By: Patrick Perche, Elizabeth Kelley, and Jamie Horne
What isgestational diabetes?•A type ofdiabetes thatwomen getduringpregnancy.• Pregnancyhormones canblock insulinfrom doing itsjob.
Insulin A hormone that lowers the level of glucose in the blood. Made by the beta cells of the pancreas and released into the blood when the glucose level goes up.
Who is affected? Women during pregnancy 1 in 5 pregnant women have gestational diabetes More common in pregnant women over the age of 25 More likely in Hispanic, Black, Native American, or Asian women More likely in overweight/obese mothers The child can also be affected
Causes Older than 25 when you are pregnant Gave birth to a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds Baby has a birth defect High blood pressure Too much amniotic fluid Previous unexplained miscarriage or stillbirth Overweight before pregnancy Family history of diabetes
Symptoms Usually there are no symptoms, or the symptoms are very mild. However symptoms may include: -Blurred vision -Fatigue -Frequent infections, including those of the bladder, vagina, and skin -Increased thirst -Increased urination -Nausea and vomiting -Weight loss despite increased appetite
How do you KNOW? Usually starts about halfway through pregnancy All pregnant women should receive an oral glucose tolerance test -Oral glucose tolerance test: laboratory method to check how the body breaks down (metabolizes) sugar. Once diagnosed, test glucose at home by pricking your finger with a glucose reading machine.
Monitoring Blood Sugar Levels The goal of monitoring is to keep your blood sugar as close to normal as possible. These ranges include: Time of Test Target Blood Sugar Reading Before Breakfast Plasma: below 105. Whole blood: below 952 Hours after Meals Plasma: below 95. Whole blood: below 120
Treatment Watching your Baby Diet and Exercise -check size and health of -eat a well planned diet baby through ultrasound to have the right balance and nonstress tests of proteins, fats, and -nonstress test: machine carbs hears and displays baby’s -exercise allows your heart rate and compares body to use glucose pattern of heartbeat to without extra insulin movements
Expectations Most are able to control the disease and avoid harm to themselves and their baby Larger babies at birth Birth injury because of large size Delivery by c-section Baby is more likely to have hypoglycemia (periods of low blood sugar) during the first few days of life
How will it affect your baby? If your baby is too overweight, it can lead to macrosomia -macrosomia: “big baby syndrome”; fetus is abnormally large Overweight in childhood and adulthood Chances if jaundice are increased
Complications Delivery-related complications due to the infants large size Development of diabetes later in life Increased risk of newborn death and stillbirth Low blood sugar or illness in the newborn
Prevention Beginning prenatal care Knowing the risk factors Prenatal screening at 24-28 weeks pregnant Losing weight before getting pregnant
Nutrition Basics for Women with Gestational Diabetes•3 small meals and 2-3small snacks•Less carbs at breakfast•Choose foods high infiber•Choose foods with lesssugar and fat•Drink 8 cups of liquidper day•Get enough vitaminsand minerals
Sources Storck, S. (2011, October 12). Gestational diabetes: Glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001898 Definition of Insulin. (2010, July 25). Retrieved from http://www.babycenter.com/0_gestationaldiabetes_2058.bc Health and Pregnancy. Gestational diabetes- Treatment Overview. (2011, March 7) Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/baby/tc/gestational-diabetes-treatment- overview Marin, Lucian (2008,November) Retrieved from http://fatbabies.wordpress.com/ Kassir, Kari (2011, September) Macrosomia. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.med.nyu.edu/conditions-we-treat/conditions/macrosomia Wooley, Elizabeth (2001, November 1) Nutritional Basics for Women with Gestational Diabetes. Retrieved from http://www.diabeticmommy.com/34-gestational-diabetes- diet.html WebMD (2005-2012) Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes. Retrieved from http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/gestational_diabetes?page=3 American Diabetes Association (1995-2012) Gestational Diabetes. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetesbasics/gestational/?cr=redcpcggfreeinformationgestati onal&gclid=CPToudaCt64CFQpU7AodfV2enw