Utilization of wild species and cultivated landrace for enhancing productivity and other attributes of staple food crops
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Utilization of wild species and cultivated landrace for enhancing productivity and other attributes of staple food crops

on

  • 951 views

Enhancing nutritional quality and productivity,Increased resistance to insects (flower thrips) and diseases (Sigatoka and nematodes),Enhancing resistance to Striga hermonthica through introgression of ...

Enhancing nutritional quality and productivity,Increased resistance to insects (flower thrips) and diseases (Sigatoka and nematodes),Enhancing resistance to Striga hermonthica through introgression of genes from wild species and landraces,Enhancing drought tolerance in cowpea

Statistics

Views

Total Views
951
Views on SlideShare
951
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Utilization of wild species and cultivated landrace for enhancing productivity and other attributes of staple food crops Utilization of wild species and cultivated landrace for enhancing productivity and other attributes of staple food crops Presentation Transcript

  • Utilization of wild species and cultivatedlandrace for enhancing productivity and other attributes of staple food crops
  • Utilization of wild species and landracesDrivers of utilization of wild species and landraces Breeding objectives  Changing productivity and architecture of a crop  Production constraints encountered  End use quality attributes Lack of sufficient genetic variation in existing adapted germplasm to breed for a particular traitResearch emphasis Enhancing nutritional and end-use quality Increasing resistance to insects, diseases and parasitic plants Improving tolerance to drought and other desirable traits
  • 1.1. Enhancing nutritional quality Top ten cassava progenies selected in 2006/2007 for high protein content determined on a dry weight basisHighlights of achievements 2006/2007Cassava Protein Progeny content True seeds of wild Manihot species, (%) M. tristis and M. flavellifolia, with 06/2335-1 28 06/1847-9 25 high protein content received from 06/1691-1 23 CIAT 06/2088-3 21 06/2086-2 20 06/2327-35 20 06/2249-4 20 Crossed to locally adapted 06/2098-3 19 germplasm for three generations 06/2290-3 19 06/2293-12 18 and storage roots obtained from Minimum 3 several progenies were analyzed for N 194 Mean 10 protein content se 0.3 Min 2.7
  • 1.2. Enhancing nutritional quality 400 No. of genotypes 300 Fe Baseline 200 100 0Highlights of achievements .9 .9 .9 2-14.9 5-26.8 2.9-5 6.0-8 9.0-11 1 1Cassava Fe concentration (mg/kg) A total of 663 landraces including 300 Baseline checks were screened for iron (Fe) 250 Zn No. of genotypes and zinc (Zn) concentration in 200 150 2007 100 50 0 .9 .9 1.9 .9 .5 4.5-5 6.0-8 9.0-1 12-14 15-22 Zn concentration (mg/kg)
  • 1.3. Enhancing nutritional quality and productivityHighlights of achievementsYam Inter-specific crosses have been made to incorporate genes from D. cayenensis to D. rotundata  Increase pro-vitamin A content  Increase leaf area duration to allow multiple harvests in D. rotundata Pollinated Female Male flowers Fruit Set Seed Set Number No. % No. % D. rotundata D. rotundata 2491 965 38.7 3313 22.2 D. rotundata D. cayenensis 1581 154 9.7 9 0.1 D. rotundata D. alata 1663 6 0.4 9 0.1
  • 1.3. Enhancing nutritional quality and productivityHighlights of achievementsYam● Examination of progenies generated from inter-specific crosses using an isozyme marker confirmed true hybrids - - a b + + TDr 95/19158 F1 TDc 98-136 TDr 95/18544 F1 TDc 98-136 - c - C d + + TDr 85/18555 TDc 95-165 TDr 89/02475 TDc 98-136 F1 F1
  • 2.1 Increased resistance to insects (flower thrips)Highlights of achievements SusceptibleCowpeas Two cowpea RI lines derived from two crosses  Thrips tolerant landrace from Ghana and a susceptible line from IITA  Another thrips tolerant landrace and a susceptible line from IITA Tolerant The RI lines were evaluated in the field under high population pressure of flower bud thrips
  • 2.1 Increased resistance to insects (flower thrips) 8.0 8.0 THB THA 7.0 7.0 6.0 6.0 Thrips scoreThrips score 5.0 5.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 y = -0.0578x + 6.7385 2.0 y = -0.0595x + 6.8278 R2 = 0.642 R2 = 0.7323 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 No of pods No of pods Figures. Relationship between thrips damage scores and number of pods per plant among a set of RILs (THA) from the cross Sanzi x VITA 7
  • 2.2 Increased resistancemapping populations and nematodes) Development of to diseases (SigatokaHighlights of achievementsBanana and Plantain Wild musa species used as sources of genes for  Resistance to disease (Sigatoka/Nematodes) Musa acuminata (Calcutta 4) selfed  Reduced plant height  Parthenocarpy  Earliness  Suckering behavior/Apical dominance In landraces with preferred end-use quality traits
  • Identification of bananas based on finger size, color, shape and number
  • 2.2. Enhancing resistance to Striga hermonthica through introgression of genes from wild speciesHighlights of achievementsMaize We received 3 wild accessions from CIMMYT and evaluated them in pots The wild accessions supported fewer emerged Striga plants than a susceptible check These wild accessions were crossed to different maize inbred lines to transfer desirable genes for resistance to Striga
  • 2.2. Enhancing resistance to Striga hermonthica through introgression of genes from landraces Performance of extra-early varieties derived from local and exotic germplasm under Striga-infested and Striga-free conditions at 5 locations in 2006 and at 3 locations in 2007 in WCA Striga Striga Plant damage emergenceVariety Grain yield, height rating count Non- Infested 10WAP 10WAP Infested infested Kg ha-1 cm (1-9) (1-9)TZEE-W Pop x LD (set A2) 1990 2479 141 3.9 842004 TZEE-W Pop STR C4 1943 2815 140 4.7 10299 TZEE-Y STR 1599 2248 123 5.3 96TZEE-W SR BC5 (REFC) 1260 1797 117 5.8 111Grand mean 1624 2402 135 4.7 106LSD (0.05) 258 335 7 0.5 33
  • 2.2. Enhancing resistance to Striga hermonthica through introgression of genes from landraces Performance of early varieties derived from local and exotic germplasm under Striga-infested and Striga-free conditions at Abuja, Mokwa and Angaredebou in 2006 and 2007 Striga Striga Plant damage emergenceVariety Grain yield height rating count Non- Infested Infested infested 10WAP 10 WAP Kg ha-1 cm (1-9) (1-9)2004 TZE-W Pop DT STR C4 2084 3038 136 3.8 111TZE-Y Pop DT STR C4 1921 3025 138 4.0 94TZE-W Pop DT STR C4 1842 3171 132 4.0 1422004 TZE-Y Pop DT STR C4 1838 3126 141 3.8 93TZE COMP 4 (SUSC) 1073 2671 121 5.6 115Grand mean 1606 2686 130 4.3 103LSD (0.05) 343 421 8 0.5 29
  • 3. Enhancing drought tolerance in cowpeaHighlights of achievementsCowpeas 1000 landrace accessions of cowpea were evaluated for drought tolerance during the 2007/08 dry season by suspending irrigation five weeks after planting A few lines have been selected for further evaluation under drought and eventual use as parents in crosses to develop drought tolerant varieties Tolerant Susceptible
  • 3. Enhancing drought tolerance by incorporating drought tolerance alleles from landracesHighlights of achievementsMaize Performance of OP varieties derived from backcrosses involving landraces as non-recurrent parents tested at Ikenne under sufficient water supply and controlled drought stress in 2007 Leaf Anthesis Days to death Ears per -silking Yield (kg/ha) anthesis score plant interval under non- DroughtPopulations (day) (1-10) (No.) (days) stress stressACR91SUWAN1-SR*2/DIASSAGA-1 55 5.8 1.0 1.5 5546 1832ACR91SUWAN1-SR*2/SAMOROGOUAN-5 55 4.3 0.8 2.5 5074 1759ACR91SUWAN1-SR*2/BONDOKUY-1 55 5.5 0.8 1.8 5582 1389ACR91SUWAN1-SR 58 5.8 0.6 4.5 6710 698Oba Super II 58 6.0 0.7 4.8 6701 1099Oba Super I 58 6.5 0.7 5.3 6302 1016Mean 57 5.6 0.7 4.0 5798 1190S.E. 1.4 0.69 0.14 1.5 569 374CV 2 15 15 44 13 31Populations *** * *** ** * **
  • Summery Wild species and landraces have been used for creation and supplying of new genetic materials to the NARS partners Such new genetic materials can contribute to sustained improvement of  Yield potential  Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses  Nutritional quality