Baby’s brain development and literacy

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  • Example of learning new words from context: horrible, terrible, awful
  • Example of learning new words from context: horrible, terrible, awful
  • Baby’s brain development and literacy

    1. 1. Baby’s Brain, Language Development and Literacy:<br />What Every Caregiver Needs to Know<br />Peggy Sissel-Phelan, Ed.D., M.A.<br />Founder and President<br />
    2. 2. Introduction<br /><ul><li>Brain development from birth to age three
    3. 3. Language development
    4. 4. Emergent literacy skills and school readiness;
    5. 5. How does language and literacy impact children’s dddd health and well-being
    6. 6. Practice issues
    7. 7. THE solution to educational disparity</li></li></ul><li>Overview of the Brain <br /><ul><li> Part of the central nervous system
    8. 8. Controls many bodily </li></ul> functions<br /> Voluntary<br /> Involuntary <br /><ul><li> 2 hemispheres</li></ul> 4 lobes<br /> Many folds<br /><ul><li> Different parts, </li></ul>Why folds?<br />different purposes<br />
    9. 9. Overview of the Brain <br /><ul><li> 100 Billion brain cells at birth
    10. 10. Brain cells are “raw” materials —a </li></ul> - a framework <br /><ul><li>Parts of the brain</li></ul> at different times<br /><ul><li> Predictable sequence,</li></ul> - “developmental <br />materials<br />mature<br />milestones”<br />
    11. 11. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />100 Billion brain cells (neurons)<br />Newborn<br />Brain Weight - Grams<br />
    12. 12. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />100 Billion brain cells (neurons)<br />6 months<br />Brain Weight - Grams<br />
    13. 13. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />100 Billion brain cells (neurons)<br />1 year<br />Brain Weight - Grams<br />
    14. 14. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />100 Billion brain cells (neurons)<br /> 24 months <br />Brain Weight - Grams<br />
    15. 15. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />100 Billion brain cells (neurons)<br /> 36 months<br />Brain Weight - Grams<br />
    16. 16. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />100 Billion brain cells (neurons)<br />36 months<br />Newborn<br /> 24 months <br />6 months<br />12 months<br />Brain Weight - Grams<br />
    17. 17. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />100 Billion brain cells (neurons)<br />WHAT!<br />There are still <br />100 Billion brain cells!<br />(only)<br />What Changed?<br />It grows 3 and a half times its original size!<br />Brain Weight - Grams<br />
    18. 18. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />A Brain Cell<br />Cell body<br />Dendrites<br />Axon<br />
    19. 19. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />Brain Cells Connect <br /><ul><li> The number of neurons remains relatively stable
    20. 20. Each cell becomes bigger and heavier
    21. 21. Dendrites branch out to receive signals from other neurons.</li></li></ul><li>Baby’s Growing Brain<br />Growing Connections<br />
    22. 22. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />Growing Connections<br />A child’s environment has enormous impact on what happens to those cells.<br />Early experiences set the stage for how children will learn and interact with others throughout life. <br />A child’s experiences, good or bad, influence the wiring of his brain and the connection in his nervous system.<br />
    23. 23. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />Making Connections<br /><ul><li> The brain’s “wiring” is created over time.
    24. 24. Stimulation and experience plays a crucial role in “wiring” a </li></ul> young child’s brain.<br /><ul><li> If the connections are not used repeatedly, or often enough, </li></ul> they are eliminated.<br />
    25. 25. Baby’s Growing Brain<br />Making Connections<br /><ul><li> Use it or lose it!
    26. 26. Applies to all areas of the brain/body . . . </li></ul> Motor functions<br /> Balance and coordination<br /> Vision<br /> Cognition<br /> Emotion<br /> Language <br />
    27. 27. Language Development<br /><ul><li> All normal, healthy babies learn to talk.
    28. 28. All do not get the same stimulation.
    29. 29. Repetition is critical when learning language.
    30. 30. Strengthening and expanding the connections help in</li></ul> learning more words<br />For example . . . <br />
    31. 31. Again, again, again!<br />What do you say . . .<br />When the parent says: “I’m going crazy! He wants to hear the same book over and over.”<br />That’s how baby learns.<br />
    32. 32. Language Development<br /><ul><li> At every reading, something new is learned
    33. 33. Words and language are the foundation of all learning
    34. 34. But – not just any words
    35. 35. Not flash cards, memorization, television
    36. 36. Importance of “rich” language environment</li></li></ul><li>Language Development<br />What is a Rich Language Environment?<br />RICH<br />POOR<br /><ul><li> Responds to baby’s cues, moods
    37. 37. Talk to and with baby
    38. 38. Lots of laptime, facetime
    39. 39. Songs, story telling
    40. 40. Word play – rhymes, silly sounds
    41. 41. Reading, sharing books
    42. 42. Didactic dialog/interaction
    43. 43. Hears complex vocabulary</li></ul> regularly<br /><ul><li> Encourage to ask questions
    44. 44. Attends to child’s basic needs
    45. 45. Talk “ at ” baby
    46. 46. Placed in baby seat
    47. 47. Little personal interaction
    48. 48. Put in front of TV
    49. 49. No age-appropriate books
    50. 50. One way communication
    51. 51. Hears mainly TV, music, </li></ul> sounds in room<br /><ul><li> Told to hush</li></li></ul><li>Language Development<br />A Rich Language Environment: <br />Why Does It Matter?<br /><ul><li>By two years of age, children’s vocabulary correlates with later cognitive performance
    52. 52. Low-income status significantly predicts children’s exposure to language (Bloom, 1998)</li></li></ul><li>Language & Literacy<br />A Rich Language Environment: <br />Why Does It Matter?<br /> Children’s language evolves primarily through <br /> parent-child interactions <br />Literacy develops in real life settings for real life activities<br /> Literacy acquisition begins before formal instruction<br />
    53. 53. Language Development<br />
    54. 54. Language and Literacy<br />Reading to Baby = More Words<br /> Twice as many verbal exchanges<br /> Twice as many words<br /> Increased number of unusual and complex words<br /> Greater complexity of sentence structure<br />
    55. 55. Language and Literacy<br />Reading = Cognitive Development<br /> Memory<br /> Creativity<br /> Comprehension<br /> Vocabulary and Language development<br /> Each ensures that connections persist<br />
    56. 56. Language & Literacy<br />Reading Aloud<br /><ul><li> Critical to child’s brain development and healthy outcomes
    57. 57. Age-appropriate books are key developmental tools
    58. 58. Builds “emergent literacy skills.” These are:</li></ul>How and why we use written words in daily life<br /> Holding books <br /> Listening to <br /> Pointing at<br /> Interacting with the book<br />
    59. 59. Language & Literacy<br />Early Literacy Experiences<br /><ul><li> These skills are necessary precursors to “real” reading
    60. 60. Essential for formal reading instruction.
    61. 61. Not been read to regularly = Not ready for school.</li></ul>Guess What?<br />What percentage of families in poverty have no books in the home?<br /> How often are children read to from birth to age 5?<br />25 1,500<br />60%<br />
    62. 62. Language and Literacy<br />Reading Aloud and School Readiness<br />Less than 3<br /> times weekly<br />3 or more <br />times weekly<br />Percent of Children<br /> Recognize Count Write Pretend Master<br /> All Letters to 20 Name to Read 3-4 Skills<br /> /Tell Story<br />
    63. 63. Literacy Development<br />Risky Business<br /><ul><li>Children at risk for reading difficulties are those who start school with:
    64. 64. lower verbal skills
    65. 65. less phonological awareness
    66. 66. less letter knowledge
    67. 67. less familiarity with the processes of reading</li></li></ul><li>Literacy Development<br />Risky Business<br /><ul><li> Nationally, 35% of first graders are labeled as “slow” and placed in remedial reading programs.
    68. 68. Dyslexia—prevalence 4-10%
    69. 69. Most of these children, who are not dyslexic, remain in these programs throughout school.
    70. 70. Creates a vicious cycle for school failure and failure in life.</li></li></ul><li>Literacy Development<br />Risky Business<br /><ul><li>In general, children living in poverty:
    71. 71. Are 1.3 times more likely to exhibit developmental delays
    72. 72. Are 1.4 times more likely to be diagnosed with a learning disability
    73. 73. Are 2 times more likely to repeat a grade</li></li></ul><li>Literacy Development<br />Percent of 4th Grade Children with <br />Reading Difficulties - by Income<br />(NCES 2003)<br />< 185% poverty > 185% of poverty<br />
    74. 74. Literacy and Life<br />The Effects of Low Literacy<br /><ul><li> Low Literacy and Poverty
    75. 75. Low Literacy and Poor Health Status
    76. 76. Low Literacy and Mental Health</li></li></ul><li>Literacy Development<br />Reading is Doctor Recommended<br />

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