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  • 1. Prof. Ginandjar Kartasasmita Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial Universitas Pasundan Bandung 2011
  • 2.  CULTURAL PROCESSES UNDERLIE MUCH OF WHAT HAPPENS IN MODERN ORGANIZATIONS. CULTURE FILTERS THE WAYS IN WHICH PEOPLE SEE AND UNDERSTAND THEIR WORLDS. CULTURE PRESCRIBES SOME BEHAVIORS AND FORBIDS OTHERS. CULTURE COLORS THE EMOTIONAL RESPONSES THAT PEOPLE HAVE TO EVENTS. FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, SCHOLARS DEFINE CULTURE AS EXISTING AT THREE DISTINCT LEVELS: SOCIETAL, POLITICAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 2
  • 3. Societal Culture Public Administration Adminis- Political trative Culture CultureS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 3
  • 4.  AROUND THE GLOBE, THE TYPICAL PUBLIC ORGANIZATION IS DEEPLY ENTRENCHED IN THE CLASSICAL WEBERIAN-TYPE BUREAUCRATIC MODEL. WITH EMPHASIS ON CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE, THE TRADITIONAL PUBLIC ORGANIZATION IS A DETERMINISTIC SYSTEM SEEKING EQUILIBRIUM AND STABILITY IN WHICH DISORDER AND UNCERTAINTY ARE VIEWED AS DYSFUNCTIONAL.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 4
  • 5.  THEREFORE, TRANSFORMATION OF THE STRUCTURES, PROCESSES, AND CULTURES WITHIN PUBLIC BUREAUCRACIES IS NOT LIKELY TO OCCUR VIA SELF- ORGANIZING PROCESSES. TO REALIZE FUNDAMENTAL REFORM OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS THUS REQUIRES AN ORGANIC PROCESS THAT FITS WITH ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS [ARKADY IN BOX, IBID]. NEEDLESS TO SAY AN ORGANIC PROCESS IS A CULTURAL PROCESS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 5
  • 6.  MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY. CULTURAL VARIATION DOES NOT ONLY DISTINGUISH ONE SOCIETY AGAINST THE OTHER, BUT WITHIN A SOCIETY, ESPECIALLY IN A COUNTRY SUCH AS INDONESIA WHICH IS A MULTICUTURAL SOCIETY. VALUES, NORMS AND TRADITION IN ACEH IS DIFFERENT THAN IN JAVA OR IN BALI OR IN PAPUA.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 6
  • 7.  INDEED MANY NATIONS ARE MULTICULTURAL AND DIVERSE IN TERMS OF RACE, ETHNICITY, RELIGION, IDENTITY, TRADITION. IN MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS WORK IN DIVERSE ORGANIZATIONS AND DEAL WITH A DIVERSE CITIZENRY. MULTICULTURALISM IMPACTS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN TWO MAJOR DOMAINS: WITHIN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS AND IN THE GREATER SOCIETY [ARKADY, IBID].S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 7
  • 8.  DAHL AND WALDO ALSO POINTED OUT, CULTURAL FACTORS COULD MAKE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONS ON ONE PART OF THE GLOBE QUITE A DIFFERENT ANIMAL FROM PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ON ANOTHER PART. THE MOVEMENT GAVE RISE TO A SEMIAUTONOMOUS SUBFIELD OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN WHICH DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION CONCENTRATES ON THE DEVELOPING NATIONS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 8
  • 9.  THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMERGING NATION INEVITABLY INCARNATES PARTICULAR NEEDS AND DEMANDS THAT REQUIRE SPECIFIC ADMINISTRATIVE ABILITIES. THIS TYPE OF ADMINISTRATION OR MANAGEMENT, ADAPTED FOR THE PARTICULAR NEEDS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, HAS BEEN REFERRED TO INTERCHANGEABLY AS DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OR DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 9
  • 10.  BROADLY, DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF SOCIETAL DEVELOPMENT AND IS PROFOUNDLY INFLUENCED BY THE OVERALL POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL ATTRIBUTES OF THE SOCIETY.  DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION IS DIFFERENT FROM ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT, WHICH COULD BE ANY ADMINISTRATION IN ANY SETTING SEEKING REFORM, CHANGE, OR IMPROVEMENT OF ITS CAPACITY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 10
  • 11. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEVELOPED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIONS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 11
  • 12. THE OBJECTIVE OF DEVELOPMENTADMINISTRATION THE CONCERN OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION IS HOW CAN THE IDEAS AND MECHANISMS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BE USED AS INSTRUMENTS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT?S3-Unpas_2011 www.ginandjar.com 12
  • 13. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MAIN IDEAS MECHANISM EFFICIENCY ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS MANAGEMENT ECONOMY DEVELOPMENTS3-Unpas_2011 www.ginandjar.com 13
  • 14.  “DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION” IS GENERALLY SIMILAR TO THE TRADITIONAL “PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION” IN ITS CONCERN WITH HOW A GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTS ITS RULES, POLICIES, AND NORMS.  IT DIFFERS, HOWEVER, IN ITS OBJECTIVES, SCOPE, AND COMPLEXITY.  DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION IS MORE INNOVATIVE, SINCE IT IS CONCERNED WITH THE SOCIETAL CHANGES INVOLVED IN ACHIEVING DEVELPOMENTAL OBJECTIVES.S3-Unpas_2011 www.ginandjar.com 14
  • 15.  DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION IS THE NAME OFTEN GIVEN TO THE WAY A COUNTRY’S GOVERNMENT ACTS TO FULFILL ITS ROLE IN ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT. (RIGGS, 1977)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 15
  • 16. THE THREE AREAS OF CONCERN : 1. HOW PURPOSEFULLY TO GUIDE GOVERNMENT ACTION TOWARD DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES; 2. HOW ACTUALLY TO TAKE ACCOUNT OF THE MANY AND COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCIES OF SOCIETAL CHANGE; AND 3. HOW TO INSURE THAT GOVERNMENTAL ADMINISTRATION IS DYNAMIC AND INNOVATIVE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 16
  • 17. THE FUNCTION OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION TO ASSURE THAT AN APPROPRIATELY CONGENIAL ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION SUPPORT ARE PROVIDED FOR DELIVERY OF CAPITAL, MATERIALS, AND SERVICES WHERE NEEDED IN THE PRODUCTIVE PROCESS –WHETHER IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE, OR MIXED ECONOMIES. (GANT, 1979)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 17
  • 18.  SIX GROUPS OF NEEDED INPUTS: 1) SKILLED MANPOWER, 2) FINANCES, 3) LOGISTICS (OR FACILITIES FOR THE PHYSICAL FLOW OF GOODS AND SERVICES), 4) INFORMATION (FACILITIES FOR THE PHYSICAL TRANSMISSION OF DATA), 5) PARTICIPATION (OF INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS), AND 6) LEGITIMATE POWER (TO ENFORCE DECISIONS).  THESE SIX INPUTS TOGETHER COMPOSE THE CONTENT OF DEVELOPMENT ACTION.S3-Unpas_2011 www.ginandjar.com 18
  • 19. MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION THERE IS A LACK CONSENSUS ON WHAT IS CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE SITUATION IN TRANSITIONAL SOCIETIES, ON POSSIBLE STAGES OR SEQUENCES IN THE PROCESS OF ADMINISTRATIVE TRANSFORMATION, ON RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE AND CORRESPONDING PROCESSES OF POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT. THERE IS EVEN DISAGREEMENT ON THE RELATION BETWEEN ADMINISTRATION AND CULTURE—WHETHER ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR IS UNIQUELY DETERMINED BY PARTICULAR CULTURES OR CORRESPONDS TO GENERAL LEVELS OF SOCIO­POLITICAL INTEGRATION" (RIGGS).S3-Unpas_2011 www.ginandjar.com 19
  • 20.  IN ADMINISTRATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (1964), RIGGS PRESENTED THE CONCEPT OF "PRISMATIC SOCIETY" TO EXPLAIN THE UNIQUE CONDITIONS AND THE DYNAMICS OF POLITICS AND ADMINISTRATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 20
  • 21.  AS AN ALTERNATIVE MODEL FOR CONCEPTUALIZING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, RIGGS OFFERED HIS "PRISMATIC MODEL“, BASED ON THE METAPHOR OF A PRISM. WHEN WHITE LIGHT (THAT IS, LIGHT MADE UP OF ALL VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS) PASSES THROUGH A PRISM, IT IS DIFFRACTED, BROKEN INTO A VARIETY OF COLORS—A RAINBOW. SIMILARLY, RIGGS CONTENDED, SOCIETIES IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT MOVE FROM A FUSED MODE, IN WHICH LITTLE OR NO DIFFERENTIATION EXISTS, TO A DIFFRACTED CONDITION IN WHICH THERE IS A HIGH DEGREE OF FUNCTIONAL SPECIALIZATION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 21
  • 22. RIGG’S PRISMATIC MODEL SOCIETY: FUSED PRISMATIC DIFFRACTED BUREAUCRATIC: CHAMBER SALA/BUREAU OFFICE MODEL ROSTOW FIVE STAGES OF GROWTH NAL SOCIETY CONDITION TRADITIO- THE DRIVE MATURITY THE TAKE FOR TAKE CONSUM- THE PRE- OF HIGH THE AGE PTION MASS OFF OFF TOS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 22
  • 23. RELATIVELY FOCUS RELATIVELY SPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED RELATIVELY SPECIFIED PHASE III PHASE II LOCUS RELATIVELY UNSPECIFIED PHASE I PHASE IV The four cells of a 2 X 2 matrix relating two combinations of locus and focusS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 23
  • 24. THE RISE AND FALL OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION WITH THE INVENTION OF DEVELOPMENT BY THE WESTERN NATIONS IN THE IMMEDIATE POST-WAR PERIOD AND ITS ADOPTION AS STATE IDEOLOGY BY THE GOVERNMENTS AND EMERGING ELITES OF THE POORER NATIONS, THE QUESTION AROSE AS TO HOW THE PROMISED SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION WAS TO BE ACHIEVED. ‘THE PRIMARY OBSTACLES TO DEVELOPMENT ARE ADMINISTRATIVE RATHER THAN ECONOMIC, DECLARED DONALD STONE (1965). OTHERS AGREED AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION WAS CREATED TO PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN FACILITATING DEVELOPMENT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 24
  • 25.  MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FACE AN ONGOING NEED TO BUILD INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS ABLE TO OVERCOME TRADITIONAL BARRIERS TO THE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL POLICIES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 25
  • 26.  DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION REPRESENTED THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF MODERNIZATION THEORY. ITS PROMOTERS SAW IT AS A MIDWIFE FOR WESTERN DEVELOPMENT-CREATING STABLE AND ORDERLY CHANGE (DWIVEDI AND NEF, 1982).  IT WAS A FORM OF SOCIAL ENGINEERING IMPORTED FROM THE WEST AND EMBODYING FAITH IN THE APPLICATION OF RATIONAL SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AND THE EFFICACY OF KEYNESIAN WELFARE ECONOMICS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 26
  • 27.  THE CREATION AND USE OF THESE ABILITIES HAVE ALWAYS BEEN PRIMARY CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION. THE ABSENCE AND BREAKDOWN OF THESE ABILITIES HAVE OFTEN BEEN MAJOR FACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIONS FAILURE TO MEET SATISFACTORY LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE. AS A RESULT, DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION HAS NOT FARED WELL IN SOME CRITICAL AREAS, SUCH AS THE CONCEPTION OF AN INSPIRING, COMPATIBLE VISION AND MANAGING EFFECTIVELY TO ACHIEVE THIS VISION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 27
  • 28.  IN UTILIZING MODERN TECHNIQUES, DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, FOR EXAMPLE, SEEMS TO LAG BEHIND THE PRIVATE SECTOR IN LEVERAGING TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE INTERNAL OPERATIONS AND TO ENHANCE THE OVERALL EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 28
  • 29.  UNABLE TO ATTAIN A TIMELY CORRECTION OF ITS DEFICIENCIES OR TO LEARN FROM ITS FAILURES, DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION LARGELY REMAINS BURDENED BY A COMBINATION OF INHERITED STRUCTURES AND BEHAVIORS AND DEEPLY INTERNALIZED LOCAL CULTURAL PATTERNS.  THIS COMBINATION OF LEGACIES HAS HAD THE EFFECT OF IMPEDING PERFORMANCE AND WASTING BADLY NEEDED INSTITUTIONAL ENERGIES ON OTHER THAN PRODUCTIVE ENDEAVORS TO ACCOMPLISH DEVELOPMENTAL MANDATES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 29
  • 30. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 30
  • 31. REVIVAL OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION  THE MOST IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ADMINISTRATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND IN THE WEST WAS BEING INCREASINGLY IDENTIFIED AS THAT ENVELOPE OF FACTORS AND FORCES WHICH WE COLLECTIVELY CALL THE ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT.  WHETHER IT WAS THE SOCIAL CLASS CONTEXT, THE INFLUENCE OF THE WORLD BANK, THE TYPE OF REGIME, THE NATURE OF THE POLICY­MAKING PROCESS OR SIMPLY THE PREVAILING CULTURE, THE CENTRALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT FOR UNDERSTANDING ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION AND PARALYSIS WAS BECOMING FIRMLY ESTABLISHED.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 31
  • 32.  THE NEO-CLASSICAL ECONOMISTS HAD MEANWHILE GAINED CONSIDERABLE INFLUENCE IN POLICY CIRCLES AND WERE ALSO POINTING TO INEFFICIENCY AND INEFFECTIVENESS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR.  BIG GOVERNMENT HAD NOT BEEN EFFECTIVE GOVERNMENT AND IT WAS TIME THE PRINCIPALS OF THE MARKET WERE ALLOWED TO OPREATE. REDUCING THE SIZE OF THE STATE AND RESTRICTING THE OPERATION OF THE STATE WOULD BRING CONSIDERABLE SAVINGS.  PROGRAMMES TO INCREASE BUREAUCRATIC CAPACITY AND EFFICIENCY AND TO ENCOURAGE PRIVATE SECTOR GROWTH THROUGH MARKET MECHANISMS WOULD THEN ENSURE THAT DEVELOPMENT WOULD TAKE PLACE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 32
  • 33.  THE OLD DISTINCTION BETWEEN PUBLIC SECTOR AND PRIVATE SECTOR MANAGEMENT BECAME BLURRED. THE DISSEMINATION OF THIS MODEL TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WAS UNDERTAKEN BY ENTHUSIASTIC WESTERN ADVOCATES AND MULTILATERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS SUCH AS THE WORLD BANK AND IMF.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 33
  • 34. ANOTHER APPROACH FORCEFULLY ADVOCATED BY DWIVEDI AND, NEF (1982) WAS THE SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT. INSTEAD OF SIMPLY CRITICISING THE FAILURES, PEOPLE BEGAN TO LOOK AT THE SUCCESSES AND INNOVATIONS. RONDINELLI (1983) WAS KEEN TO IDENTIFY LESSONS FROM PAST EXPERIENCE THAT COULD ENHANCE DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION IN THE FUTURE. HIS ANALYSIS INDICATED THAT THE MAIN REASON FOR POOR PAST PERFORMANCE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR WAS THE FAILURE TO COPE WITH THE COMPLEXITY AND UNCERTAINTY OF ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 34
  • 35.  THE REMEDY LAY IN CHANGING STRUCTURES AND PROCEDURES SO THAT EXPERIMENTATION AND LEARNING OCCURRED. THIS CREATIVE HYBRID COMPRISES A HUMAN-RELATIONS TYPE OF MANAGEMENT THEORY COUPLED WITH A CONTINGENCY-STYLE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF HIGHLY VARIABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, INCLUDING THE POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 35
  • 36.  IN THE LATE 1980s DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION WAS EMERGING FROM SELF-CRITICISM AND DOUBT AND WAS ACQUIRING A NEW LEASE OF LIFE. MILTON ESMAN (1988) DECLARED THAT DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION HAS NOT ONLY SURVIVED THE LIMITATIONS OF ITS FOUNDERS, BUT IT HAS SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO A MUCH MORE REALISTIC SET OF EXPECTATIONS ABOUT THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT AND THE POTENTIALITIES OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR. DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, ACCORDING TO SUCH WRITERS, HAD MATURED BUT IT WAS STILL DYNAMIC.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 36
  • 37.  SO HOW DO WE CHARACTERIZE THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION? DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION REMAINS HEAVILY BUT NOT EXCLUSIVELY FOCUSED ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. IT IS NO LONGER PREMISED ON THE NOTION OF BIG GOVERNMENT; THIS IS IN PART DUE TO DISAPPOINTING RESULTS OF OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS AND TO THE SHORTAGE OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 37
  • 38.  SUSTAINED INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES CERTAIN CONDITIONS. THESE REQUISITES HAVE INCREASINGLY BECOME MORE SPECIFIC: 1) TAPPING STAKEHOLDERS SUPPORT, 2) PROMOTING ONGOING STRATEGIC PLANNING, 3) ENGAGING IN MARKETING, AND 4) REDUCING DEPENDENCY THROUGH THE USE OF LOCAL RESOURCES. (GOLDSMITH 1992, 586)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 38
  • 39. BOTH MACRO AND MICRO POLITICAL PROCESSES ARE CENTRAL CONCERNS IN THE PRACTICE AND ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION. FURTHERMORE, AS WE HAVE IDENTIFIED DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION AS AN INSTRUMENTALITY OF DEVELOPMENT, ITS PRACTITIONERS MUST BE INTIMATELY CONCERNED WITH THE GOALS OF DEVELOPMENT. WHETHER IN ANALYSIS OR PRACTICE THERE IS NO VALUE NEUTRALITY. ALL VIEWS AND ACTIONS HAVE SOME POLITICAL MEANING, ESPECIALLY IF DEVELOPMENT SHOULD BE ORIENTED TO THE POOR, MOSTLY DEFINED BY THE POOR AND INCOPORATING A STRONG ELEMENT OF GRASSROOTS KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOM.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 39
  • 40. FINALLY, DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION (OR POLICY OR MANAGEMENT) APPLIES TO A HUGE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN A LARGE NUMBER OF COUNTRIES. THE COUNTRIES VARY ENORMOUSLY WHEN MEASURED BY STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT OR IN TERMS OF CULTURE AND HISTORY. EVEN WITHIN NATIONS, HOWEVER SMALL IN POPULATION TERMS, THERE CAN BE GREAT REGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION. COLLECTIVE TITLES SUCH AS THIRD WORLD OR THE SOUTH GIVE AN IMPRESSION OF SIMILARITY TO A DISPARATE GROUP OF COUNTRIES. DIVERSITY IS WHAT DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION MUST ADDRESS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 40
  • 41. DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION APPROACH ADMINISTRATION OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION/ECONOMIC POLITICAL SOCIAL ADMINISTRATIVE INSTITUTIONS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 41
  • 42. MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENTADMINISTRATION = PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION + OF DEVELOPMENTS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 42
  • 43. Some contemporary themes in development administration1. Governments are limited in their capacity, and these limitations should be incorporated into the design of public programmes.2. Because governments cannot do it all, alternative and complementary channels need to be identified and fostered.3. Programme designers recognize and capitalize on the pluralistic properties of public administration.4. Participation is an important dimension in the administration of Public services.5. Societal contexts provide both specific opportunities and special constraints for development administration.6. There is an enhanced appreciation of the uncertainties and contingencies inherent in deliberate efforts at developmental change.7. There are renewed pressures on governments (a) to extract greater productivity from continuing expenditures and (b) to reorient government bureaucracies to serve large disadvantaged publics more responsively.Source: Esman, M.]. (1988) The Maturing of Development Administration, Public Administration and Development,Vo. 8 (2), pp 125-34.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 43
  • 44. MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENTADMINISTRATION  TWO COMPETING PERSPECTIVE HAVE EMERGED.  THE FIRST FOCUSED ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGERIAL CAPABILITIES AND INSTITUTIONS. UNDERLYING THIS APPROACH IS THE ASSUMPTION THAT ONCE CAPABILITIES ARE IN PLACE, THE VARIOUS ENTITIES IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR WILL BE ENDOWED WITH THE ABILITY TO UNDERTAKE THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASK THAT GOVERNMENT REQUIRES, TO USE RESOURCES EFFICIENTLY, TO SOLVE FRESH PROBLEMS AS THEY ARISE, AND TO SUSTAIN INCREASINGLY COMPLEX AND SOPHISTICATED ACTIVITIES OVER TIME. THIS, IN BRIEF, CONSTITUTES THE CAPACITY- STRENGTHENING AND INSTITUTION BUILDING PERSPECTIVE IN DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT (HONADLE AND VAN SANT, 1986). (MILTON J. ESMAN, 1991)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 44
  • 45.  THE OTHER APPROACH EMPHASIZES THE MANAGEMENT OF CONCRETE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES, ARGUING THAT THE PUBLIC SECTOR MUST CONCENTRATE PERFORMANCE –ON DELIVERING THE GOODS, MEETING NEEDS, AND PROVIDING TANGIBLE BENEFIT. THESE SHORTER-TERM EXIGENCIES , IT IS ARGUED, MUST TAKE PRIORITY IN THE ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES AND ENERGIES OVER LONG –TERM CAPACITY BUILDING; INDEED, SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCE IN PROGRAM OPERATIONS AND IN CONCRETE PROBLEM SOLVING IS THE SUREST WAY TO DEVELOP AND SUSTAIN MANAGERIAL CAPACITY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 45
  • 46.  LONG-TERM CAPACITIES MUST BE DEVELOPED IN GOVERNMENT AND IN THE PRIVATE REALM. AS THESE CAPACITIES ARE UNLIKELY TO EVOLVES SPONTANEOUSLY, GOVERNMENTS MUST BE PREPARED TO INVEST IN INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CAPABILITIES. AT THE SAME TIME, POLICIES MUST BE CARRIED OUT, PROGRAMS MUST BE OPERATED, AND SERVICES MUST BE DELIVERED WITH SUCH MANAGERIAL RESOURCES AS EXIT. BOTH OBJECTIVES MUST BE PURSUED SIMULTANEOUSLY, NOT AS TRADE-OFFS BUT AS COMPLEMENTARY MEASURES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 46
  • 47.  SCHOLARS LOOK UPON DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT AS COMPRISING BOTH THE STRENGTHENING OF MANAGERIAL CAPABILITIES THAT CAN SUSTAIN COMPLEX ACTIVITIES THROUGH TIME AND CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES AND THE ONGOING MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 47
  • 48.  WHAT MOST DISTINGUISHED ADVANCE SOCIETIES AND THEIR GOVERNMENT IS NOT THEIR “CULTURE”, NOR THEIR NATURAL ENDOWMENTS, NOR THE AVAILABILITY OF CAPITAL, NOR THE RATIONALLY OF PUBLIC POLICIES, BUT PRECISELY THE CAPACITIES OF THEIR INSTITUTIONS AND THE SKILLS OF INDIVIDUALS, INCLUDING THOSE OF MANAGEMENT. TOGETHER THESE REFLECT THEIR DIFFERENTIAL CAPACITIES TO UTILIZE RESOURCES , CAPITALIZE ON OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADJUST TO CHANGES (ESMAN, 1991).S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 48
  • 49.  IT IS CRITICAL THAT SUBSTANTIAL ENERGIES AND RESOURCES BE DEDICATED TO AND INVESTED IN THE ENHANCEMENT OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES AND INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITIES THAT DETERMINE THE ABILITY OF SOCIETIES TO ACHIEVE AND SUSTAIN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS. IN AN IMPORTANT SENSE, THIS IS WHAT DEVELOPMENT IS ALL ABOUT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 49
  • 50. ENVIRONTMENTAL FACTORS FOR PUBLIC SECTORS MANAGERS ECONOMIC CULTURAL GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT ETHNICITY STRUCTURE OF PRODUCTION FAMILY AND KINSHIP LABOUR VALUES AND NORMS DOMESTIC CAPITAL GENDER FOREIGN EXCHANGE HISTORY FOREIGN AID AND DEBT INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY POVERTY AND INEQUALITY INFORMAL SECTOR DEMOGRAPHIC POLITICAL SOURCE: MODIFIED POPULATION GROWTH STATE-SOCIETY RELATIONS FROM AUSTIN, J.E. AGE STRUCTURE LEGITIMACY (1990) MANAGING IN URBANIZATION AND MIGRATION REGIME TYPE DEVELOPING HELATH IDEOLOGY COUNTRIES: STRATEGIC ELITES AND CLASSES ANALIYSIS AND INTERNATIONAL LINKS OPERATING INSTITUTION TECHNIQUES (NEW YORK: FREE PRESS) (MILTON ESMAN, 1991)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 50
  • 51. MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT OF MANAGERIAL CAPABILITIES CONCRETE DEVELOPMENT AND INSTITUTIONS ACTIVITIESS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 51
  • 52. 1) PLANNING 2) RESOURCE MOBILIZATION 3) CIVIL-PARTICIPATION MOBILIZATION 4) BUDGETING 5) IMPLEMENTATION OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR 6) COORDINATION 7) MONITORING AND EVALUATION 8) CONTROLLING (OVERSIGHT FUNCTION) 9) INFORMATION SYSTEM (KARTASASMITA, 1997)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 52
  • 53.  IT IS CRITICAL THAT SUBSTANTIAL ENERGIES AND RESOURCES BE DEDICATED TO AND INVESTED IN THE ENHANCEMENT OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES AND INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITIES THAT DETERMINE THE ABILITY OF SOCIETIES TO ACHIEVE AND SUSTAIN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS. IN AN IMPORTANT SENSE, THIS IS WHAT DEVELOPMENT IS ALL ABOUT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 53
  • 54.  PLANNING IS AN ORGANIZED, CONSCIOUS AND CONTINUAL ATTEMPT TO SELECT THE BEST AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVES TO ACHIEVE SPECIFIC GOALS. (ALBERT WATERSTON, 1965)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 54
  • 55.  DURING THE 1960s AND 1970s PROJECTS BECAME THE PRIMARY MEANS THROUGH WHICH GOVERNMENTS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TRANSLATED THEIR PLANS AND POLICIES INTO PROGRAMMES OF ACTION (RONDINELLI, 1993). PROJECTS WERE SEEN AS THE CUTTING EDGE OF DEVELOPMENT (GITTINGER, 1982), WHERE RESOURCES WERE CONVERTED INTO IMPROVED LIVELIHOODS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 55
  • 56.  UNFORTUNATELY, THE RIGOUR THAT SUCH TECHNIQUES BRING TO PROJECT ANALYSIS HAS NOT ALWAYS REVEALED ITSELF IN TERMS OF PROJECT RESULTS. THE WORLD BANK (1988) HAS FOUND THAT SOME 51 PER CENT OF ITS RURAL DEVELOPMENT AREA PROJECTS, OVER THE PERIOD 1965 TO 1985, FAILED TO ACHIEVE THE BANKS MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE RATE OF RETURN OF 10 PER CENT.  POOR DATA, UNCERTAINTY, LACK OF BENECIFIARY PARTICIPATION, POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 56
  • 57. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO PROJECTPLANNING THE SEARCH IS ON FOR APPROACHES THAT MAKE PROJECTS MORE EFFECTIVE, AND TWO FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT RESPONSES CAN BE DISTINGUISHED. ADAPTIVE ADMINISTRATIVE EMPOWERMENTS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 57
  • 58. ADAPTIVE ADMINISTRATION RONDINELLI (1993) HAS MADE AN IMPASSIONED PLEA FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS TO BE CONCEPTUALIZED AS POLICY EXPERIMENTS REQUIRING ADAPTIVE ADMINISTRATION. HE ARGUES THAT AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH WHICH PLACES ELEMENTS OF PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING IN THE HANDS OF PROJECT MANAGERS, IS ESSENTIAL. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS OPERATE (LIMITED INFORMATION, HIGH RISK, UNCERTAINTY AND POLITICAL MANIPULATION) AND THE CAPACITIES THAT ARE REQUIRED TO BECOME EFFECTIVE IN SUCH ENVIRONMENTS (LEARNING, EXPERIMENTATION, CREATIVITY, ORGANIZATIONAL FLEXIBILITY AND ACCESS TO LOCAL KNOWLEDGE).S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 58
  • 59. EMPOWERMENT FOR THE OTHER RADICAL CRITICS OF CONVENTIONAL APPROACHES TO PROJECT PLANNING, THE KEY THEMES OF ADAPTIVE ADMINISTRATION –EXPERIMENTATION, FLEXIBILITY, LEARNING AND CREATIVITY –ARE CRUCIAL, BUT THERE REMAINS TOO GREAT AN EMPHASIS ON THE ROLE OF EXTERNAL EXPERTS, BUREAUCRATS AND AID AGENCIES. INSTEAD, WHAT IS REQUIRED IS AN APPROACH THAT PERMITS MUCH GREATER BENEFICIARY INVOLVEMENT IN PROJECT IDENTIFICATION, SELECTION, DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 59
  • 60.  ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT  MACRO  SECTORAL  REGIONAL  DECENTRALIZATION  SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT  PARTICIPATION  POLICY DIVERSITYS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 61
  • 61. EITHER CENTRALIZED DECENTRALIZED ORCENTRALIZED DECENTRALIZED CONTINUUMS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 63
  • 62. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 64
  • 63. WHY DECENTRALIZE?A MAJOR OBSTACLE TO THE EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC BUREAUCRACIES IN MOST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IS THE EXCESSIVE CONCENTRATION OR DECISION-MAKING AUTHORITY WITHIN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.PUBLIC SECTOR INSTITUTIONS ARE COMMONLY PERCEIVED TO BE GEOGRAPHICALLY AND SOCIALLY REMOTE FROM THE PEOPLE AND TO TAKE DECISIONS WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE OR CONCERN ABOUT ACTUAL PROBLEMS AND PREFERENCES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 65
  • 64. SOME IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS  DECENTRALIZATION IS THE TRANSFER OF AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR PUBLIC FUNCTIONS FROM THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TO SUBORDINATE OR QUASI-INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND/OR THE PRIVATE SECTOR (WORLD BANK, 2001)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 66
  • 65. DECENTRALIZATION TRANSFER OF AUTHORITY CLOSER TO THE PUBLIC TO BE SERVED TERRITORIAL FUNCTIONALS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 67
  • 66. AUTONOMOUS LOCAL GOVERNMENT  LOCAL GOVERNMENT CAN BE SAID TO BE AUTONOMOUS IF THEY ENJOY A SUBSTANTIAL DEGREE OF INDEPENDENCE, ALTHOUGH AUTONOMY IN THIS CONNECTION IS SOMETIMES TAKEN TO IMPLY A HIGH MEASURE OF SELF-GOVERNMENT, RATHER THAN SOVEREIGN INDEPENDENCE (ADAPTED FROM HEYWOOD, 2002)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 68
  • 67. TYPES OF DECENTRALIZATION 1. POLITICAL 2. ADMINISTRATIVE 3. FISCAL 4. MARKETS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 69
  • 68. DECENTRALIZATION AND GOVERNANCE  DECENTRALIZATION IN SOME COUNTRIES HAS BEEN SEEN AS POLITICALLY EXPEDIENT FOR DEALING WITH REBELLIOUS REGIONS.  IT HAS HOWEVER, MORE BASIC VALUE TO DEMOCRACY AND DEMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION. MANY SCHOLARS HAVE PRESENTED THE ARGUMENT THAT DECENTRALIZATION ENHANCES THE LEGITIMACY, AND HENCE, STABILITY OF DEMOCRACY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 70
  • 69.  DECENTRALIZATION IS NOT JUST A POLITICAL NECESSITY FOR KEEPING THE COUNTRY FROM FALLING APART OR FOR FOSTERING DEMOCRACY. IF MANAGED WELL, DECENTRALIZATION CAN BRING IMPORTANT BENEFITS TO THE COMMUNITIES AND THE ECONOMY AS A WHOLE. HOWEVER, IF MANAGED BADLY, IT COULD HARM THE PEOPLE AND SQUANDER RESOURCES AND BRING INSTABILITY INSTEAD.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 71
  • 70.  TRANSFERS OF REVENUE TO THE AUTONOMOUS DISTRICTS MUST BE ACCOMPANIED BY TRANSFERS OF EXPENDITURE RESPONSIBILITY AND ITS ASSOCIATED FUNCTIONS. THEY ARE IMPORTANT TO PREVENT THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT FISCAL DEFICIT TO INCREASE UNABATEDLY CAUSING SEVERE FINANCING AND DEBT PROBLEMS FOR THE COUNTRY IN THE FUTURE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 72
  • 71.  A NORMATIVE APPROACH:  GRADUAL/INCREMENTAL PROCESS  SYSTEMATIC PREPARATION  NORMAL CONDITION IN TERMS OF POLITIC, SOCIAL AND ECONOMY  A BIG-BANG APPROACH:  ONCE FOR ALL  LEARNING BY DOING  TRANSITION CONDITION IN TERMS POLITIC, SOCIAL AND ECONOMYS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 74
  • 72.  INDONESIA FOLLOWED THE “BIG BANG” APPROACH TO DECENTRALIZATION.  IT STARTED IN 1999, BUT MUCH OF THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR PUBLIC SERVICES WAS DECENTRALIZED IN 2001 AFTER THE SECOND AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION IN 2000.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 75
  • 73.  BY THE END OF THE OLD REGIME, AT THE ONSET OF THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS AND POLITICAL REFORMS IN 1999, THERE WERE 26 PROVICES [NOT INCLUDING EAST TIMOR], 234 DISTRICTS AND 59 MUNICIPALITIES, IN TOTAL 319 AUTONOMOUS REGIONS. IN 2010, THERE ARE 33 PROVINCES, 398 DISTRICTS AND 93 MUNICIPALITIES, IN TOTAL 524 AUTONOMOUS REGIONS, INCREASING IN TEN YEARS BY 205 AUTONOMOUS REGIONS OR BY ALMOST TWO THIRD.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 76
  • 74. Desentralisasi 1999 % kenaikan Sebelum SesudahDesa 59.834 68.442 8.608 (14,4%)Kelurahan 5. 935 8.068 2.133 (35,0%)Kecamatan 5.480 6.519 1.039 (18,9%)Kabupaten 234 398 164 (70,0%)Kota 59 93 34 (57,6%)Provinsi 27 33 6 (22,2%)Kabupaten:Diluar 1 Kab. Adm. di DKI JakartaKota:Diluar 5 Kota Adm di DKI Jakarta S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 77
  • 75. DISTRIBUTION OF AUTHORITIES AND FUNCTIONS 78 Central Local www.ginandjar.com Day3_GRIPS Government 2012 Obligatory Function Optional1. Foreign Affairs 1. Planning and Monitoring 1. Mining2. Defense 2. Spatial Planning 2. Fishery3. Security 3. Social order and security 3. Agriculture4. Religion 4. Public infrastructure services 4. Farm5. Judicial 5. Health Services 5. Forestry6. Monetary and Fiscal 6. Educational Services 6. Tourism 7. Others 7. Social 8. Labor 9. SME’s and Cooperatives 10. Environment 11. Land (?) 12. Civil administration 13. Government Administration 14. Investment Administration 15. Other services 16. Other obligatory function S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 78
  • 76. REVENUES SHARING BETWEEN CENTRAL AND LOCAL Before After Central Province District/ Central Province District/ Share to Shared- Shared-Revenues City City Other District/ City1. Property Tax 10% 16.2% 64.8% 16.2% 64.8%2. Property Title Transfer Tax 20% 16% 64% 16% 64%3. Levy on Forestry Right to 55% 30% 15% 20% 16% 64% operate4. Commission on Forestry 55% 30% 15% 20% 16% 32% 32% Resource5. Land Rent on Mining Sector 20% 16% 64% 20% 16% 64%6. Royalties from Mining Sector 20% 16% 64% 20% 16% 32% 32%7. Tax on Fisheries Operation 100% 20% 80%8. Tax on Fisheries Output 100% 20% 80%9. Oil Revenues 100% 85% 3% 6% 6%10. Natural gas Revenues 100% 70% 6% 12% 12%11. Personal Income Tax 100% 80% 8% 12%Source: Government Regulation No. 104/2000 and Law No. 17/2003 S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 79
  • 77.  SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF GOVERNMENT BUDGET HAS BEEN TRANSFERRED TO THE REGIONS. FOR 2012, ALMOST ONE THIRD [32.8%] OR $52 BILLION IS DIRECT TRANSFER TO THE AUTONOMOUS REGIONS’ BUDGET, IN THE FORM OF NATURAL RESOURCES SHARING FUND FOR $11 BILLION, GENERAL ALLOCATION FUND FOR $30 BILLION, SPECIAL ALLOCATION FUND FOR $3 BILLION AND SPECIAL AUTONOMY FUND FOR THE TWO PAPUA PROVINCES AND ACEH, $1.3 BILLION, AND ADJUSTMENT FUND [FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT] FOR $6.5 BILLION. BUT OVERALL GOVERNMENT BUDGET THAT GOES TO THE REGIONS THROUGH VARIOUS SCHEMES IS MUCH HIGHER, CLOSE TO TWO THIRD [62%].S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 80
  • 78. GROWTH OF GENERAL ALOCATION FUND (GAF)VS AVERAGE FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT TOTAL AVERAGE GROWTH GROWTHSOURCE: MOF, 2011S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 81
  • 79. GROWTH OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEESSOURCE: MOF, 2011S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 82
  • 80. GOOD THEORY POOR PRACTICES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 83
  • 81. GOOD THEORY POOR PRACTICE • Basic Human Rights • Disunity • Democracy • Warlordism • Decision Making • Nepotism • Participation : • Exclusivism i. Grass Root, ii. Empowerment, • Local Elites iii. Responsiveness • Prevent disintegrationS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 84
  • 82. GOOD THEORY POOR PRACTICE • Debureaucratization • Efficiency • Weak Institution • Effectiveness • Span of Control • Limited Human • License and Permit • Client Interaction Resources • Representativeness • Populism/Pluralism • Unclear Responsibility • Differentiated Public • Better: • Decentralization of i. Planning ii. Execution iii. Supervision corruption iv. MonitoringS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 85
  • 83. GOOD THEORY POOR PRACTICE• Efficiency• Resource Optimization • Rich Region Richer• Equity • Poor Region Poorer i. Resource allocation/distribution • Regional Barrier to ii. Poverty Commerce iii.Closing disparity • Environment knows no iv.Opportunity v. Empowerment Administrative border• Demonopolization • National vs Local Rules• Entrepreneurship • National vs Local Taxes• Environment• Inter-Regional Cooperation• Inter-Regional Competition• Ownership of DevelopmentS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 86
  • 84. GOOD THEORY POOR PRACTICE• Efficiency in Delivery of i. Education • Different Level & Quality ii. Health of iii. Other social i. Education Services. ii. Health iii. Social• Local Capabilities in Services. Service Delivery• Responsive to Local • Social Immobility i. Needs ii. Potential iii. Shortcomings• Social Cohessivenes• Social SolidarityS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 87
  • 85. GOOD THEORY POOR PRACTICE • Plurality • Primordialism • Diversity • Preservation of local: • Local vs Modern Values i. Language ii. Arts iii. Tradition • Dignity • Self Esteem • Confidence • Local WisdomS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 88
  • 86.  TATA RUANG PADA HAKIKATNYA MERUPAKAN LINGKUNGAN FISIK YANG MEMPUNYAI HUBUNGAN ORGANISATORIS / FUNGSIONAL ANTARA BERBAGAI MACAM OBYEK DAN MANUSIA YANG TERPISAH DALAM RUANG – RUANG (RAPOPORT, 1980). DI DALAM TATA RUANG TERDAPAT SUATU DISTRIBUSI DARI TINDAKAN MANUSIA DAN KEGIATANNYA UNTUK MENCAPAI TUJUAN SEBAGAIMANA DIRUMUSKAN SEBELUMNYA. TATA RUANG DALAM HAL INI, MENURUT WETZING (1978), MERUPAKAN JABATARAN DARI SUATU PRODUK PERENCANAAN FISIK.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 90
  • 87.  KONSEPSI TATA RUANG INI TIDAK HANYA MENYANGKUT SUATU WAWASAN YANG DISEBUT WAWASAN SPASIAL, TETAPI MENYANGKUT PULA ASPEK – ASPEK NON SPASIAL ATAU A-SPASIAL (FOLEY, 1970). HAL INI DIDASARKAN PADA KENYATAAN BAHWA STRUKTUR FISIKS ANGAT DITENTUKAN DAN DIPENGARUHI OLEH FAKTOR – FAKTOR NONFISIK SEPERTI ORGANISASI FUNGSIONAL, POLA SOSIAL BUDAYA, DAN NILAI KEHIDUPAN KOMUNITAS (PORTEOUS, 1981).S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 91
  • 88.  PENATAAN RUANG SECARA UMUM MEMILIKI PENGERTIAN SEBAGAI SUATU PROSES YANG MELIPUTI PROSES PERENCANAAN, PELAKSANAAN ATAU PEMANFAATAN TATA RUANG, DAN PENGENDALIAN PELAKSANAAN ATAU PEMANFAATAN RUANG YANG TERKAIT SATU DENGAN LAINNYA.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 92
  • 89.  BERDASARKAN KONSEPSI INI, PENATAAN RUANG DAPAT DISEBUTKAN SECARA LEBIH SPESIFIK SEBAGAI UPAYA MEWUJUDKAN TATA RUANG YANG TERENCANA, DENGAN MEMPERHATIKAN:  KEADAAN LINGKUNGAN ALAM,  LINGKUNGAN BUATAN,  LINGKUNGAN SOSIAL,  INTERAKSI ANTAR LINGKUNGAN,  TAHAPAN DAN PENGELOLAAN PEMBANGUNAN,  KEMAMPUAN KELEMBAGAAN DAN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 93
  • 90. 95 SALAH SATU KARAKTERISTIK ATAU CIRI SISTEM ADMINISTRASI MODERN ADALAH BAHWA PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN DILAKUKAN SEDAPAT – DAPATNYA PADA TINGKAT YANG PALING BAWAH (GRASS-ROOT LEVEL). DALAM HAL INI MASYARAKAT, BERSAMA – SAMA DENGAN APARATUR PEMERINTAH, MENJADI STAKEHOLDER DALAM PERUMUSAN, IMPLEMENTASI, DAN EVALUASI DARIS ETIAP UPAYA PEMBANGUNAN. DENGAN MENINGKATNYA PENDIDIKAN, MASYARAKAT AKAN MENJADI SEMAKIN TERBUKA, SEMAKIN MAJU DAN MODERN.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 95
  • 91. 96 DALAM KONDISI SEPERTI INI, MASYARAKAT TIDAK AKAN PUAS DENGAN HANYA MENDEGAR DAN MELAKSANAKAN PETUNJUK, TETAPI JUGA INGIN IKUT BERPARTISIPASI DALAM PEMBANGUNAN DAN MENENTUKAN NASIB MEREKA SENDIRI. PEMBANGUNAN YANG MEMBERI KESEMPATAN DAN BERTUMPU PADA MASYARAKAT TELAH MENJADI PARADIGMA PEMBANGUNAN YANG SEKARANG BERKEMBANG DAN DIANUT SECARA LUAS (KARTASASMITA, 1996B).S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 96
  • 92. 98 SEBAGAI IMPLIKASI DARI DIMENSI ADMINISTRASI DALAM PEMBANGUNAN DAERAH YANG DIKAITKAN DENGAN KEMAJEMUKAN ADALAH DIMUNGKINKANNYA KERAGAMAN DALAM KEBIJAKSANAAN (POLICY DIVERSITY). DARI SEGI PERENCANAAN PEMBANGUNAN HARUS DIPAHAMI BAHWA SATU DAERAH BERBEDA DENGAN DAERAH LAINNYA. TAK ADA SATU PUN DAERAH YANG MEMILIKI KARAKTERISTIK YANG SAMA, BAIK DARI POTENSI EKONOMI, SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA, MAUPUN KELEMBAGAAN MASYARAKATNYA. DISAMPING ITU, PREMIS BAHWA PEMERINTAHAN DI DAERAH LEBIH MENGETAHUI PERMASALAHAN DAERAHNYA SEMAKIN MENGUAT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 98
  • 93. 99 DALAM KERANGKA INI, KEBIJAKSANAAN YANG BERSIFAT NASIONAL HARUS LUWES (FLEXIBLE), AGAR APARAT PEMERINTAH DIBAWAHNYA DAPAT MENGEMBANGKAN DAN MEMODIFIKASI KEBIJAKSANAAN TERSEBUT SESUAI DENGAN KONDISI MASING – MASING WILAYAH (HEAPHY, 1971). UNTUK ITU, KEBIJAKSANAAN NASIONAL HARUS MEMAHAMI KARAKTERISTIK DAERAH DALAM MEMPERTIMBANGKAN POTENSI PEMBANGUNAN DI DAERAH TERUTAMA DALAM KEBIJAKSANAAN INVESTASI SARANA DAN PRASARANA GUNA MERANGSANG BERKEMBANGNYA KEGIATAN EKONOMI DAERAH.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 99