Unit testing after Zend Framework 1.8

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Zend Framework 1.8 changed internally, making it easier to fully test your controllers, forms, models and datatabase integration with PHPUnit.

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Unit testing after Zend Framework 1.8

  1. 1. Unit Testing after ZF 1.8 Michelangelo van Dam PHPBenelux Meeting September 2010, Rijswijk (NL)
  2. 2. Michelangelo van Dam • Independent Consultant • Zend Certified Engineer (ZCE) - PHP 4 & PHP 5 - Zend Framework • Co-Founder of PHPBenelux • Shepherd of “elephpant” herds
  3. 3. This session What’s changed with ZF 1.8 ? How do we set up our environment ? How are we testing controllers ? How are we testing forms ? How are we testing models ?
  4. 4. New to unit testing ?
  5. 5. phpunit.de http://www.phpunit.de
  6. 6. Matthew Weier O’Phinney http://www.slideshare.net/weierophinney/testing-zend-framework-applications
  7. 7. Zend Framework 1.8
  8. 8. Birth of Zend_Application • bootstrapping an “app” • works the same for any environment • resources through methods (no registry) •- clean separation of tests unit tests - controller tests - integration tests (db, web services, …)
  9. 9. Types of tests
  10. 10. Unit Testing •- smallest functional code snippet (unit) function or class method •- aims to challenge logic proving A + B gives C (and not D) • helpful for refactoring • essential for bugfixing (is it really a bug ?) • TDD results in better code • higher confidence for developers and managers
  11. 11. Controller Testing •- tests your (ZF) app is this url linked to this controller ? •- detects early errors on front-end (route/page not found) - on back-end (database changed, service down, …) • tests passing back and forth of params • form validation and filtering • security testing (XSS, SQL injection, …)
  12. 12. Database Testing •- Tests the functionality of your database referred to as “integration testing” •- Checks if your data gets modified is that field updated ? - is that row added ? - is that row deleted ?
  13. 13. Application Testing
  14. 14. Setting things up
  15. 15. phpunit.xml <phpunit bootstrap="./TestHelper.php" colors="true"> <!-- Version: $Id: phpunit.xml 298 2010-05-11 13:18:02Z michelangelo $ --> <testsuite name="Zend Framework Unit Test Demo"> <directory>./</directory> </testsuite> <filter> <whitelist> <directory suffix=".php">../library/</directory> <directory suffix=".php">../application/</directory> <exclude> <directory suffix=".phtml">../application/</directory> </exclude> </whitelist> </filter> <logging> <log type="coverage-html" target="./log/report" charset="UTF-8" yui="true" highlight="true" lowUpperBound="50" highLowerBound="80"/> <log type="testdox-html" target="./log/testdox.html" /> </logging> </phpunit>
  16. 16. TestHelper.php <?php // start output buffering ob_start(); // set our app paths and environments define('BASE_PATH', realpath(dirname(__FILE__) . '/../')); define('APPLICATION_PATH', BASE_PATH . '/application'); define('TEST_PATH', BASE_PATH . '/tests'); define('APPLICATION_ENV', 'testing'); // Include path set_include_path('.' . PATH_SEPARATOR . BASE_PATH . '/library' . PATH_SEPARATOR . get_include_path()); // Set the default timezone !!! date_default_timezone_set('Europe/Brussels'); require_once 'Zend/Application.php'; $application = new Zend_Application(APPLICATION_ENV, APPLICATION_PATH . '/configs/application.ini'); $application->bootstrap();
  17. 17. ControllerTestCase.php <?php require_once 'Zend/Application.php'; require_once 'Zend/Test/PHPUnit/ControllerTestCase.php'; abstract class ControllerTestCase extends Zend_Test_PHPUnit_ControllerTestCase { protected function setUp() { // we override the parent::setUp() to solve an issue regarding not // finding a default module } }
  18. 18. Directory Strategy /application /application /configs /controllers /controllers /forms /forms /models /models /modules /modules /guestbook /guestbook /apis /apis /controllers /controllers /forms /forms /models /models /views /helpers /filters /scripts /views /helpers /filters /scripts /library /public /tests
  19. 19. Testing Controllers
  20. 20. Homepage testing <?php // file: tests/application/controllers/IndexControllerTest.php require_once TEST_PATH . '/ControllerTestCase.php'; class IndexControllerTest extends ControllerTestCase { public function testCanWeDisplayOurHomepage() { // go to the main page of the web application $this->dispatch('/'); // check if we don't end up on an error page $this->assertNotController('error'); $this->assertNotAction('error'); // ok, no error so let's see if we're at our homepage $this->assertModule('default'); $this->assertController('index'); $this->assertAction('index'); $this->assertResponseCode(200); } }
  21. 21. Running the tests
  22. 22. testdox.html
  23. 23. Code coverage
  24. 24. Testing Forms
  25. 25. Simple comment form <?php class Application_Form_Comment extends Zend_Form { public function init() { $this->addElement('text', 'fullName', array ( 'label' => 'Full name', 'required' => true)); $this->addElement('text', 'emailAddress', array ( 'label' => 'E-mail address', 'required' => true)); $this->addElement('text', 'website', array ( 'label' => 'Website URL', 'required' => false)); $this->addElement('textarea', 'comment', array ( 'label' => 'Your comment', 'required' => false)); $this->addElement('submit', 'send', array ( 'Label' => 'Send', 'ignore' => true)); } }
  26. 26. CommentController <?php class CommentController extends Zend_Controller_Action { protected $_session; public function init() { $this->_session = new Zend_Session_Namespace('comment'); } public function indexAction() { $form = new Application_Form_Comment(array ( 'action' => $this->_helper->url('send-comment'), 'method' => 'POST', )); if (isset ($this->_session->commentForm)) { $form = unserialize($this->_session->commentForm); unset ($this->_session->commentForm); } $this->view->form = $form; } }
  27. 27. Comment processing <?php class CommentController extends Zend_Controller_Action { … public function sendCommentAction() { $request = $this->getRequest(); if (!$request->isPost()) { return $this->_helper->redirector('index'); } $form = new Application_Form_Comment(); if (!$form->isValid($request->getPost())) { $this->_session->commentForm = serialize($form); return $this->_helper->redirector('index'); } $values = $form->getValues(); $this->view->values = $values; } }
  28. 28. Views <!-- file: application/views/scripts/comment/index.phtml --> <?php echo $this->form ?> <!-- file: application/views/scripts/comment/send-comment.phtml --> <dl> <?php if (isset ($this->values['website'])): ?> <dt id="fullName"><a href="<?php echo $this->escape($this->values['website']) ? >"><?php echo $this->escape($this->values['fullName']) ?></a></dt> <?php else: ?> <dt id="fullName"><?php echo $this->escape($this->values['fullName']) ?></dt> <?php endif; ?> <dd id="comment"><?php echo $this->escape($this->values['comment']) ?></dd> </dl>
  29. 29. The Form
  30. 30. Comment processed
  31. 31. And now… testing
  32. 32. Starting simple <?php // file: tests/application/controllers/IndexControllerTest.php require_once TEST_PATH . '/ControllerTestCase.php'; class CommentControllerTest extends ControllerTestCase { public function testCanWeDisplayOurForm() { // go to the main comment page of the web application $this->dispatch('/comment'); // check if we don't end up on an error page $this->assertNotController('error'); $this->assertNotAction('error'); $this->assertModule('default'); $this->assertController('comment'); $this->assertAction('index'); $this->assertResponseCode(200); $this->assertQueryCount('form', 1); $this->assertQueryCount('form', 1); $this->assertQueryCount('input[type="text"]', 2); } $this->assertQueryCount('input[type="text"]', 3); $this->assertQueryCount('textarea', 1); } $this->assertQueryCount('textarea', 1);
  33. 33. Can we submit our form ? public function testCanWeSubmitOurForm() { $this->request->setMethod('post') ->setPost(array ( 'fullName' => 'Unit Tester', 'emailAddress' => 'test@example.com', 'website' => 'http://www.example.com', 'comment' => 'This is a simple test', )); $this->dispatch('/comment/send-comment'); $this->assertQueryCount('dt', 1); $this->assertQueryCount('dd', 1); $this->assertQueryContentContains('dt#fullName', '<a href="http://www.example.com">Unit Tester</a>'); $this->assertQueryContentContains('dd#comment', 'This is a simple test'); }
  34. 34. GET request = index ? public function testSubmitFailsWhenNotPost() { $this->request->setMethod('get'); $this->dispatch('/comment/send-comment'); $this->assertResponseCode(302); $this->assertRedirectTo('/comment'); }
  35. 35. All other cases ? /** * @dataProvider wrongDataProvider */ public function testSubmitFailsWithWrongData($fullName, $emailAddress, $comment) { $this->request->setMethod('post') ->setPost(array ( 'fullName' => $fullName, 'emailAddress' => $emailAddress, 'comment' => $comment, )); $this->dispatch('/comment/send-comment'); $this->assertResponseCode(302); $this->assertRedirectTo('/comment'); }
  36. 36. wrongDataProvider public function wrongDataProvider() { return array ( array ('', '', ''), array ('~', 'bogus', ''), array ('', 'test@example.com', 'This is correct text'), array ('Test User', '', 'This is correct text'), array ('Test User', 'test@example.com', str_repeat('a', 50001)), ); }
  37. 37. Running the tests
  38. 38. Our testdox.html
  39. 39. Code Coverage
  40. 40. Unit Testing (models)
  41. 41. Guestbook Models
  42. 42. Testing models • uses core PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase class • tests your business logic ! • can run independent from other tests •- model testing !== database testing model testing tests the logic in your objects - database testing tests the data storage
  43. 43. Model setUp/tearDown <?php require_once 'PHPUnit/Framework/TestCase.php'; class Application_Model_GuestbookTest extends PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase { protected $_gb; protected function setUp() { parent::setUp(); $this->_gb = new Application_Model_Guestbook(); } protected function tearDown() { $this->_gb = null; parent::tearDown(); } … }
  44. 44. Simple tests public function testGuestBookIsEmptyAtConstruct() { $this->assertType('Application_Model_GuestBook', $this->_gb); $this->assertFalse($this->_gb->hasEntries()); $this->assertSame(0, count($this->_gb->getEntries())); $this->assertSame(0, count($this->_gb)); } public function testGuestbookAdsEntry() { $entry = new Application_Model_GuestbookEntry(); $entry->setFullName('Test user') ->setEmailAddress('test@example.com') ->setComment('This is a test'); $this->_gb->addEntry($entry); $this->assertTrue($this->_gb->hasEntries()); $this->assertSame(1, count($this->_gb)); }
  45. 45. GuestbookEntry tests … public function gbEntryProvider() { return array ( array (array ( 'fullName' => 'Test User', 'emailAddress' => 'test@example.com', 'website' => 'http://www.example.com', 'comment' => 'This is a test', 'timestamp' => '2010-01-01 00:00:00', )), array (array ( 'fullName' => 'Test Manager', 'emailAddress' => 'testmanager@example.com', 'website' => 'http://tests.example.com', 'comment' => 'This is another test', 'timestamp' => '2010-01-01 01:00:00', )), ); } /** * @dataProvider gbEntryProvider * @param $data */ public function testEntryCanBePopulatedAtConstruct($data) { $entry = new Application_Model_GuestbookEntry($data); $this->assertSame($data, $entry->__toArray()); } …
  46. 46. Running the tests
  47. 47. Our textdox.html
  48. 48. Code Coverage
  49. 49. Database Testing
  50. 50. Database Testing •- integration testing seeing records are getting updated - data models behave as expected
  51. 51. Caveats •- database should be reset in a “known state” no influence from other tests •- system failures cause the test to fail as well connection problems •- system sequence cannot be predicted auto increment fields are “unpredictable”
  52. 52. Converting modelTest
  53. 53. DatabaseTestCase.php <?php require_once 'Zend/Application.php'; require_once 'Zend/Test/PHPUnit/DatabaseTestCase.php'; require_once 'PHPUnit/Extensions/Database/DataSet/FlatXmlDataSet.php'; abstract class DatabaseTestCase extends Zend_Test_PHPUnit_DatabaseTestCase { private $_dbMock; private $_application; protected function setUp() { $this->application = new Zend_Application( APPLICATION_ENV, APPLICATION_PATH . '/configs/application.ini'); $this->bootstrap = array($this, 'appBootstrap'); parent::setUp(); } …
  54. 54. DatabaseTestCase.php (2) … public function appBootstrap() { $this->application->bootstrap(); } protected function getConnection() { if (null === $this->_dbMock) { $bootstrap = $this->application->getBootstrap(); $bootstrap->bootstrap('db'); $connection = $bootstrap->getResource('db'); $this->_dbMock = $this->createZendDbConnection($connection,'in2it'); Zend_Db_Table_Abstract::setDefaultAdapter($connection); } return $this->_dbMock; } protected function getDataSet() { return $this->createFlatXMLDataSet( dirname(__FILE__) . '/_files/initialDataSet.xml'); } }
  55. 55. _files/initialDataSet.xml <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <dataset> <gbentry id="1" fullName="Test User" emailAddress="test@example.com" website="http://www.example.com" comment="This is a first test" timestamp="2010-01-01 00:00:00"/> <gbentry id="2" fullName="Obi Wan Kenobi" emailAddress="obi-wan@jedi-council.com" website="http://www.jedi-council.com" comment="May the phporce be with you" timestamp="2010-01-01 01:00:00"/> </dataset>
  56. 56. Model => database <?php require_once 'PHPUnit/Framework/TestCase.php'; class Application_Model_GuestbookEntryTest extends PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase { … } Becomes <?php require_once TEST_PATH . '/DatabaseTestCase.php'; class Application_Model_GuestbookEntryTest extends DatabaseTestCase { … }
  57. 57. A simple DB test public function testDatabaseCanBeRead() { $ds = new Zend_Test_PHPUnit_Db_DataSet_QueryDataSet( $this->getConnection() ); $ds->addTable('gbentry', 'SELECT fullName, emailAddress, website, comment, timestamp FROM gbentry'); $this->assertDataSetsEqual( $this->createFlatXmlDataSet( TEST_PATH . "/_files/readingDataFromSource.xml"), $ds ); }
  58. 58. location of datasets <approot>/application /public /tests /_files initialDataSet.xml readingDataFromSource.xml
  59. 59. Running the tests
  60. 60. Our textdox.html
  61. 61. CodeCoverage
  62. 62. Changing records public function testNewEntryPopulatesDatabase() { $data = $this->gbEntryProvider(); foreach ($data as $row) { $entry = new Application_Model_GuestbookEntry($row[0]); $entry->save(); unset ($entry); } $ds = new Zend_Test_PHPUnit_Db_DataSet_QueryDataSet( $this->getConnection() ); $ds->addTable('gbentry', 'SELECT fullName, emailAddress, website, comment, timestamp FROM gbentry'); $this->assertDataSetsEqual( $this->createFlatXmlDataSet( TEST_PATH . "/_files/addedTwoEntries.xml"), $ds ); }
  63. 63. Expected resultset <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <dataset> <gbentry fullName="Test User" emailAddress="test@example.com" website="http://www.example.com" comment="This is a first test" timestamp="2010-01-01 00:00:00"/> <gbentry fullName="Obi Wan Kenobi" emailAddress="obi-wan@jedi-council.com" website="http://www.jedi-council.com" comment="May the phporce be with you" timestamp="2010-01-01 01:00:00"/> <gbentry fullName="Test User" emailAddress="test@example.com" website="http://www.example.com" comment="This is a test" timestamp="2010-01-01 00:00:00"/> <gbentry fullName="Test Manager" emailAddress="testmanager@example.com" website="http://tests.example.com" comment="This is another test" timestamp="2010-01-01 01:00:00"/> </dataset>
  64. 64. location of datasets <approot>/application /public /tests /_files initialDataSet.xml readingDataFromSource.xml addedTwoEntries.xml
  65. 65. Running the tests
  66. 66. The testdox.html
  67. 67. CodeCoverage
  68. 68. Testing strategies
  69. 69. Desire vs Reality •- desire +70% code coverage - test driven development - clean separation of tests •- reality test what counts first (business logic) - discover the “unknowns” and test them - combine unit tests with integration tests
  70. 70. Automation •- using a CI system continuous running your tests - reports immediately when failure - provides extra information ‣ copy/paste detection ‣ mess detection &dependency calculations ‣ lines of code ‣ code coverage ‣ story board and test documentation ‣ …
  71. 71. Thank you • http://slideshare.net/DragonBe • http://twitter.com/DragonBe • http://facebook.com/DragonBe • http://joind.in/2044

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