr (647×2.65cr) which is
8.26% of the total estimated PDS corruption(20747cr).
The program will be able to impact maximum no. of poor who were earlier deprived
of the subsidies offered by the Public Distribution System (PDS ) and reduces
corruption up to Rs 19000cr.
Food grain for
Choice to collect
grains from any
Awareness of their
Toll free number
terms of quality &
system at the FPS to
burden on DMS.
DMS can buy &
store more grains.
Increased Storage &
operation at each
Easy data updating.
allocation & off
take of PDS, at any
The GDP of India would get increased.
Ensuring no loss
in weight of
Proper record of
each card holder
through UID &
Impact and Reach
Challenges and Risks
• Difficulty in handling Multi-Application Smart
Cards by illiterate people
• There are still some chances of Inclusion errors.
• Problem of division of poor into groups.
• Unavailability of skilled workers at FPS.
• Problem of identifying a customer, if the Card
Swapping Machine goes out of order.
• Chances of change of fingerprints of labourers.
• Lack of interest among rural people towards
learning and use of new technologies/facilities.
• Government does not see the viability of this
• Concentrated Procurement of Rice (Punjab –
25.4%,AP- 24.4%) and Wheat (Punjab- 39.2%
• Advertising and Awareness Campaigns.
• Universalization of PDS : Entitlement of same
PDS, i.e. equal subsidies/food grains to all,
irrespective of their financial/social status
(along with the proposed plan)
to completely remove the Inclusion errors.
Source of funds for universal PDS : -
o Money saved from leakage.
o Reducing TAX exemptions.(The Right to Food
Campaign estimates that Rs.1,56lakh crore
would be required for universal PDS, which
is about 1/3rd of tax exemptions given by
the Central govt. in 2009-10.)
• Workers will be trained with new technology.
• An alternate offline mechanism, by which the
IVRS system would generate a customer’s
unique code to identify the customer, using his
registered mobile no.
• The proposed Biometric System would accept
if the fingerprints match is more than 75%.
• Increasing farming of food grains at district
• Planning Commission. (2005). Performance Evaluation of Targeted Public Distribution System
• Bhalla, Surjit S. (2012, Jan 7). Enhancing Corruption the NAC Way. Oxus Investments
• Press Information Bureau (2012, Dec 17). Review of Food grains Procurement Policy RBI handbook
of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, Budget statements, different years.
• International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research.
• Discussion paper (DEC 2012): National Food Security bill, Ministry of Agriculture ,Govt. of India.
• Report on computerization of PDS by JUSTICE WADHWA COMMITTEE.
• Report by Ministry of Rural Development on the methodology for conducting the BPL Census.
• Report on National Food Security Bill by Dr. C.RANGARAJAN
• RBI handbook of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, Budget statements, different years.
• Ministry of Consumer Affairs , Food and Public Distribution
• Report of National Sample Survey Organisation
• Report by Department of Economics and Statistics of U.S.