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PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN AREA PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN AREA Document Transcript

  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN AREA Prepared By: Friedrich Chitauka For: Dr. Wayne-Duff Riddell & Assoc. Prof Roger Behrens A MSc. Engineering (Transport Studies) Case Study
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Contents i Contents List of Figures.......................................................................................................................................iv List of Tables .........................................................................................................................................v Acknowledgements ..............................................................................................................................vi Abstract...............................................................................................................................................viii Terms of Reference...............................................................................................................................x 1 Introduction................................................................................................................................1-1 1.1 Motivation............................................................................................................................1-1 1.2 Objectives of Guidelines......................................................................................................1-1 1.3 Limitations and Scope..........................................................................................................1-1 1.4 Plan of Development............................................................................................................1-1 2 Context........................................................................................................................................2-2 2.1 Status Quo............................................................................................................................2-2 3 Product Definition......................................................................................................................3-4 3.1 The Key Deliverable............................................................................................................3-4 3.2 Public Transit Systems.........................................................................................................3-5 3.2.1 Rail-Based Public Transport Systems..........................................................................3-5 3.2.2 Light Rail Public Transport Systems ...........................................................................3-6 3.2.3 Bus-Based Public Transport Systems ..........................................................................3-8 3.2.4 Non-Motorised Transport Based Public Transport Systems........................................3-9 4 Integrated Public Rapid Transport Networks (IRPTN) ......................................................3-10 4.1 Public Transport System Components ..........................................................................3-10 4.1.1 Policy.........................................................................................................................3-11 4.1.2 Routes and Network.................................................................................................3-11 4.1.3 Infra-structure..........................................................................................................3-11 4.1.4 Operations ................................................................................................................3-11 4.1.5 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS).......................................................................3-11 4.1.6 Marketing .................................................................................................................3-11 4.1.7 Financing ..................................................................................................................3-11 5 Service Planning.......................................................................................................................5-12 5.1 Legal and Policy Considerations........................................................................................5-12 5.1.1 Strategic objectives ....................................................................................................5-13 5.2 Land Use and Public Transit System .................................................................................5-13 5.3 Project Feasibility Study....................................................................................................5-14
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Contents ii 5.3.1 Demand Analysis.......................................................................................................5-15 5.4 Resource Mobilisation .......................................................................................................5-15 5.5 Transition and Integration..................................................................................................5-15 5.6 Evaluation ..........................................................................................................................5-16 6 Implementation ........................................................................................................................6-18 6.1 Key Infra-structure.............................................................................................................6-18 6.1.1 Capacity considerations .............................................................................................6-18 6.1.2 Bus Way Network......................................................................................................6-19 6.1.3 Coverage ....................................................................................................................6-19 6.1.4 Placement and Alignment ..........................................................................................6-20 6.1.5 Materials and Markings .............................................................................................6-21 6.1.6 Railway Network .......................................................................................................6-21 6.1.7 Vehicles......................................................................................................................6-22 6.1.8 Station Design............................................................................................................6-23 6.1.9 Station Capacity.........................................................................................................6-25 6.2 Traffic planning and Engineering ......................................................................................6-25 6.2.1 Commercial Speed.....................................................................................................6-26 6.2.2 Bus Priority Measures................................................................................................6-26 6.3 Passenger Information and ITS..........................................................................................6-28 7 Marketing and Communication .............................................................................................7-31 7.1 Social Engineering.............................................................................................................7-31 7.2 Brand Building & Awareness ............................................................................................7-31 8 Costs and Financial Considerations.......................................................................................8-34 8.1 Contracting Framework .....................................................................................................8-34 8.2 Fare Calculation.................................................................................................................8-35 8.2.1 Subsidy Structure.......................................................................................................8-36 8.3 Fare Collection...................................................................................................................8-37 9 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................9-38 9.1 Inadequate Public transport system and Facilities .............................................................9-38 9.2 Establishment of a customer-centred public transport is needed.......................................9-38 9.3 Prioritise Public Transport .................................................................................................9-38 9.4 System Information flow is critical....................................................................................9-38 9.5 Provision of staff training and security personnel..............................................................9-38 9.6 Determined and focused Marketing is essential.................................................................9-39 9.7 Financial Sustainability of System is achievable and important........................................9-39 10 Bibliography...........................................................................................................................10-40
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Contents iii
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | List of Figures iv List of Figures Figure 2-1 Modal Split of South Africa Urban Areas..........................................................................2-2 Figure 2-2 Minibus Taxis parked by roadside (source: sabc)..............................................................2-2 Figure 3-1 Customer Focused System .................................................................................................3-4 Figure 3-2 Excessive Over-crowding on Train in India.......................................................................3-5 Figure 3-3 Churchgate Station, Mumbai during peak hour (www.skyscrapercity.com, 2013) ...........3-6 Figure 3-4 the Luas LRT System in Dublin, Ireland (Wikipedia, 2013) .............................................3-6 Figure 3-5 Integration of city greening initiative with LRT at-grade in Tenerife, Spain (Wikipedia, 2013)....................................................................................................................................................3-7 Figure 5-1 Coordinated Approach to Commuter Satisfaction ...........................................................5-12 Figure 5-2 Example of High Density Housing in Urban Area...........................................................5-13 Figure 5-3 Relative Capital Investment Cost Of Common PT Modes ..............................................5-14 Figure 5-4 Public Transport System Inter-modal Integration............................................................5-15 Figure 5-5 Commuter Decision Making Process...............................................................................5-16 Figure 5-6 happy multi-modal commuters.........................................................................................5-17 Figure 6-1 How much space is required?...........................................................................................6-18 Figure 6-2 Four Common Urban Area Forms (Left) and Typical Trunk-Feeder PT Service Network.6- 19 Figure 6-3 Median Busway Placement ..............................................................................................6-20 Figure 6-4 Example of a proposed curbside PT system for a section of Chicago, USA ...................6-20 Figure 6-5 Secondary Effects of Location of Busway.......................................................................6-21 Figure 6-6 Low Floor Bus in use in London......................................................................................6-22 Figure 6-7 High Floor Bus in Use in Johannesburg's Rea Vaya........................................................6-22 Figure 6-8 An IRT station, greened surroundings and signage .........................................................6-23 Figure 6-9 A bus stop with a full ticketing pre-purchasing facility, Zürich, Switzerland.................6-23 Figure 6-10 the relationship between operating speed (commercial speed), station spacing and maximum speed..................................................................................................................................6-24 Figure 6-11 Typical Median Station Set-up.......................................................................................6-24 Figure 6-12 Bus Berth Configurations...............................................................................................6-25 Figure 6-13 London's iBus System Operation Schematic .................................................................6-27 Figure 6-14 A Passenger Information Display in use at the University Of Cape Town's shuttle stops.6- 28 Figure 6-15 an automated information and ticket booth....................................................................6-30 Figure 6-16 BRT Monitoring System and AVL Display (York, Ontario).........................................6-30 Figure 7-1 The ReaVaya Logo and its Branding on a BRT Bus........................................................7-32 Figure 7-2 the Rea Vaya Logo on Staff Uniform and a Temporary Ticket.......................................7-32 Figure 7-3 the Rea Vaya Branding on an IRT station in Johannesburg.............................................7-32 Figure 7-4 Suggestion box and Branded Form on Rea Vaya IRT .....................................................7-33 Figure 8-1 Fare Vs. Demand: An Inverse Relationship.....................................................................8-35 Figure 8-2 SASSA Debit Card used by Welfare beneficiaries ..........................................................8-36 Figure 8-3 On-board Fare Collection.................................................................................................8-37 Figure 8-4 Electronic Card based Off-Board Collection ..................................................................8-37
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | List of Tables v List of Tables Table 3-1 Model Rail Systems & Capacities.......................................................................................3-5 Table 3-2 Model Rail LRT Systems ....................................................................................................3-6 Table 3-3 Model Bus Systems (Hidalgo et al 2010)............................................................................3-9 Table 3-4 A summary of MBT industry in South Africa.....................................................................3-9 Table 5-1 Strategic Goals & Outcome of the PT System ..................................................................5-13 Table 5-2 the Four-Step Model Summary .........................................................................................5-15 Table 6-1 PT Service Coverage LOS.................................................................................................6-19 Table 6-2 Commercial Speed and Reliability Targets.......................................................................6-26 Table 6-3 Operator Information Requirements..................................................................................6-28 Table 6-4 Commuter's Information Needs and Prescribed Mediums ................................................6-29 Table 7-1 IRT Target Groups and Communication Stages................................................................7-31 Table 8-1 Stipulated Contract Types for Municipal Authorities .......................................................8-34
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Acknowledgements vi Acknowledgements It is my humble honour to express my gratitude to the following people for their generosity with time, insights and advice:  Dr. Wayne-Duff Riddell  Assoc. Prof Roger Behrens  The Transport Planning Postgraduates at the University of Cape Town You all deserve my sincere gratitude.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Acknowledgements vii
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Abstract viii Abstract The rapid growth in South Africa’s urban population is having a negative impact on the quality of life in metropolitan areas. This is because there is a lack of capacity in urban and municipal systems including transportation networks and modes to cater effectively to these demands. Intra-city travel is one the most evident manifestations of rapid urbanisation in South Africa; this is seen by the prevalence of: traffic congestion, travel delays, air pollution, and high road accident rates and poor quality of public transport. The provision of Integrated Rapid Public Transport Networks (IRPTNs) as mandated by the national government offers a means to mitigate the dire state of commuter transit and slow the consequent environmental degradation by shifting from car dependant mobility to more efficient high quality mass transit modes. However, establishing this new standard in urban commuting is challenging; since public transport suffers from a very poor public image and surveys consistently show that public transport users are dissatisfied by the service(Behrens & Jobanputra 2012). A pattern begins to emerge .i.e. poor perception of and safety concerns about public transport prevents choice user from utilising it while captive users are subjected to poor quality travel and facilities in most areas. There is a historical context to this reality given that the Apartheid-Era authorities primarily viewed public transit as a means to transport workers en mass to and from the urban fringes; the legacy of this noted by the relatively longer distances that the urban poor have to travel to access social amenities and economic opportunities. The design and establishment of a new urban public transport system must ensure it addresses these divergent needs. Therefore the IRPTN system proposed by the consultant will exhibit the following characteristics when implemented:  Comfortable and dignified travel experience .i.e. by selecting a fleet of robust and quality vehicles.  Passenger and travel information at every key stage of commute.  Rapid and reliable transit .i.e. shorten travel times.  Safe, Accessible and weatherproof bus stations.  Strategic and aggressive marketing campaign.  Universal access and Inter-modality. Each characteristic addresses the needs and concerns of the commuters and when marketed to has the ability to cause modal shifts among choice users overtime because even car travel cannot currently march the level of service envisioned to be offered by this system. Every component of the system that is recommended is aimed at reaching these objectives. The guidelines hereby present more specific information of details of how to accomplish the aforementioned characteristics in the IRPTN within the client’s budgetary limits. These guidelines are formulated from legislative requirements, public transit manuals and best practice case studies of IRTs being implemented in various cities around the world; faced with similar urban development challenges.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Abstract ix “You and I come by road or rail but economists travel on infra-structure” – Margret Thatcher, former British prime minister 1925 -2013
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Terms of Reference x Terms of Reference This report was commissioned by the Madiba-Berg Municipal Authority (not real name), therein the client and compiled by TransAxion™ Transport Consultants herein the consultants. The brief from the client was to deliver guidelines for a Public Transport System which will do the following:  Attract at least 25% of choice users  Be competitive with the private car mode  Offer a high level of service to passengers Based on the above information the consultants have compiled the following guidelines for an Integrated Public Transport for the City of Madiba-berg
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Introduction 1-1 1 Introduction 1.1 Motivation South African urban areas are in the grip of a transport paradox. The rapid urbanisation rates and increasing motorization levels which can be linked to a general trend of economic growth in urban areas has resulted in: traffic congestion, increased levels of air pollution and deterioration in the quality of intra-city travel . This document presents a response to the urgent need to address the above mobility challenges by developing sustainable urban transport systems .These guidelines are based on currently established best practice in model public transport systems around the world. 1.2 Objectives of Guidelines The objective of this guideline document is to establish a framework which can be used to implement an effective, relevant and customer-centred public transport system. In addition to this; the guidelines seek to:  Promote the mobility of all members of the given urban population ; to ensure equitable access to socio-economic opportunities for them.  Deliver a quality public transport system with a high level of service to the users or passengers .i.e. competitive enough to continue to attract increasing levels of ridership.  Ensure that a sustainable transport system is implemented that caters to all forms of transport including non-motorised transport rather than private car mode only.  Ensure that the given local authority and/or municipality adhere to the National Land Transport Act 5 of 2009 (NLTA) with respect to provision of public transport services and infra-structure.  Develop an inclusive transport system that recognises the disparities in ability to pay for commuting among the urban inhabitants.  Allow for efficient operations which implies setting up a financially viable publicly managed transport enterprise; which needs minimal or no subsidy from provincial and national government. The proper execution of these guidelines with reasonable consideration of the specific conditions of the given urban area will result in the attainment of the aforementioned aims .This affirmation is been shown to be true by successful examples of new public transport system design processes in developing countries. 1.3 Limitations and Scope The development of a public transport system for the particular location was a multi-disciplinary exercise and cross cutting across a broad range of political, economic and technical issues. Despite this fact the focus of the reported guidelines focus on the planning, design outline, marketing and basic revenue collection of the given urban intermodal public transit system. It is not a detailed design manual rather a basis for initiating the design phase. 1.4 Plan of Development This report begins with the context of the proposed Public Transport System and Network for the specific South African city, followed by with some key definitions and case studies. An overview of the critical factors and components of an integrated PT network is given; thereafter guidelines pertaining to each component are elaborated in a systematic and sequential manner. Special attention is given to the marketing strategy and some recommendations are made. An appendix is provided with important reference data and figures used in the compilation of this document.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Context 2-2 2 Context The proposed urban public transport system is to be located in the city of Madiba-berg, South Africa. For the purposes of this document Public Transport (PT) will be defined according to National Land Transport Act 5 of 2009(NLTA)(GCIS-RSA 2010). Public Transport can be defined as a scheduled or unscheduled service for the carriage of passengers by road or rail subject or not subject to contract for a fare or some form of reward. The guidelines reported in this document are mainly concerned with scheduled services although some treatment is given to unscheduled services in Section 7.5 “Transition and Integration”(GCIS-RSA 2009). 2.1 Status Quo Based on the information from the client the municipal transport system is typical of South Africa’s urban areas. This implies that private car dominated transport is predominate form of higher income groups while the majority of commuter mostly from lower income groups are captive users of the paratransit services offered by the mini-bus taxis and to a lesser degree buses and rail respectively. Figure 2-1 Modal Split of South Africa Urban Areas In summary the transport infra-structure and network is motor-centric .i.e. favours the private motor car with marginal provision for mass transit and non-motorised transit modes. The current system is inadequate with respect to basic universal access requirements and environmental performance benchmarks. Figure 2-2 Minibus Taxis parked by roadside (source: sabc)
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Context 2-3 The disproportional nature of modal split and capacity has compelled the Client to redesign and re-establish a new Municipality PT system to curb the negative effects mentioned above and maximise the potential benefit of effective urban PT system. It must be mentioned that any urban PT system built; which includes but is not limited to directly infra- structure, vehicles, operators and procedures must adhere particularly to the National Road Traffic Act 93 of 1996(NRTC) especially vehicles and operators and National Land Transport Act .Furthermore to this other the Local Authority (LA), System planners and operators must be aware of complimenting legislation such as Basic Conditions of Employment Act 137 of 1993 and the National Rail Regulator Act 16 of 2002 among others .
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Product Definition 3-4 3 Product Definition 3.1 The Key Deliverable The main deliverable of these guidelines is a unified public transport system which can efficiently enable multi-destination travel(Dodson, Jago; Mees, Paul; Stone, John; Burke 2011). This means that the specified Municipal Authority (MA) will be able to establish a PT network whose components conform to stipulated legislation of the Republic of South Africa; some which have been listed in Section 2.1. The proceeding guidelines make a fundamental distinction between the public transport system and public transport network. In this regard, the following definitions are put forward: Public Transport System refers to the entirety of the physical infra-structure, mass carriage units like buses or train wagons, information, management and technology that make the movement of urban commuters possible. A public transport system envisioned for this city will be an amalgam of land transport modes which is typically the case. Public Transport Network within these guidelines is used to describe the spatial and temporal relations between locations or nodes linked by the infra-structure of the transport system. Basically, it is the connectivity or ease with which a commuter can navigate between places of desired travel within a certain time frame(Dodson, Jago; Mees, Paul; Stone, John; Burke 2011). Overall, the Municipal Authority’s effort must be directed at providing potential and captive commuters with a high level of service (HLOS).This entails that customer satisfaction is implicit and a focus of the PT system operations. The MA should be aware that the level of service offered by the PT system will affect the cost of construction; operation and maintenance (refer to Section 9.0 “Costs and Financial Considerations”). Figure 3-1 Customer Focused System The importance of offering a high level is that system must as be competitive against existing modes and currently preferred modes such as private motor cars. Hence, the delivery of a quality and comfortable PT system which is aligned to customer need will eventuate in ridership gain from less efficient modes. This is critical to systematically achieving the other objectives of the proposed PT system as outline in Section 1.2 “Objectives of Guidelines.”
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Product Definition 3-5 3.2 Public Transit Systems This section focuses on the reviewing the successes and challenges faced by municipal authorities around the world in redesigning and improving their respective public transportation systems. The unique economic, geographical, social and political contexts each city differs better each other and South African cities as will be shown. However, there remain a number of similarities in challenges and lessons to be learnt. Firstly, in engaging in a public transport system planning exercise it is important to acknowledge that the status quo of the transport system in any city evolves as a result of its historical and geographical constraints and continues to transform in a negative or positive direction due to present socio-economic and environmental realities. This is due to the fact the transport network needs to accommodate the above dynamics. In view of the given scope and geographical context of these guidelines(Section 1.3) which is the South African city of Madiba-berg; this section will only review land transport modes .i.e. rail, bus, non-motorised transport and light rail public transport systems: 3.2.1 Rail-Based Public Transport Systems A Rail-Based PT or Heavy Rail can be defined as a system which transport passengers in specialised carriages called rolling stock that travel along rails with full segregation from other types of land traffic(Griffin et al. 2005). Table 3-1 Model Rail Systems & Capacities System Name Location Passenger Daily Capacity Headway Local Constraints Tokyo Metro Tokyo Metro 40 million (less than 6 secs delay per train)  Over-crowding at peak times. Western Railway(WR) Line* Mumbai, India 2.1 million 1.8 minutes  Over-crowding  Poor and inadequate infra- structure  Poor funding  Terrorist attacks/security threats New York Metro, New York City, USA 4.8 million 2 – 3 minutes  Over-crowding Le Métropolitain Paris Metropolitan 4.5 million n/a  Over-crowding and safety issues on some lines. * The Western Line which is 60.6 km long is recorded as the busiest single segment of passenger railway line usually operating at 2.65 times over-capacity .i.e. 14-16 persons per sq.-meter. Figure 3-2 Excessive Over-crowding on Train in India
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Product Definition 3-6 Figure 3-3 Churchgate Station, Mumbai during peak hour (www.skyscrapercity.com, 2013) 3.2.2 Light Rail Public Transport Systems Light Rail Train (LRT) Systems are defined as rail based passenger transport which typically travels on fully or partially segregated track along a road or street .It can be as alternative to the normal rail system also called Heavy Rail (HR) see Section 3.2.1 “Rail Systems” or to compliment other PT modes. It must be noted that it has lower capacity than Heavy Rail although its construction costs and operating are lower. It is common in European countries such as England and Germany where relatively narrow road reserves; limit mass transit options and operations(Griffin et al. 2005). Figure 3-4 the Luas LRT System in Dublin, Ireland (Wikipedia, 2013) Table 3-2 Model Rail LRT Systems System Name Location Passenger Capacity(pphpd*) Local Constraints Manila LRT Manila ,Philippines 60,000 Rapid urbanisation .i.e. network expansion lags. Various LRTs North America 4000(mean) - 13000 Under-utilisation Casablanca Tramway North Africa ≈10,000 Relatively new(completed Dec,2012) 8 LRTs England, UK ≈20,000(mean ridership) *passengers per hour per day (pphpd)
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Product Definition 3-7 Figure 3-5 Integration of city greening initiative with LRT at-grade in Tenerife, Spain (Wikipedia, 2013) 3.2.2.1 Lessons Learnt and Observations Overall rail based systems especially heavy rail offer the highest capacity of all PT modes to handle large commuter volumes. The major disadvantage is the relatively high construction cost and implementation time frames which are usually 15 years from conception to completion. Its variations such as LRT give a municipal authority the flexibility of bus services .i.e. by sharing limited road space/reserve depending on level priority and segregation permitted to a specific rail mode. LRT systems are comparatively cheaper than HR but offer capacity and performance between that of HR and the most effective Bus-Based systems (refer to Section 3.2.3).Furthermore, they have been shown to have the ability; to be operated sustainably above the threshold of about 100,000 daily commuters. LRT can be used to enhance the urban scape rather than disrupt it; as is the case of Heavy Rail Systems, which often “cut” through communities’ .This phenomenon, was used deliberately by Apartheid Era urban planners to perpetuate race-based community separation. Municipal authorities must remain therefore the cost/benefit of implementing any the system while remaining aware of aforementioned negative effects.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Product Definition 3-8 3.2.3 Bus-Based Public Transport Systems Bus-Based PT systems can divided into two groups based of their typical operation characteristics namely structured and un-structured. 3.2.3.1 Structured A structured bus-based service refers to bus public transport system that is publicly or privately managed to provide the carriage commuters .It usually has a uniform system of fare collection and operates according to a timetable along particular routes or corridors. This type of service is closer to the envisioned objective of the National Government according to NTLA of 2009. Structured bus-based PT systems are manifested in two forms the familiar ordinary bus service such Golden Arrow (Cape Town) and Putco (Johannesburg, Pretoria) .These services are contracted by the respective Municipal Authorities for periods of no less than 5 years from private companies. The second and more recent manifestation is the Bus with High Level of Services (BHLS).The concept is of BHLS is a more euro-centric term but can used to include PT systems such Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) as is commonly called in the Americas and the rest of the world; but in essence both term imply the same elements of systematic improvements of bus services and operating conditions to enhance the commuter travel experience and emulate the mass transit ability of a rail system(Kerkhof & Soulas 2011). According to the Public Transport Strategy and Action (PTS) approved by Cabinet in March 2007, the key drivers’ of delivering quality public transport to South Africa’s urban centres are:  Modal Upgrading .i.e. replacement of old and roadworthy Mini-Bus Taxi (MBT) fleet.  Integrated Rapid Public Transit Networks (IRPTNs) this calls for the implementation of dedicated Rail and Bus Rapid Transit corridors in a phased format especially in the six largest metropolises. Based on the PTS ; it is clear that Bus Rapid Transit is the prescribed model for any Municipal Authority(MA) to follow in implementing an integrated PT system in the form of IRPTNs. It remains that MA planners and officials must adapt the BRT model as outlined in the “BRT Planning Guide” to their local conditions. The Table 3.3 Model BRT and Bus Systems shows some performance specifications from bus-based PT which closely resemble the system envisioned for the city of Madiba-berg
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Product Definition 3-9 Table 3-3 Model Bus Systems (Hidalgo et al 2010) 3.2.3.2 Un-structured This type of bus operation is also called as para-transit. It is the most common type of PT throughout South Africa. It is a profit driven business. Table 3-4 A summary of MBT industry in South Africa Mini-Bus Taxi Statistics Characteristic State Fleet age +10 years Number of Operators ≈150,000 Licensed Operators ≈ 20% Road Regulation Compliance Low Capacity 14-16 passengers Accident Rate 8.3% of road fatalities (arrivealive.com) Headway Variable( Unscheduled) The table above indicates the fact the MBT industry as it stand, fails as a primary public transport mode. 3.2.4 Non-Motorised Transport Based Public Transport Systems Non-motorised Transport is general term referring to all forms of transport that which are not propelled by a mechanized and combustion engine. The most common types of NMT observed around South African cities are walking, bicycling, animal-drawn carts and other human propelled vehicles. The provision of NMT facilities in most transport systems especially in developing countries is often inadequate or non-existence. Establishing a functional inter-modal transport system requires that NMT facilities should be designed for and integrated with the rest of the urban transport network and infra-structure. The fact remains that every commute both begins and ends with an NMT mode. Hence it is an essential part of accessibility of the urban network.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Product Definition 3-10 4 Integrated Public Rapid Transport Networks (IRPTN) The basis of the next generation or “new wave” of public transport provision are Integrated Rapid Transport Network (IRPTN)((Department of Transport) 2007).IRPTN are improved public transport networks which include physical and operational components that enable them to have higher capacity, universal access, good public perception and better performance than the existing transport system. According to the PTS (2002), IRPTNs are mode independent and offer a total service quality package over the entire user journey experience. The following is a list of features found on some of the most successful Road-based Rapid PT systems: Physical infrastructure  Segregated busways or bus-only roadways predominantly in the median of the roadway  Existence of publicly managed integrated “network” of routes and corridors  High quality publicly owned and managed stops, stations, terminals and depots  Enhanced stations that are convenient, comfortable, secure, and weather-protected stations provide level access between the platform and vehicle floor  Special stations and terminals to facilitate easy physical integration between trunk routes, feeder services, and other mass transit systems (if applicable)  Improvements to nearby public space Operations  Frequent and rapid service between major origins and destinations  Ample capacity for passenger demand along corridors  Rapid boarding and alighting  Pre-board fare collection and fare verification  Fare-integration and free transfers between routes, corridors, and feeder services  The above list is abridged from the PTS (2007-2020) The other specification of the proposed system relating to marketing, its and financing are detailed in the Sections 6.4,7, 8 and 9 respectively. 4.1Public Transport System Components This section outlines and explains the main elements of the proposed urban system. The municipal authority must undertake to achieve excellence in each of the elements and synchronise these efforts to ensure the PT system is effective as a whole. Any formal transport system structure consists of the following key elements:  Policy  Routes and Network  Infra-structure  Operations  Intelligent Transport Systems  Marketing  Financing Below some general context of these terms is given as used in these guidelines(Lloyd Wright : Walter Hook 2007).
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Product Definition 3-11 4.1.1 Policy The legislation, strategic objectives and by-laws of the government (Refer to NLTA) and municipal especially pertaining to land transport issues and urban development can be viewed as policy. It is essential that transport policies disincentives inefficient transport modes such as private and encourage high capacity modes such BRT and rail where appropriate(GCIS-RSA 2009)(GCIS-RSA 2010). 4.1.2 Routes and Network A PT network is collection of regular routes. The route is a designated set of roads, streets or separate rights- of-way in an urban area that a PT mode serves regularly. The term route is more commonly used for parts of the network served by buses and line for rail modes and for portions where they overlap. 4.1.3 Infra-structure Generally these are fixed physical elements of the urban PT system .i.e. IRPTN. They include but are not limited to the bus or rail stations, terminals, interchanges, parking lots and NMT facilities. The infra-structure is a vital part of any PT network because it is the interface the transport service and the passenger. Improper and inadequate infra-structure is challenge face by many transport systems especially in developing countries. It is often the source of bottlenecks in the PT system therefore extra attention should be taken in the design and operation of PT infra-structure (Refer to Section 7.1 “Infra-structure Best Practices”). 4.1.4 Operations Operations are the daily activities carried out by the PT systems’ employees and technologies to ensure that the service objectives of the transport service are reached. Typical operations include driving of transit vehicles, fare collection, customer care, maintenance and cleaning activities. The effectiveness of operation translates into the performance of the PT system with regard to service frequency, transit speed, hours of operation, ease of use to commuters and punctuality. This is the single most important contributing factor to public perception and customer satisfaction with the IRPTN. 4.1.5 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) This refers to a wide range of devices, processes and machines which use digital technology to control monitor and communicate with the transport system. They are especially useful in making PT operations efficient by allowing the bi-directional flow of real-time information about the state of the PT system such as delays or incidents. In addition to allowing faster and versatile fare collection by multi-purpose cards (Section 7.). 4.1.6 Marketing Marketing can defined as a deliberate set of actions to make the public aware of the PT system and to enhance its positive perception or image. As with any successful marketing strategy the awareness campaigns must be customer –centred and emphasise the aspects of product, promotion and price. It is critical for the proposed PT system to establish a unified and consistent brand throughout the system and every phase of implementation. Innovative and relevant marketing platforms must be continually used (Section 7.0)(Weber Erik et al. 2012). 4.1.7 Financing This relates to cost of constructing and operating the IRPTN and the revenues it can generate within a certain timeframe. The MA will have a limited number of financing options; the current model is dependent on national government funding for project of this nature (Section 9 “Costs & Finance”). There are opportunities for private sector involvement especially from a land development and retail perspective.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Service Planning 5-12 5 Service Planning The service planning signifies the initial stage of the set-up of our proposed IRPTN. It is an iterative process and requires the involvement of multiple stakeholders and consideration of existing policy and local conditions. As illustrated below the PT system design must place the user as the focus and all other facilities and operations must be coordinated to achieve customer satisfaction and ridership gains. Figure 5-1 Coordinated Approach to Commuter Satisfaction 5.1 Legal and Policy Considerations The PT system and specification must adhere to the law and technical specifications as set by the national and provincial spheres of government. Therefore this calls for all actions, procedures and policies by MA and appointed agents to be aligned with legislation such:  Overall transport operations and network : NLTA #5 of 2009 and NRRA  Public Transport Vehicle Specifications : NRTA # 93 of 1996  Rail Related PT operations and safety: RSR Act of 2002  PT Operators, Labour Relations and Condition of Employment: Basic Conditions of Employment Act 123 of 1993. The aforementioned list of legislations is by no means exhaustive the MA must ensure that at least the all implementation procedure are in line with these laws and must continually check for compliance.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Service Planning 5-13 5.1.1 Strategic objectives As the government stipulated model for delivery of rapid public transportation; the IRPTN model must be carefully adapted to suit the given municipal area’s particular PT needs and demands. Some direction is hereby given in terms of the strategic objectives any south Africa MA must aim to attain by 2020 in Table 5-1 “Table 5 1 Strategic Goals & Outcome of the PT System”((Department of Transport) 2007) . Table 5-1 Strategic Goals & Outcome of the PT System PT System Characteristic Desirable Outcome[Goal] Time-Frame PT Network Coverage 85% of the urban population must have access to rapid public transit ≈7 years (by 2020) Accessibility All resident must be with 1 km of the proposed PT network Travel Times All commute from origin to destination must be less than 60 minutes. Service Frequency PT service every 5-10 during Peak times and 10 -30mins during Off- Peak. NMT Network Every metropolis must have at least 100km of NMT facilities such as walkways, bicycle lanes and stations. Universal Access 100 % access to PT for all with special needs and wheelchairs. Overall LOS Car competitive, rapid and reliable. Furthermore to these minimum strategic objectives; that would align the new PT system with the national regulations regarding urban passenger transport. The MA will have to attract 25% of choice travellers which means measures to encourage and enforce model shift should be pursued. This means passive and active car restrictive schemes such as: parking lot limits, congestion charging and public transport priority are should be built-in to the system. Typical Public Transport Priority guidelines and measures which have been successfully applied in similar projects are detailed in section 6.1. 5.2 Land Use and Public Transit System A concept called Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is strongly recommended. Many examples around the world and literature on the subject indicate that for a municipality to extract maximum benefit and increased PT ridership; it must ensure densification of housing and commercial development along PT corridors. Figure 5-2 Example of High Density Housing in Urban Area Source: (http://rightsofway.blogspot.com/2012_08_01_archive.html) This means that mixed used developments must be actively promoted by modifying the municipal zoning regulations and rates to accommodate the changes in the Public Transport System. It is a long term approach but can help the MA justify Possible PT stop locations
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Service Planning 5-14 return investments faster, make PT efficient and encourage commercial investments around transit facilities(Federal Transit Authority 2002). 5.3 Project Feasibility Study This means a systematic evaluation of the positive and negative aspects of the proposed project with regard to its viability in relation to a set of constraints. During this stage of project preparation; the identification and selection of practical PT mode(s) or technologies is an important outcome. The figure 5-3 shows the relative cost of various PT modes clearly BRT is the most affordable Mass PT system though the more expensive offer higher passenger carrying capacity(Barker et al. 2003). Figure 5-3 Relative Capital Investment Cost Of Common PT Modes Some other critical matters outcomes of this process:  Approximate length or size of PT network  Project Costing Estimates  Estimation of Demand  Determine benefit and positive externalities such: travel time reductions, cost saving ,property price increases, and environmental emissions reduction It is important that MA clearly document the above and uses credible source such like the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS).These outcomes must be clearly communicated to the stakeholders and the public in appropriate detail((Department of Transport) 2007).
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Service Planning 5-15 5.3.1 Demand Analysis The four – step model is recommended standard for determining the passenger demand on the proposed system. The most important sequential steps are: Table 5-2 the Four-Step Model Summary Demand Analysis Step Source / Method Output Trip Generation Latest version of NTHS, National/Provincial Survey, Socio-economic Data Number of trips by inhabitants Trip Distribution Gravity Model O-D matrix Modal Split National Survey Data, NTHS, Vehicle Register Percentage (%) mix of different modes Assignment Capacity Restraint(Manual Estimations) & Software Packages Users /Passengers per corridor or route 5.4 Resource Mobilisation It is also important the MA acquires the necessary resource and support for the PT system. The consultants strongly advise of genuine and transparent process of public participation. This is a critical step as the MA is able to validate findings from previous steps .i.e. Demand Analysis (Section 5.3.1). In so doing requite resources such as the ones listed below can be allocated proportionally;  Human Resources: technical expert e.g. transport planners and engineers, finance experts, marketing personnel and operational personnel such drivers and security.  Financial Resources .i.e. to be mostly sourced from national government.  PT modal Mix capacity: an optimal split between types of PT modes and vehicle types to ensure efficient operations given the bi-modal distribution (two daily peak periods) of urban commuting. 5.5 Transition and Integration The degrees to which existing are integrated in the new PT system must be carefully considered. In view of the current legal requirements it has been established that MBT based PT provision (Status Quo) will have to be phased out. Based on the experiences of the Rea Vaya® (Johannesburg Municipality) and MyCiti® BRT Systems: it is essential that previous owner and operators (mostly drivers) are retained as operators of PT services to the MA through concession and tender appointed private companies which they will own or co-own with the MA. Figure 5-4 Public Transport System Inter-modal Integration Nevertheless, opportunities remain for paratransit operations which have upgraded and approved vehicles; to provide passenger carriage at the feeder level especially in earlier stages of the PT system implementation in areas of particular sparse density or irregular travel patterns. This can be seen as a hybrid rapid transit system.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Service Planning 5-16 5.6 Evaluation The MA and consultants must assess the feasible and affordable alternatives in relation to predicted outcomes for each. An objective criterion must be developed to analyse the alternative combinations of PT network designs, modes and infra-structure. Important considerations are the: Ridership, Cost and Customer experience and requirements. The decision making process must carefully accommodated. Figure 5-5 Commuter Decision Making Process Ultimately, PT system must be customer centric because customer satisfaction will help maintain captive user and increase ridership by attracting choice users from competing modes like private cars. This is a stated outcome of this project (See “Terms of Reference, Pg.v”).
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Service Planning 5-17 Figure 5-6 happy multi-modal commuters
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-18 6 Implementation 6.1 Key Infra-structure This section will focus on the providing guidelines and recommendation for primarily bus infra-structure because the envisioned PT system will be follow a bus-based IRPTN model; subject to certain minimum requirements and national policy as explained in Section 5. The main types of infra-structure as defined in Section 4.1.3 are hereby listed:(Lloyd Wright : Walter Hook 2007)  Busways  Bus Terminals and Station  Bus Depots  Traffic Control Systems It is suggested that MA gives the following factors are the focus of deciding on infra-structure provision and sizing of components in descending order:  Demand or predicted utilisation of facilities by commuters, staff or vehicles .i.e. Capacity.  Cost of construction and maintenance  LOS to commuters; it is of particular importance that a high standard is achieved to ensure a car- competitive IRPT system.  Life cycle Costs and benefits of system which includes environment effects, urban regeneration and not only financial expenses of materials. 6.1.1 Capacity considerations Capacity is defined in the Highway Capacity Manual (2000) as the maximum hourly rate at which persons or vehicle can be expected to transverse a uniform section of a facility under a fixed certain of conditions during a certain time interval. The Figure 6-1 “How much space required?” gives a quick indicator for planners for the space requirement for mode. The numbers are based on data from projects implemented in developed countries and Malaysia. Figure 6-1 How much space is required? Based on data from: (http://transitmy.com/2011/03/12/is-greater-kl-ready-to-become-a-livable-world-class-city/ ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 pedestrian bike bus brt car 2 7 9 12 121 AreaperTraveller(sq.meters) Transport Modes Space required per passenger for Each Mode pedestrian bike bus brt car
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-19 It is important for the MA to determine maximum volume and utilisation rates of each type of facility using prescribed methods (Section 5.3 “Demand Analysis”) and to allow for reasonable future growth in usage and urban development. All facilities must be designed to accommodate peak flows safely while maintaining an acceptable LOS to users. 6.1.2 Bus Way Network The busways network as defined in section 4.1.2 must reflect hierarchy among different modes and routes. Applications of rapid transit network in: Northern, Western and Australian medium sized cities have consistently shown that planning hierarchy in to the network will enable the PT service to achieve door-to- door travel performance comparable or better than private car. (Nielsen,Mees) This means MA must ensure that HOV modes such as BRT or BHLS are given priority in along PT network and corridors by segregation from main traffic and bus signal priority especially at peak times. 6.1.3 Coverage The issue is major consideration in design og the propsed PT system as coverage should be set as all areas or dwellings within 800m of a bus station or IRPTN terminal(Refer to Strategic objectives Section 5.1). Figure 6-2 Four Common Urban Area Forms (Left) and Typical Trunk-Feeder PT Service Network The Figure 6-1 PT Service Coverage has indicators which can used to assess the accessibility of PT service the users and potential users. Since this represents a disutility to the commuter it must be minimised as much as is reasonably possible. Table 6-1 PT Service Coverage LOS
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-20 Thus, the MA must note that according to this scale it needs to aim to provide a LOS B at least; to conform to current PT legislation in this regard. 6.1.4 Placement and Alignment There mainly two options available to the MA in terms of busways. Examples of each scenario are shown in Fig 6-3 “Median Busway Placement” and Fig 6.4 “Example of a proposed Curbside PT system for a section of Chicago, USA”. Figure 6-3 Median Busway Placement Figure 6-4 Example of a proposed curbside PT system for a section of Chicago, USA (http://www.transitchicago.com/assets/1/brt/1wab-curbside.jpg) Each of the above configurations has distinct advantages .The Median Placement is the preferred option because it provides clear identification for the BRT portion the IRPTN and good operational reliability. The curbside placement would be advised for the feeder portion of the network.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-21 The Fig 6-6 “Secondary Effects of Location of Busway” illustrates the role of PT service placement in instigating modal shift towards the new PT system.It justifies the need for the MA to implement and enforce busways(Lee et al. n.d.). Figure 6-5 Secondary Effects of Location of Busway 6.1.5 Materials and Markings This pertains to surface colouration of busways and actually surfacing of road way. Given the higher axle loads and frequency of use specialised bituminous mixture or thin reinforce concrete must be sought within the constraint of the project budget and local environmental condition. Colouring of busways surface is recommended for two reasons: positive public perception of the rapid transit brand and to create greater awareness to other road users of the systems designated spaces. 6.1.6 Railway Network The principles of provision of Railway infra-structure remain similar to the bus-based IRPTN but may require a process of land appropriation in some section like Gautrain project and underground service relocation. Opportunities exist for integrating modes where sufficiently high volumes justify the relatively high cost and complicated process of rail construction.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-22 6.1.7 Vehicles All vehicles that are procured for the proposed PT system must comply with the provisions related to vehicle on pneumatic tires in PART V of the Road Traffic Act of 1996(GCIS-RSA 2010). In brief it address among other details and specification: 1. Maximum axle load for BRT buses particularly and all other approved vehicles 2. Dimensions of approved vehicle .i.e. max and minimum Overhangs 3. Maximum number of standing and sitting passengers The procurement team of MA should familiarise themselves with these regulation and prepare tender documents accordingly and ensure that PT fleet is maintained in roadworthy condition as stipulated by regulation 128 to 148 in PART VI of the above Act. In addition to regulatory requirement there should be compatibility between the vehicle chosen to a particular route, the route’s infra-structure and the user demographic or profile. IRT implies level or at-grade boarding to allow for universal access; for example high platform buses must be used along trunk corridors where stations are most likely to be of such dimensions. Figure 6-6 Low Floor Bus in use in London((National Transport Authority) 2012) Figure 6-7 High Floor Bus in Use in Johannesburg's Rea Vaya
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-23 6.1.8 Station Design IRT terminals and bus stations (in this case) are multi-purpose transit installations because they offer opportunities for :  Urban renewal and beautification  Brand Reinforcement  User information distribution and collection. Therefore this section provides guidelines and some key considerations for the proposed IRT’s stations and terminals. Firstly, the Bus Rapid Practitioners Guide and PTS concur that IRT must be permanent structures; weather- protected which are convenient, safe and universally accessible. According to the BRT Planning guide (2007) the image projected by modern architecture of IRT stations can help win over new users by reinforcing the perception of a new and effective PT system(Lloyd Wright : Walter Hook 2007)(Lee et al. n.d.). Figure 6-8 An IRT station, greened surroundings and signage Figure 6-9 A bus stop with a full ticketing pre-purchasing facility, Zürich, Switzerland.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-24 6.1.8.1 Spacing The exercise of station spacing and placement must seek to minimise accessibility cost or disutility to users while maximising IRT operating speed. This is illustrated in Fig 6-8 which shows that the further apart the stations the higher commercial operating speed (COS) that can be reached by the system(Lee et al. n.d.). Figure 6-10 the relationship between operating speed (commercial speed), station spacing and maximum speed. The relation between the COS and spacing means that along trunk the stations and terminal must be placed far apart as possible but this can reconsider depending on the main arrival mode to the station. In areas where pedestrian arrivals are common the spacing must adhere to PTS (2007-2020) stipulation of commuter areas with a radius of no more 800m. The type of Busways (kerbside or median) and urban population density must be carefully accounted for because they determine the degree to which the arrival mode must be provided for .Fig 6-10 shows a typical median IRT station set up designed for easy pedestrian access with grade separation from motor traffic. Such infra-structure is required for areas found to have high volumes. Figure 6-11 Typical Median Station Set-up
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-25 6.1.9 Station Capacity The stations dimensions determine the number of passengers it can handles in comfort and safely with a time interval. Depending on the detailed service plan formulated to cater to the commuters by the MA; it is important the infra-structure at each station can process both the passenger and the IRT vehicles otherwise it can lead to queuing of bus at the station which is detrimental to system capacity .i.e. bottleneck. The Bus Rapid Transit Guide and the BRT Practitioners Guide give detailed method of calculating platform dimensions in relation to passenger numbers expected. Below in Fig 6-12 “Bus Berth Configurations”are some multiple bay configurations especially for major nodes to allow for simultaneous loading of different buses(Barker et al. 2003). Figure 6-12 Bus Berth Configurations 6.2 Traffic planning and Engineering This section outlines some critical operational recommendations relating to traffic planning and control. Firstly, it is recommended that a IRT network hierarchy of routes is established; the following are categories suggested:  Premium / Trunk Routes mainly along highway or major arterials  Core Routes on main urban roads  Feeder Networks Each of the above should have minimum operational standards such in terms of operating speed and reliability targets which must clearly defined by the MA.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-26 6.2.1 Commercial Speed The commercial operating speed of the IRPTN is a critical parameter in ensuring rapid transit .i.e. reducing travel times. The ability of the system to maintain relatively high and consistent travel speeds means its reliability is improved .The following table is based on the highest feasible speeds of BRT systems such as the TransMilenio® (Bogota, Colombia)((worcestershire county council) 2007): Table 6-2 Commercial Speed and Reliability Targets Network Route Class Target Speed Reliability Target Premium Route +35km/h 1 min deviation in bus arrivals time Core 25km/h At least a bus every 10mins Feeder Route 20km/h Adjusted to local demand 6.2.2 Bus Priority Measures The adoption of priority of PT services is important to ensure schedule adherence and punctuality of service. These measures protect the reliability of the PT service from the delays caused by traffic congestion and traffic signal delay. Below are some applicable techniques for achieve public transit priority: Passive Priority Techniques these refers to minor adjustments that must made to traffic signal timings such a general increase in green times for PT operations along routes and minimising phases to guarantee a slight bias toward public transport modes. Active Priority Measures are more deliberate techniques such as dedicated bus lanes to separated buses from mixed traffic. From a traffic signal point of view these include bus actuated or adjusted signal timings which advance or increase the green phase of the signal when a bus or tram is detected. Real time Priority are linked a system of ITS technologies such as Automatic Vehicle Location(AVL), GPS, Radio Frequency transmission and Vehicle Actuated Signal which take the buses schedule and other vehicle into consideration therefore signal priority is only given when bus is running late. This can operated from a central control centre e.g. Traffic Management Centre (Goodwood, Cape Town) or by the driver like London’s iBus System illustrated in Figure 6-13 below.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-27 Figure 6-13 London's iBus System Operation Schematic
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-28 6.3 Passenger Information and ITS Intelligent Transport Systems as described in Section 4 have a broad range of applications in IRPTNs .The transit information is a vital part of the system. Some of the readily applicable areas of this PT system are:  Traffic control and management especially in terms of Bus Signal Priority (BSP)  Passenger Information and communication in through various forms like Passenger Information Display (PIDs). This section on the passenger information systems (PIS) will provide guidance on the type of data and information that should be disseminated and in some cases be obtained. Figure 6-14 A Passenger Information Display in use at the University Of Cape Town's shuttle stops. Source: (https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS6bdjsDMjZYQLpKzE_F6PbyJbcQjohuF768nWzddBSfe7EDJtM) Fundamentally the MA must satisfy the commuters need to know the following information shown in Table: Table 6-3 Operator Information Requirements PT Parameter of Interest Measure Recommended Media Reliability - Timetable, Route Maps and Monthly Reports Frequent service Headway(mins) Timetables :  In brochure form  Website and electronic platforms  At bus stations and info kiosks  PIDs Safety and cleanliness - Advertising and marketing through appropriate medium e.g. radio and television about security measure and hotspots. Service hours - Timetable and Regular Advertising Cost and savings Fare Price(ZAR) Timetables and Route Maps The MA must recognise that the commuter’s first interaction with the PT is the information about the system and therefore makes a decision whether to proceed with using the IRT based on this. Hence, it presents an opportunity to promote the IPTNs image and win over choice users and increase LOS for regular users.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-29 The commuter experience and information requirements can be summarised in the Table 6-3 “commuter information need and prescribed mediums” below: Table 6-4 Commuter's Information Needs and Prescribed Mediums Trip Stage Information Required Recommended Medium Pre-Trip  Service times and operating hours  Service Frequency: when?  Coverage: where does it go?  Price: fare or how much?  Periodical Brochure  Route Maps  internet  Cell-phone Apps/Widgets Departure Node/Station  Service Frequency: when is the next bus?  Punctual (Real-time): is it delayed?  Bus number: is the right bus?  PIDs  Bulletin Board  Cell-phone Apps/Widgets During Trip  Trip duration: how long to destination?  Expected time of arrival(ETA)  Location relative to destination.  Information of connecting service .i.e. for transferring commuters.  On-board PID and VMS  Cellphone technologies Destination Node/Terminal  Availability of connecting service?  Travel information of area? E.g. car or bicycle rentals.  Route Maps  Information Kiosks  Cell-phone Apps/Widgets Universal Information; It is essential that all the above information made accessible to all commuters including the disabled commuters by using multiple channels of communications such audio ,visual and tactile(blind).For example voice notification of stops along routes to help blind passengers.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Implementation 6-30 Figure 6-15 an automated information and ticket booth Source: (http://www.hudsonvalleytraveler.com/images/kiosk.jpg) It is strongly advised that MA establishes a common standard for all forms of communication to ensure uniformity in the brand identity and recognisability among users. From the PT operators perspective the critical information needed is summarised: Information Required Recommended Collection Frequency Method of Collection Customer Satisfaction Monthly or at least Quarterly  Surveys & Questionnaires  Suggestion Boxes Safety and Cleanliness Monthly  Police Crime Statistics & Customer Complaints  Service Hotline for reporting Service Usage/Demand Daily  Ticketing Sale Statistics from kiosks & vendors  Workers Feedback Revenue Collected Daily  Ticketing Sale Statistics from kiosks, vendors and ticket machines. Resource Utilisation At least Quarterly  Workers Feedback Figure 6-16 BRT Monitoring System and AVL Display (York, Ontario) The consultants further advise the installation of Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) systems to help the real- time location, incident management and communication of PT vehicles schedule adherence.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Marketing and Communication 7-31 7 Marketing and Communication The continued increase in private car ownership particularly in urban areas can be attributed to a steady growth in income levels and aggressive marketing by car manufacturers and retailers. This means that a clear and strong marketing strategy is a critical component of the proposed PT. 7.1 Social Engineering The MA firstly recognise that overall PT suffers from negative perception by the public but this pessimism is reversible through a consistent and innovative marketing and brand building exercise to achieve;  Obtain political support from government and community representatives to secure project funding and approval.  Increased ridership of BRT and feeder services by attracting new commuters from competing modes like private cars especially when implemented. This system must attract up to 25% of choice users.  Maintain existing users thus informing about the systems changes and dissuading them from shifting to private car use. The primary objective of this marketing strategy is to instigate modal shift to IRT by enhancing positive perception of PT among all members of the public. 7.2 Brand Building & Awareness The initial step in marketing the IRT brand is to identify the target market and clearly define the core values and benefits of the PT service. From the Section 8.1 above the following target groups emerge: Table 7-1 IRT Target Groups and Communication Stages Target Group Critical Communication Stage Government officials, politicians and community representations. Project inception and preparation. Potential Existing and/Captive users Throughout IRT project implementation process Choices users Project inception and launch. The brand awareness and building process can divided into four categories base on a survey of best practices:  Product Differentiation  Value and Service Actualisation  Brand Establishment  Image and Brand Consistency Product Differentiation simply means that the MA and its representatives must define the core values on the new PT system and its advantages over conventional modes. These values include rapid, reliable, convenient, safe, informative and comfortable transit service. Every aspect of the IRT system must therefore embody these values from staff, plans, procedures and operations. Value and Service Actualisation means that the MA’s planning teams, staff and eventually operators must deliver the promised quality service and endeavour to march or exceed customer expectations. This includes among other matters; transparency and promptness in responding to queries about system and awarding of tenders relating to project. Brand Establishment means that the major elements of the IRT system must leveraged to act as platforms to communicate persuasively to the commuters and potential users. These elements are the IRT’s vehicles, staff and infra-structure e.g. busways, stations and terminals.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Marketing and Communication 7-32 This means the IRT’s unique name; logos and associated graphics must be used appropriately to mark roadways, stations, terminals and advertisements to emphasise its superior quality of service from other modes and promote a positive awareness. This point is illustrated in the Figs 8-1 to 8-3 below. Figure 7-1 The ReaVaya Logo and its Branding on a BRT Bus. Source: (http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/feb2011/20110217_reavaya.jpg) Figure 7-2 the Rea Vaya Logo on Staff Uniform and a Temporary Ticket. Source: (http://blogs.timeslive.co.za/hartley/2009/08/31/rea-vaya-taxis-adopt-duh-strategy/) Figure 7-3 the Rea Vaya Branding on an IRT station in Johannesburg. Source: by Maneno.org from (http://thecityfix.com/blog/rea-vaya-on-the-move-in-joburg-south-africa/)
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Marketing and Communication 7-33 Service Image and Brand Consistency this means that all branding and marketing associated with the IRT must be uniform and integrated into the urban landscape to enhance the aesthetics of both the system and surrounding environs. The MA marketing and user information systems must adhere to common standards for fonts, colour schemes and design elements to ensure the users and public quickly associate such materials with the positive values of the IRT. This will help make recognisable and for the public to seek association with and take ownership of the brand. Generally, all information and marketing tools such as route map, timetables and brochures must aim to be:  User-friendly which means they must be easily understood by user of all ages, ability , literacy, level and language especially in south Africa’ s multi-ethnic urban context. Furthermore user information must be placed strategically at decision points such as bus stops, interchanges and in vehicles.  High Quality: the materials used should be robust enough to withstand local conditions without needing excessive maintenance regimes and vandal proof.  Public Engagement: the consultant and client need to provide for effective systems of customer feedback and participation. This is to ensure the message is reaching the target groups and also to help the MA to be responsive to commuter requirements as they change with time. Figure 7-4 Suggestion box and Branded Form on Rea Vaya IRT In addition to conventional channels of communications such as multimedia advertising and community forums. New and innovative ways of engaging younger users (14 – 27 years) must be actively sought and used. These mediums include the internet and electronic social networks like Facebook© and Twitter© which are cost effective ways to reach wide audiences and relay real-time information.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Costs and Financial Considerations 8-34 8 Costs and Financial Considerations This is the final section of the guidelines and it deals with the financial aspects of the IRPTN .It is envisioned that the majority of the capital costs of initial construction of IRTN infra-structure will from PTIF and National Government grants. 8.1 Contracting Framework The NTLA in Chapter 5 sections 40 to 45 mandates provincial and municipal authorities to integrate PT services into larger publicly managed services and appropriate contracted services .i.e. paratransit operations such MBTs under the authority of respective Local Municipal Authorities. Furthermore to this; the NTLA has empowered the MAs to the contracting authority for the metropolitan IPTN services. Therefore can enter into the following contract types: Table 8-1 Stipulated Contract Types for Municipal Authorities Contract Type Maximum Tenure Recommended Acquisition Method Negotiated Contract (NTLA Ch.05,Section 41 a & b ) 12 years Tender* Subsidised Service Contract 7-12 years Tender / Pre-qualification* Commercial Service Contract 7 years Tender* *former taxi owners and operator must have a majority stake in IPTN operations through by allowing them to tender through their formal private entities. The consultant hereby recommend that in addition to the usual contract specifications of route networks, vehicle conditions and fares the contracts for operations of IPTN routes must include a system of incentives for exceptional performance ,customer service and penalties for failure to comply with specifications.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Costs and Financial Considerations 8-35 8.2 Fare Calculation There five main fare calculation options available to the MA and each have its own distinct advantages and disadvantages. The common PT fare types are;  Free Fare  Flat Fare  Distance based Fare  Zonal Based Fare  Time Based fare Free- Fare can help achieve the social equity goals of the MA but it may negatively impact the financial sustainability of the system by making it totally dependent on government subsidy; this would make the IRPTN vulnerable to political interference and agendas. It is therefore recommended it be limited to feeder service in particular low income areas to promote access to IRT trunk routes and terminals. It is the option most likely to instigate large modal shifts as has been reported in the case of the Belgian city of Hasselt which managed to accomplish a 1000% spike in ridership and 25% of these new users were attracted from private car mode. Flat Fares can help commuters from the fringes of the metropolitan who are typically from lower income groups have to make the longer commutes to access social amenities and economic opportunities. Therefore the flat fare can act as a cross subsidy among income groups. Distance based Fare is the most favourable to achieving financial sustainability of the proposed IPTN system .i.e. it allows for cost recovery given that cost of operation is proportional to the distance covered and frequency of service. This system penalises those who live further from economic activity hubs such as lower income groups who tend to live on the outskirts of the municipality. Zonal Fares are widely accepted to be simple for the user since it is effectively a flat fare within intra-xbut it carries the disadvantage of penalising those who live far from economic opportunities or on the Zonal boundaries. Time based fares can help effect TDM by discouraging users to travel during peak times and has been applied with some degree of success in the Transantiango™ and TransJakarta™ systems. Since the fare varies according to peak and off-peak times. As illustrated by Fig 9-1 as the fare increases the demand reduces which implies ridership decrease with or without organisational changes. Figure 8-1 Fare Vs. Demand: An Inverse Relationship
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Costs and Financial Considerations 8-36 Based on the available options it is highly recommended that feeder routes in lower income areas apply a free fare and a distance based system which is partly balanced for to accommodate commuters from the municipalities’ peripheral areas. In determining the actual fare to users the consultant prescribes the concept of a technical fare which is the actual cost per commuter of providing the service. The technical fare is the sum of the following main components and divided by the projected users of the IPTN but can be expanded to suit the specific final arrangements of operators’ remuneration:  Total estimated operational costs for truck operators: this must be based on the total kilometres travelled by operators.  Feeder operator: this can be based on number of passengers using service daily.  Fare collection costs  IRT Administration costs 8.2.1 Subsidy Structure The IRPN has to balance the need to financially sustainable and viable with the need to address the legacy of Apartheid town planning polices and social inequality; these realities frame the context of service delivery in every South African urban area. The consultants recommend a system of passive user differentiation. In view of the fact; that electronic payments system will be used on this IRT. The consultants suggest the integration of the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) Card with the IRT fare collection so that users get a specific discount or subsidy on fare possibly 20% to 80%. Therefore the system will be able to differentiate fare paying ability of a particular user especially those from the lowest income segments in a discreet manner. Figure 8-2 SASSA Debit Card used by Welfare beneficiaries http://www.sassa.gov.za/images/gallery/NEW%20CARD%2005%20MARCH%202012%20P.jpg.ashx The application of this system of passive user differentiation can help reduce the financial burden of catering to low income users by sharing the subsidy among the SASSA ,MA and Provincial Government in proportions still to be negotiated.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Costs and Financial Considerations 8-37 8.3 Fare Collection The primary objective of the fare collection must be to achieve integration of modes in the IRPTN, ease of use and financial integrity of the fare collection process. There a wide range of on-board and off-board fare collection systems. The use of electronic fare collection systems is hereby recommended. In the design of the IRT a priority must be given to the use off-board fare collection. This is because it offers the best performance in terms of reducing passenger processing times hence reducing dwell times. The also reduce the occurrence of fare evasion and collector dishonesty. Examples of fare collections systems are shown in the Figures below. Figure 8-3 On-board Fare Collection http://www.emlines.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=93&Itemid=109 Figure 8-4 Electronic Card based Off-Board Collection http://images.avisian.com/mdt_border_small.gif Provision of electronic fare collection systems implies that stations will have a closed design (see Fig 8-3 and Section 6.1.8 “Station Design”) though this may be more costly in initial phase it offers better comfort and safety to passengers. Ultimately, it reinforces compliance with the government’s model for PT as stipulated in the PTS (2007).
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Conclusion 9-38 9 Conclusion Based on the foregoing information and recommendations, the following set of conclusions can be drawn: 9.1 Inadequate Public transport system and Facilities The current state of public transport and urban mobility in the given municipality is unsustainable. Public transit facilities in many areas are rudimentary if non-existent. There is a lack of provision for the disabled and senior citizens. In addition to these factors; poor road safety record of public transport carriers especially mini- bus taxis have contributed to making mass transit modes undesirable to customers. 9.2 Establishment of a customer-centred public transport is needed The establishment of quality customer-centred public transport system in the form of an IRPTN is needed for this municipality. This means that with proper operation of the proposed IRPTN the passenger travel experience will be improved because the will have rapid travel .i.e. shortened commuting and waiting times ; they will also be able to comfortable and secure facilities which are accessible to them. These aforementioned features will made public transit a viable alternative to private car travel which is less efficient and exacerbates the traffic congestion, travel delays, air and noise pollution which are endemic in the city. This coupled with car restrictive measure such as reduction in inner city parking and instituting congestion charging in the worst traffic delay zones or routes. 9.3 Prioritise Public Transport The most feasible IRPTN model must be bus-based since this can be fully implemented within a 1- 5 year time frame with phased roll-outs. This means that bus priority schemes such as segregated bus lanes, traffic signal priority for late buses must be instituted; provision of associated inter-modal facilities for non- motorised travel modes is essential. This will help make PT modes reliable and rapid which can also increase the capacity of the system. This implies that in association with other quality measures; modal shift towards PT can be instigated. 9.4 System Information flow is critical Information about the system operation is going to be an integral part of this IRPTN. Information is vital part of the system both for the operators and the users. The operators need to information like the accurate location of vehicles, their state and customer requirements. This helps the operators make refine the network and adjust the IRPTNs resource according to the evolving customer requirements. Customers on the other hand need information particularly about their trips such as: availability of service, price, frequency and route map. This helps users make informed decisions which can increase level of service by decreasing waiting times at stops at stop and help to plan their commutes in the way that most suits them. 9.5 Provision of staff training and security personnel Every aspect of the PT system must embody the core values it strives for which include: efficiency, transparency, swiftness and customer care. Therefore, staff must be trained about customer service in addition to their respective skills. It is important that staffs are excellent brand ambassadors as they are the human interface of the system.
  • PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING GUIDELINES FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN URBAN TRANSIT SYSTEM Friedrich Chitauka | Conclusion 9-39 Security personnel must be provided at all major stations and specific crime hot stops; free emergency phones at smaller stops need to installed as part of the specifications during construction. 9.6 Determined and focused Marketing is essential Marketing campaigns both passive and direct need to be formulated and implemented in parallel with the construction of the IRPTN. The main purpose of this is promote the a positive image of public transport across all travel socio-economic segments and stake holders such as government officials. This effort will pay dividends as the promotion of and emphasis of the benefits of quality public transit is likely to attract new users and retain captive user alike. Hence, marketing and brand building will translate into increased ridership and revenues from the PT for the MA. 9.7 Financial Sustainability of System is achievable and important A distance based fare calculation with subsidy measures on particular routes only is the most financially sustainable solution. It offers a balance between service cost recovery and social equity objectives of the system. Electronic fare collection systems though initially costly are highly recommended from an information collection point of view and to eliminate fare payment evasion and losses. Every measure should be taken to enhance financial self-sufficiency especially to cover operational costs; to prevent a dependency on national government even for daily system expenses.
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