Malnutrition : bad of nutrition. Cause by INCORRECT Amount of nutrient intake.
An optimal nutritional status is a powerful factor forhealth and well being . It is a major, modifiable andpowerful element in promoting health, preventing andtreating diseases and improving the quality of life.Malnutrition may increase risk of (susceptibility to)infection and chronic diseases : over-nutrition under-nutrition may lead to obesity as may lead to increased well as to metabolic infections and decreases syndrome or type 2 in physical and mental diabetes development.
Nutritional deficiency diseases may classified as: 1-first type :that result directly from dietary lack of a specific essential nutrient. 2-second type :that result from the inability of the body to use a specific nutrient properly.
in children of age 1-3 years in past weaning years, which due to shift from high biological value protein to starchy food deficient in proteins. characterized by edema. The classical syndrome is that of retarded growth and development with mental apathy , muscular wasting , edema especially the liver (become big) .
in children under one year of age Marasmus is a severe form of malnutrition that consists of the chronic wasting away of fat, muscle, and other tissues in the body. Malnutrition occurs when your body does not get enough nearly all nutrients, especially protein and carbohydrates A child with marasmus looks emaciated
kwashiorkor Marasmus1- Definition : 1- Definition :protein-energy malnutrition (PEM ) protein-energy malnutrition (PEM )characterized by dificiency of protein characterized by severe and prolongede relatively adequate energy intake . restriction of all food i.e energy and protein as well as other nutrients2- Essential Featuresa. Generalized oedema 2- Essential Featuresb. Hair changes a. Muscle wasting.c. Skin change b. Loss of sub-cutaneous fatd. Psychomotor changes c. Very low body weight3- Age Group 3- Age GroupUsually in children of 1-3 years Usually under one year of age4- Important Cause 4- Important CauseLate weaning after extending over two Early weaning years
kwashiorkor Marasmus5- Frequency 5- FrequencyOccures more frequently in rural area Occure in poor people in people in under developed countries who6- Clinical Features live in citiesa. Ordemab. Hair become fine show flage sign 6- Clinical Featuresc. Pigmentation desquamation and a. Oedema is absent ulceration of skin b. Skin changes ,hair ,apathy andd. Child is apathetic and measureable anorexia are seldon encounterede. Anorexia c. Abdomen may be distended.f. Liver may be enlarged and fatty. d. Liver is not fatty.
Vitamin A deficiency cause : Night blindness. Conjunctive xerosis : xerosis means dryness Active corneal lesion : Cornea scars . effects the eyes and the lining of gut and the respiratory system. Increase risk of infection: children who lack Vit A are more likely to get gut, respiratory, and other infection and to die from them than children with enough Vit A. even mild VitA deficiency , with no sign of xerophthalmia may increase risk of infection and death .
The deficiency of thiamin (B₁) causing beri-beri . The deficiency of riboflavim (B₂) causing Ariboflavinosis .
Scurvy: It result from dietary lack of Vit C , scurvy usually occurs only on those consumes extremely poor diet that have a complete lack of fruit and vegetable scurvy can effect infant who is only source of food is cow’s milk.
Vitamin D deficiency can result : Osteomalacia : is the softening of the bones, osteomalacia in children is known as rickets, . It may show signs as diffuse body pains, muscle weakness, and fragility of the bones. Osteoporosis : is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Rickets : is a softening of bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Rickets is among the most frequent childhood diseases in many developing countries.
Calcium deficiency : Osteomalacia, osteoporosis, Rickets and tetany . Phosphorus deficiency : affect growth and bone disease. Magnesium deficiency : cause problem in acid-base problem, tremor, spasm and muscle action.
Iodine deficiency : Iodine participate in the synthesis of thyroid hormones . Abnormal thyroid function leads to hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism due to increase or decrease intake of iodine . Goiter is due to iodine deficiency . Iron deficiency & Copperdeficiency :cause anemia .
Mild deficiency : Stunted growth in children . Decreased tasting sensation . impaired immune function . Sever deficiency : dwarfism . delayed sexual maturation. Hypopigmented hair .
Overnutrition is a type of malnutrition where there are more nutrients than required for normal growth, development, and metabolism.. The term can refer to: 1- obesity, brought on by general overeating of foods high in caloric content, 2- Vitamin poisoning Iron poisoning, 3- Mineral overload : inborn errors of metal metabolism, toxicity
Nutritional Status : - The state of a person’s health in terms of the nutrients in his or her diet. - Or the condition of health of a person that is influenced by the intake and utilisation of nutrients. The aim of nutritional assessment : discover the nutritional problem in order to suggest the possible solution.
Indirect Directmethods use community methods deal with the indices that reflect the individual and measurecommunity nutritional objective criteria status/needs.
Indirect Methods of Nutritional Assessment Ecological variables including agricultural crops production Economic factors e.g. household income, population density, food availability and prices Vital health statistics: morbidity, mortality and other health indicators e.g., infant and under-fives mortality, fertility indices and sanitary conditions
direct Methods of Nutritional Assessment These are summarized as ABCD A nthropometric methods C linical methods D ietary evaluation methods B iochemical, laboratory methods
It is the measurement of body height, weight, skin fold thickness , circumference of (arm , head and chest) & proportions . It is an essential component of clinical examination of infants, children & pregnant women. These measurements are compared to the reference data (standards) of the same age and sex group, in order to evaluate the nutritional status
Clinical assessment It is an essential feature of all nutritional surveys. It is the simplest & most practical method of ascertaining the nutritional status of a group of individuals. It utilizes a number of physical signs, (specific & non specific), that are known to be associated with malnutrition and deficiency of vitamins & micronutrients
D ietary evaluation methods Dietary assessment Nutritional intake of humans is assessed by different methods. These are: 24 hours dietary recall Food frequency questionnaire Dietary history food diary or record
Laboratory Tests- Hemoglobin estimation.- Stool ( for intestinal parasites ) & Urine ( for albumen and sugar ) . Biochemical Tests measure :- Nutrient concentration ( e.g. serum )- Detection of abnormal amounts of metabolites in urine ( e.g. urinary iodine )- Enzymes concentration.
Meaning of Malnutrition and his type Undernutrition Protein Calorie malnutrition 1- kwashirkor 2- Marasmus And the different Vitamin & micronutrient deficiency methods of assessment of nutritional status In tow ways Direct & Indirect Direct summary in ABCD