INTRODUCTION India has the largest tribal population in the world. About8.5 crore tribals live over the long corridors of Western,Central and Eastern India. Not only this, Indias tribalpopulation constitutes over 8 per cent of Worlds total tribalpopulation of 100 crores and the highest concentration ofthem are in the States like Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa,Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, and Assam. Carved out of Bihar in 2000, many treasures of the relativelynew state of Jharkhand situated in the Chota Nagpur Plateauis still less known to most people. Nature wears her bestclothes in this state. Many rivers like the Damodar,Brahmani, Kharkai and the Subarnarekha, flow gently addingto the natural charm of Jharkhand. It is heaven on earth,where hill streams bubble like a young adivasi‘s laughter.Thestate is endowed with abundant mineral wealth, flora andfauna. Jharkhand has proudly emerged culturally as animportant multi ethnic state.
Jharkhand is primarily a tribal state with a total tribal populationof 70,89,068 which is about 27 per cent of States entirepopulation of 2.69 crores. The Santhal Tribe of Jharkhandconstitute the main tribal community in State . The tribals of Jharkhand have a long history of customs andcostumes. They have ancient traditions and cultural heritage andlanguages. There is need to preserve and promote thesetraditions before they are extinct from the land of Jharkhand.There are so many noble cultural, social, environmental, andhealth practices among tribes of Jharkhand. The rich culture ofJharkhand is transmitted orally from generation to generation. For example, the culture of preserving forest in SARNA (SacredGrove) is still in practice among Jharkhand tribes, whichpotentially has a greater environment value today but we all areunknown of this culture.
TYPES OF TRIBESThe tribes of Jharkhand consist of 32 tribes inhabiting theJharkhand state in India. Classification was as follows: Hunter-gatherer type — Birhor, Korwa, Hill Kharia Shifting Agriculture — Sauria Paharia Simple artisans — Mahli, Lohra, Karmali, Chik Baraik Settled agriculturists — Santhal, Munda, Oraon, Ho, Bhumij,etc.Other categorization is:Primitives Tribes: Asur, Birhor, Birajia, Korba, Mal Paharia, SauriaPaharia, Sabar, or Hill Kharia and Parahiya.Other Tribes: Biga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Bhumij, Binjhia,Chero, Chik Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Khadia, Kharwar,Khond, Kisan, Kora, Lohra, Mahali, Munda, Oraon and Santhal.
SOME FACTS ABOUT JHARKHAND TRIBE: Santhal is not only the main tribe of Jharkhand but also of India. One of thedivisions in the state has been aptly named as Santhal Pargana. From theviewpoint of population, Oraon and Munda are placed at 2nd and 3rd position.Tribal population of Jharkhand is concentrated mainly in Chhotanagpur plateauand Santhal Parganas. From the racial point of view the tribal people of Jharkhand are known as theProto - Austroid. They have generally short stature, long caphlic, broad flat noseand black skin as physical characteristics. Their main language is Austricklanguage group, e.g. Mundari, Santhali, Ho, Khaira etc. Most of the tribal population lives in villages, which are divided in tolas. Theirhouses are mostly made of mud and kuchha . Many tribes decorate the outerwalls of their houses with beautiful paintings. Rice, animal and bird flesh, fruitsare the main food of tribes. Haria is their beer, which is prepared from rice. Songs, stories and proverbs have important place in the folk literature of tribalpeople. Sohari, Sarhul, Karma, Tusu, Mange, Fagu etc. are the important andfascinating festivals of tribal people which are celebrated . It is the rich music ofthe folk songs that adds spice to Jharkhand. Mandar, Nagara, Dhol, Singa,Dhak, Dhamsa, Tasa, Gupi, Jantra etc. are their important musical instruments.
TRIBAL ARTWORK Chhou mask - Chhou is a type of dance done with colourful masks. Themasks are made of paper mache in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.Paper mache of Saraikela and Charinda are famous for Chhou dance.Some times it appears similar to the masks used in kerla in Kathakali. Tribal woodwork - Jharkand is full of good quality saal forest and hencewooden artwork in the "should" of tribals. The wood is used for cooking,housing, farming, fishing etc. The tribal artists make beautifully decorativedoor panels, toys, boxes, and other household articles. Tribal Bamboo Artwork - The bamboo found in this area are different frombamboo of Southeast Asia. There is tourist place, Netarhat, which means aBazaar of Bamboo. These bamboos are thin, and strong and flexible. Thetribal people use bamboo for making baskets, hunting & fishingequipments. Specially the bamboo made fishing cage is very attractive. Tribal Pottery - Tribal pottery is a part of tribals but still no specific workingstyle observed.
Tribal jewellery - The tribal people particularly like jewellery. They usemetallic ornaments made of gold, silver, brass, copper for their earrings,nose ring, bracelets, bangles etc. Godna - Tribals use ornaments a lots but the spiritual concept ofornament is very different. They believe that all ornaments are humanmade and are mortal. Therefore they invented tattoos as permanentornament. Majority of tribal woman have tattoos called Godna, on theirbodies. However, tribal man also use Godna.They believe that Godna arethe only ornament which goes with them after death also. Tribal weapons - Bow and arrow is the symbolic weapon of the tribals ofthis area. Apart from this they use iron made Axes and Doulies andGhana (Big hammer). Tribal metalwork-Most of the metal works are done for agriculturalpurpose, hunting and weapons. There are specific communities likeLohar, Malhar and Thentri have expertise in metal work.
TRIBAL FESTIVAL Sarhul is celebrated during spring season and the Saal trees get new flowers on theirbranches. It is a worship of the village deity who is considered to be the protector ofthe tribes. People sing and dance a lot when the new flowers appear. The village priestor Pahan fasts for a couple of days. In the early morning he takes a bath and puts onnew a dhoti made of virgin cotton (kachha dhaga). The previous evening, the Pahantakes three new earthen pots and fills them with fresh water; the next morning heobserves these earthen pots and water level inside. If the water level decreases hepredicts that there would be famine or less rain, and if the water level is normal, thatis the signal of a good rain. Before pooja starts, the wife of the Pahan washes his feetand gets blessings from him. At the pooja, Pahan offers three young roosters ofdifferent colors to one for the almighty god — the Singbonga or Dharmesh, as theMundas, Ho and Oraons respectively address Him; another for the village deities; andthe third for the ancestors. During this pooja villagers surround the Sarna place. Karam-The Karam festival is a worship of Karam devta, the god of power, youth andyouthfulness. Karam is held on the 11 of moon in Bhadra month. Groups of youngvillagers go to the jungle and collect wood, fruits and flowers. These are requiredduring the Puja of Karam God. During this period people sing and dance in groups.This is one of the rare examples of such a vital and vibrant youth festival inJharkhand‘s tribal area
Jawa-At the same time, the unmarried tribal girls celebrate the Jawa festival,which has its own kind of songs and dance. This is held mainly for theexpectation of good fertility and better household. The unmarried girls decoratea small basket with germinating seeds. It is believed that the worship for goodgermination of the grains would increase the fertility. The girls offer greenmelons to the Karam deity as a symbol of ‗son‘ which reveals the primitiveexpectation of human being (i.e., grains and children). The entire tribal area ofJharkhand becomes tipsy during this time. Rohini-Rohini is perhaps the first festival of Jharkhand. It is a festival of sowingseeds in the field. Farmers starts sowing seeds from this day but there is nodance or song like other tribal festivals but just a few rituals. There are someother festivals like Rajsawala Ambavati and Chitgomha are also celebrated withRohini. Tusu Parab or Makar-This festival is mostly seen in the area between Bundu,Tamar and Raidih area of Jaharkhand. This belt has a great history duringIndia‘s independence movement. TUSU is a harvest festival held during thewinter in the last day of Poush month. It is also for the unmarried girls. Girlsdecorate a wooden/ bamboo frame with coloured paper and then gift it to thenearby hilly river. Hal Punhya-Hal punhya is a festival which begins with the fall of winter. The firstday of Magh month, known as ―Akhain Jatra‖ or ―Hal Punhya‖, considered as thebeginning of ploughing. The farmers, to symbolize this auspicious morningplough two and half circles of their agricultural land this day is also consideredas the symbol of good fortune.
Bhagta Parab-This festival comes between the period of spring and summer. Amongthe tribal people of Jharkhand, Bhagta Parab is best known as the worship of BudhaBaba. People fast during the day and carry the bathing Pahan the priest, to thetribal mandir called Sarana Mandir. The Pahan sometimes called Laya, gets out ofthe pond, the devotees make a chain, locking their thighs with each other and comeforward to offer their bare chest to Laya for walk over. After worship in the evening,devotees take part in dynamic and vigorous Chhau dance with lots of gymnasticactions and masks. The next day is full of primitive sports of bravery. The devoteespierce hooks on skin and get tied at one end of a long horizontal wooden pole,which is hanging on the top of a vertical Shal wood pole. The height goes up to 40feet. The other end of the pole which is connected with a rope, pulled around thepole by the people and the tied devotee display the breath-taking dance in the sky.This festivals is more popular in the Tamar region of Jharkhand. Bandna-Bandana is one of the most famous festivals celebrated during the blackmoon of month of Kartik (Kartik Aamavashya). This festival is mainly for theanimals. Tribals are very close with animals and pets. In this festival, people wash,clean, paint, decorate feed well and put ornaments to their cows and bulls. Thesong dedicated for this festival is called Ohira which is an acknowledgement foranimal‘s contribution in their day-to-day life. The belief behind this festival isanimals are integral part of life and have souls as human being do. The mostexciting day of the bandanna week is the last day. Closured bulls and buffaloes arechained to a strong pole and they are attacked with a dry animal hyde. The angryanimals hit the dry skin with their horns and the crowd enjoys. Generally the colourused for decorating animals are natural colours and the is artwork is of folk type. Jani-Shikaar-This is held once every 12 years. The womenfolk wear menswear andgo for hunting in forest. Jani-Shikaar is performed in remember of driving away themohameddens by the kurukh womenfolk in Roh-tas-garh, who wanted to capturethe fort on the Sharhul festival new year day for tribal community, when men usedto be in drunken condition. They had tried to capture 12 times in 12 years andevery time they were driven by the kurukh women, who wore the mens clotheswhile in the field of war.
MUNDA TRIBESPlaces they inhabit :Munda tribe mainly inhabit in the region of Jharkhand, Although they are wellspread in the states of West Bengal, Chhatisgarh, Orissa and Bihar. Munda generally means headman ofthe village.Language and Physical Characteristics : Mundas speak Mundari language, which belongs to the family ofAustro- Asiatic. The complexion of Mundas is blackish. They have short curly hair. With the passage oftime some of the Mundas resembles same features as that of the Bengalis. Common surnames usedamong the Mundas includes Topno, Barla, Aind, Hemrom, Guria, Herenge, Surin, Horo, Sanga andSamad.History of Mundas : Mundas are the tribal communities from the south east Asia. There are someevidences of the Mundas kingdom in the Pre British times. For example the Ho/Munda kingdom of ChotaNagpur, and the Bhumij states, especially Barabhum.Religion : Christianity is the main religion followed among the Mundas. Apart from that Mundas havetheir own religion known as Sarna. Mundas believe in the supreme being known as the Singbonga,which means the Sun God. According to the Mundas, he saves them from the external enemies andtroubles of life. Mundas are of the belief that Singbonga is not the jealous God and gives his people theright to worship any celestial being. In Sarna the Mundas worship the nature. Some of the Mundas alsoworship Lord Shiva.Occupation of the Mundas :Mundas have remained haunters for centuries. But now they have beenconverted into the settled agriculturist. Most of the then do not have land of their own. They are largelydependent on the labour work in the fields to earn their livelihood.Food and Clothing of Mundas :Mundas have been the animal eaters for the long time. They usually eatfrogs, snakes, rats, earthworms, shells and snails. They prefer having Tari and Haria wine on the variousoccassions. As the Mundas are in close touch with the Hindu society. Munda men usually wear pant andshirts. While the Munda Women are seen wearing the cotton saris with the cholis or blouse.Festivals :Mage, Phagu, Karam, Sarhul, and Sohrai are the few festivals celebrated among the Mundatribes
Santhals Tribe Places they inhabit : Santhals are the third largest tribe in India. They are mostly foundin the states of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand and Assam. History of Santhals : Santhals belong to the Pre Aryan period. They were the greatfighters during the British regime in India. They wagged war against the permanentsettlement of Lord Cornwallis in 1855. During the late 1850 Santhals hero Sidhu hadaccumulated around 10 thousand Santhals to run parallel government against theBritish government. Baba Tilka Majhi was the first Santhal leather who raise weaponsagainst the Britishers in 1789. Language and Identification : Santhals speak Santhali, which belongs to the Austro-Asiatic language family. Santhals have their script called Olchiki, which was developedby Dr Raghunath Murmu in 1925. Accoring to the census their population is around49,000. They are generally Bilingual. Apart from Santhali they also speak Bengali,Oriya and Hindi. Santhals have long head and flat nose. Their complexion varies fromdark brown to black in colour. Santhals usually have curly hair. Santhal Economic Status : The livelihood of the Santhals revolve around the foreststhey live in. They fulfill their basic needs from the trees and plants of the forests. Apartfrom this they are also engaged in the haunting, fishing and cultivation for theirlivelihood. Santhals posses the unique skills in making the musical equipments, matsand baskets out of the plants. This talent is safely passed on from one generation tothe other.
Culture : Santhals love dancing. Dance is the important part ofthe Santhals fairs and festivals.Santhal women dress in the redbordered white sari and dance in the line sequence. Apart fromdance Santhals play great music using Tirio (bamboo flute withthe seven holes), Dhodro banam (which consists of belly called laccovered with an animal skin on which rests the bridge(sadam, lit,horse), an open chest( korom), a short neck(hotok)and a head(bohok), Phet banam (a fretless stringed instrument with three orfour strings), Tumdak, Tamak, Junko and Singa. Religion : Santhals have no temples of their own. They even donot worship any idols. Santhals follow the Sarna religion. The Godand Goddess of Santhal are Marangburu, Jaheraera, and Manjhi.Santhals pay respect to the ghosts and spirits like Kal Sing,Lakchera, Beudarang etc. They have village priests known as theNaiki and shaman Ujha. Animal sacrifices to the Gods is thecommon practice common practice among the Santhals toappease the Gods and Goddess. Festivals :Santhals mainly celebrate the Karam festival which fallsin the month of September and October. They celebrate thisfestival to plaes the God to increase their wealth and free themfrom all the enemies. It is the tradition among the Santhals togrow the Karam tree outside their house after the purificationprocess. Other festivals of the Santhal community include Maghe,Baba Bonga, Sahrai, Ero, Asaria and Namah. They also celebratehaunting festival called Disum sendra on the eve of BaishakhiPurnima.
GOND TRIBE Places they inhabit : The Gonds are the tribal community mostly found in the Gond forestsof the central India. They are widely spread in the Chhindwara District of Madhya Pradesh,Bastar district of Chhattisgarh and also in the parts of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, andOrissa. The name by which the Gonds call themselves is Koi or Koitur which meansunclear. Gonds are one of the largest tribal group in the world. History of Gonds : Gonds finds mention in almost the historical books of India. Gondssettled in the Gondawa in the ninth and thirteenth century AD. In the fourteen centurythey ruled several parts of the central India. They built number of forts, palaces, temples,tanks and lakes during the rule of the Gonds dynasty. The Gondwana kingdom survived tilllate 16th century. Gond dynasties ruled in four kingdoms - Garha-Mandla, Deogarh,Chanda, and Kherla in the central India. Gonds have been the warriors since the Britishperiod. During the British regime in India, Gonds challenged the Britishers in severalbattles. They also gained control over the Malwa after the decline of the Mughals followedby the Marathas in the year 1690. Language and Identification : Gonds tribe speak Gondi language which is related to theTelgu and the other Dravidian languages. In the northern parts Gonds are often seenspeaking the local Hindi and Marathi. Some of the Gonds in the southern parts also speakParsi or Persian. Gonds are mainly divided into four tribes namely - Raj Gonds, MadiaGonds, Dhurve Gonds, Khatulwar Gonds. Gonds men wear Dhoti, which is the lonf piece ofcotton cloth wrapped around the waist passing through the legs. Women wear soft cottonsaris along with the Choli or blouse. The staple food of Gonds are the two millets known asKodo or Kutki. Rice is the ceremonial feast of the Gonds, which they prefer eating duringthe time of festivals. Most of the Gonds are the meat consumers.
Religion : Gonds have been practicing the Hindus culture and traditions. Gonds are theworshipers of Janani or the mother of creator. They use the title Thakur. Gonds mainlyworship Pharsa Pen, who is worshiped under the form of the nail and sometimes apiece of iron chain. Besides Pharsa Pen, they also believe in several other Gods namelyMariai – the Goddess of plague and other diseases, and Bhimsen – the Hindu God.Apart from these God and Goddess, their exist great number of deities and spirits inthe beliefs of Gonds. According to them every hill, river, lake, tree is also inhabited bya spirit. They say that the the earth, water and air are ruled by the great number ofdeities which must be appeased by sacrifices. They have priests (devari) who performall the religious formalities on all the occasions. Gonds also pay homage to the Gods ofhousehold, Gods of Cattle, Gods of fields. Animal sacrifice on the religious occasions isthe common practice among the Gonds. Customs and Festivals : Gonds fair and festivals are influenced from the Hindutraditions. Keslapur Jathra is the important festival of the Gonds. In this festival theyworship the snake deity called Nagoba, whose temple is found in the Keslapur villageof Indervelly mandal of Adilabad district. Gusadi dance is the most famous danceperfomed by the Gonds. It is performed by wearing head gears decorated with thepeacock feathers. They wear cotton cloth around their waist. They smear ash all overtheir body and beards made of animal hair is also important part of the dancecostumes. Madai is the another major festival celebrated among the Gonds. It is thefestival when Gonds meet their relatives settled in various parts of the country. Duringthis festival they also sacrifice goat beeath the sacred village tree to appease the tribalGoddess. In the night they enjoy liquor and dance along with the tribal music. Apartfrom this they also celebrate Hindu festival called Dusshera
ASUR Asur is an important tribe in the state of Jharkhand inthe eastern part of the subcontinent of India. Asur inJharkhand is one of the thirty major tribes of peoplewho have made the state of Jharkhand their home. Thepeople who belong to this tribe form quite a big part ofthe total population of the state of Jharkhand. It ranks 21st among all the 30 tribal groups of thestate, in terms of population, that is, there are as manyas 9 tribal groups in the state that have a smallerpopulation than the Asur of Jharkhand. Asur is one ofthe most ancient ethnic groups in the state ofJharkhand.BAIGA The Baiga is one of the most important tribes in thestate of Jharkhand in India. The people who belong tothe Baiga tribe of Jharkhand are reportedly leastcivilized of all the different tribes of the state. Thepeople of the tribe of Baiga in Jharkhand inhabit in aparticular district of the state. The name of this districtof Jharkhand is the Garwa district. The people who belong to the tribe of Baiga constitute aKolerian ethnic community. The name of this tribe ofJharkhand has quite a few meanings. One of them isojha or a person who makes medicines. Many of thepeople who belong to the Baiga tribe make medicinesby profession, though their chief traditional occupationhas been shifting cultivation.
CHERO The Chero are one of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand. InJharkhand, Chero dwell in the districts of Ranchi, Sathal Pargana,Latehar and Palamu. Palamu seems to have a largerconcentration of the Chero tribe in Jharkhand. Besides, the Chero at Jharkhand are also found in Bhojpur, Gaya,Champaran, Munger, Daltonganj, Patan, Lesliganj, Bhawanathpur,Rohtas, etc. It is noteworthy in this context that the Chero, alsoknown as Cherwas or Cherus, was a martial group that annexedmany new territories through war. They are said to bedescendants of the Kshatriya lineage known as Chandravanshi.kHARIA Kharia at Jharkhand belong to the Proto-Australoid group. TheKharia in Jharkhand are said to be the descendants of NagvanshiRaja and are divided into three major sections namely DudhKharia, Dhelki Kharia and Hill Kharia. The Kharia of Jharkhand are one of the most primitive tribes thatchiefly depend on the resources obtained from the forests of theterritory. The Hill Kharia largely depend on roots, edible herbs,leaves, fruits, seeds, flowers, honey, wax, etc; the Dhelki Khariaand Dudh Kharia depend on agriculture. The Kharias are basically centered round the hills and plainsadjoining the hills. The settlement of the Kharia is dispersedthroughout the different districts of Jharkhand. The houses of theKharias are made up of straw, bamboo, mud, rope, etc. and aregenerally rectangular in shape. The houses, generally, possess asingle room that contains a bedroom, kitchen and bathroom: wecan find a cow-shed or pig stay attached to the house.
KHARWAR Kharwar are found in the Latehar, Lohardaga, Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Chatra,Daltonganj, Garhwa, districts and is known to be one of the scheduled tribesof Jharkhand. The Kharwar of Jharkhand is also found in the Rohtasgarhdistrict in Bihar. It is interesting to note that the Kharwar in Jharkhand are a group oftraditional people who use the Khair grasses for various purposes. Due to theexcessive use of the Khair leaves by them, the Kharwars are named so. A family is the unit of the Kharwar society which is generally nuclear instructure and comprises a husband, wife and their unmarried children becauseafter marriage the children set up their own families. In fact, the concept ofthe joint family is completely absent from the Kharwar societyBANJARA The colorful lives of the Banjaras now has become the source of entertainmentto the entire state. Tribal festivals like Sarhul, Tusu and Sohrai are celebratedthroughout the state. Banjara music and dances like Chaw, Natua, Ghatwariand Matha now-a-days has become sources of recreation even to the touriststo Jharkhand. They now seem to plan their visit to Jharkhand in the festiveseasons of the tribes in Jharkhand. Banjaras of Jharkhand has become famous particularly for their embroideryworks. Influenced by their themes and culture and exploiting the availability ofraw materials, the Banjaras embellish their works with ivory beads, shells andcolorful threads. The needle crafts of the Banjaras create skirts, jackets, belts,bags, blouses and also different types of room decors Though smallest in number, the Banjara tribe in Jharkhand is a recognizedpart of the tribal community. Unlike the Banjara tribe of Rajasthan, theBanjaras of Jharkhand lead a settled life. They generally live in thatched hutswith kuchcha walls. Though they remain unperturbed by the modernizationaround, recent years has seen far reaching changes in the relationshipbetween the Banjaras and the large society. The literacy rate of the Banjarasis about 12.38%.
Birhor Birhor is one of the primitive tribes in Jharkhand. InJharkhand, Birhor are found in the Palamu, Garhwa,Dhanbad, Singhbhum, Giridih, Lohardaga, Ranchi,Hazaribagh, Gumla, etc. Birhor at Jharkhand belong to the Proto-Australoidstock; linguistically, they originate from the Austro-Asiatic group. It is interesting to note that the Birhortribe of Jharkhand consider themselves as thedescendants of the Sun. It is believed that theBirhors are related to the Kharwar tribe, also said tohave descended from the Sun.BIRJIA The Birjia tribe of Jharkhand is found in the districtsof Ranchi, Gumla, Palamu and Lohardaga. InJharkhand, Birjias live in small huts made of bamboo,wood or mud, which are located in the hills or theplains adjoining these hills. The Birjia at Jharkhand live in triangular orrectangular huts made up of bamboo, wood or mud.The huts of the Birjia tribe, usually, are devoid ofwindows: the huts have a small gate which is closedwith a tati or a mat.
The Chick Baraik The chick baraik of Jharkhand is found in Ranchi,Lohardaga and Gumla districts. The Chick Baraik inJharkhand belongs to the Proto-Australoid and speaksMundari, Hindi and Sadani languages. The Chick Baraik tribe presents a picture of communalharmony. In Jharkhand, the Chick Baraiks do not dwellin a separate village but live with the other tribes andcastes within the same village. In fact, it can be saidthat they celebrate fraternity and brotherhood.GORAIT The Gorait at Jharkhand belong to the Austric racialgroup and are found scattered in the districts ofDhanbad, Palamu, Ranchi, Sathal Pargana, Singhbhumand Hazaribagh. Linguistically, the Gorait belong to theProto-Australoid group. The Gorait in Jharkhand are found in the hilly tracksadjoining the forests of the territory. The Goraits ofJharkhand dwell with the other tribes of Jharkhand.This co-existence of the Goraits with the other tribes ofJharkhand has led to the assimilation of the culturalhabits of the tribes. Thus, like the other tribes inJharkhand, the Goraits also build a one-room housecontaining a bed-room, kitchen and bathroom.
Ho The ho is one of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand. TheHo in Jharkhand belong to Proto-Australoid stock andspeak Ho and Hindi languages: a corrupt version ofBengali is also spoken by the Hos of Jharkhand. In Jharkhand, Ho tribe dwells near the rivers, riverterraces or by the side of the springs. It is noteworthyin this context that the Ho community of Jharkhandlargely depends on agriculture. Agriculture is the mainstay of the people of the Ho tribe in Jharkhand.KARMALI Karmali in Jharkhand are found in Ranchi, Hazaribagh,Santhal Parganas, Singhbhum, and Bokaro districts.Karmali at Jharkhand is one of the scheduled tribes ofJharkhand who are also known as the artisan tribes ofJharkhand. Karmali of Jharkhand are known for a nuclear familysystem where the father is the head of the family. Thenuclear family of the Karmali is composed of a man andhis wife and children. The children live with theirparents till they are single: after their marriage thechildren set up a family of their own. Therefore, we cansay that the Karmali tribe celebrates a nuclear family:the concept of a joint family is completely absent in theKarmali society.
ORAON Tribals in India constitute around eight per cent of the totalpopulation. Oraon is one of the tribal communities found inIndia, which mainly depends on agriculture for earningtheir living. They are also known as Kurukh tribes. Thesetribes are mainly found in the states of Jharkhand, Bihar,West Bengal and Orissa. In the ancient days, Oraons usedto make their living by chopping timber and selling forestproducts. Majority of the population of Oraons can befound in Northeastern states engaged in the occupation oftea cultivation.Bathudi The Bathudi is a minor schedule tribe numerically. Theyprefer to call themselves as Bahutuli, i.e., people of arms,the Kshatriyas and not Bathudi. They are agriculturists andprefer to live around the hill ranges and on the banks ofthe river Swarnrekha in the Dhalbhum Subdivision ofSinghbhumOrissa (Risley 1891). They speak a corruptform of Oriya-Bengali mixture with good many Hindiwords.Bedia: Hunter (1877) mentioned that they are akin to the Mundaswithout really putting forward any serious or any concreteevidences. The Bedias call themselves ‗Vedbanis‘ and aresettled cultivators in permanent villages. They generallyreside in the district of Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Dhanbad,Singhbhum, Santhal Parganas, and Palamau
MAHLIMahli is the name of a tribe of India. It is a scheduled tribe of thestate of West Bengal and Jharkhand (earlier these areas werepart of Bihar). They mostly reside in Santhal Parganas and certainother regions of Jharkhand, and in the adjoining areas of WestBengal. Their population is dwindling. Mahli people traditionallyearned their livelihood by selling articles made of bamboo. Sometypical articles made by them are: Machi (a small bench),umbrellas, soop (used in kitchen, to remove dust from cereals),sop and chatai (for lying down and sleeping), raincap (special capcovering head, and upper back for protection from rains duringwork).Mahli people typically have a tattoo of their name on theirhand.SAURIA PAHARIAThe Sauria Paharia people (also known as Maler Paharia) are atribal people of Jharkhand in India. They are found mostly inSanthal Parganas.History:According to Oraon traditions, when they were driven outof their home in the Son valley, the main group migrated towardsPalamu but a smaller group moved down the Gangetic valley tillthey reached Rajmahal Hills, where they settled mostly in Damin-i-koh. The language of the Sauria Paharias is closely linked to thatof the Oraons.Demographics:Sauria Paharias are listed as a primitive tribe andhave a population of around 30,000 in Jharkhand, with a possiblenegligible population in West Bengal. They constitute less than 1per cent of the tribal population in Jharkhand. Sauria Pahariasresort to shifting cultivation. They lead family lives.The Saurias are divided into three distinct cultural groups,namely the Probia, the Bare and the Chete.
BHUMIJBhumij are a tribal/Adivasi people living primarily in the Indian states ofWest Bengal, Odisha and Jharkhand, mostly in the old Singhbhumdistrict. They speak the Mundari language of the Austroasiatic languagefamily or sometimes the predominant local language such as Bengali. In the 2001 census, they numbered 336,436 in West Bengal,accounting for 7.6 per cent of the scheduled caste population of thestate. In Odisha, Bhumijes had a population ranging from 248,144to 321,592 and were among the twelve most populous tribes. InJharkhand Bhumijes were one the eight most populous tribes, theirpopulation ranging between 164,022 and 192,024. Bhumij means one who is born from the soil. They form one of theHinduised Adivasi groups in Jharkhand. Bhumij Kols have adopted thesurname Singh.
The Kols:The kols (aka Ho/Larka) inhabited a large portion of the Chota Nagpur region. They rebelled to resistBritish entry into their dominion. Soon they joined the Munda rebellion.It was only in the middle of 19th century that the Kols and the Mundas were finally defeated. In 1820the Raja of Singhbum acknowledged the supremacy of the British. The restless Kol tribes, however,resented the agreement and broke into a rebellion in 1831-1832. They were joined by the Mundatribe. The immediate cause of the Kol uprising was the oppression of the local tribes by the non-adivasi thikadars (contractors) or farmers of rented lands. The Kols, the Mundas, the Santhals andthe Oraons joined and burnt the houses of many diku (outsider) landlords and killed many of them.The British suppressed the rebellion with great effort. A register of all tribal land was completed in1862. It was in favour of the landlords than the adivasis. The Adivasi kols of Chotonagpur area wasdivided into many subcastes. They lived independently there. (1) In 1820 the king of Porhat acceptedthe British governance and settled to give a huge tax to the British Government. After that hedemanded the surrounding area as his realm. The British Government accepted his demand. Theproblem arose when he went collect the revenue from the Ho. They killed the retainers or servants ofthe king. After that the Kols dressed with bow and arrow, the jabbing etc. came to a fight with theEnglish. They fought till the death and hindered the English a lot; but at last the wood-word Kol hadto surrender in 1821.In 1831 the Kols rebelled again. In that part of Chotonagpur area the Ijara was given to Hindu,Muslim, Shikh Mahajans. They exceeded the limit of oppression. In protection of the oppressionBuddhu Bhagat, Joya Bhagat, Jhindrai Manaki and Sui Munda amassed the Kols. In 1831 Munda andOraon cultivators broked their first rebel in Ranchi district. The rebel immediately spread toSingbhum, Manbhum, Hajaribag and Palamu districts. All the men like Jamindar, Jotdar (one kind ofJamindar), Businessman, Mohajon (who lends money to the farmers for interest), English Servantexcept Adivasi came under the aegis of this rebel. The rebel was taken into control after thecontinuous effort of two years and killing a thousands of innocent children, woman and man.
MAL PAHARIA The Mal Paharia people are a tribal people ofJharkhand in India. Society:The Mal Paharias who live in the southernhills of Damin-i-koh and in the south and east ofSanthal Parganas have been Hinduised. The Mal Paharias survive on agriculture andforest produce. Demographics:As per 2001 census, the MalPaharias number around 115,093 in Jharkhand.KORBA Korba people are one of the scheduled tribes ofIndia. They live in hills and forest ofChhotanagpur; the bordering area ofChhattisgarh and Jharkhand. They are sociallyand economically poor (it is estimated that 60%of Korwa people are below the poverty line) andoutsiders often look down on them because ofthis. A small number of Korwa are also found inthe Mirzapur District of Uttar Pradesh. The IndianGovernment has implemented several facilitiesfor them, such as roads to their settlements,boys hostels for education, providing agriculturalaid, etc.
SABAR TRIBE The Sabar people (also Shabar and Saora) are one ofthe scheduled tribes in India who live mainly inJharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal. During the BritishRaj, they were classed as one of the criminal tribesunder Criminal Tribes Act 1871, and still suffer fromsocial stigma and ostracism in modern times. Also known as Saora, the Sabar tribe finds mention inthe Hindu epic Mahabharata,while in some parts ofEast Singhbhum district mainly in Musabani, they areknown as in Kariya. This reclusive tribe is found primarily in EastSinghbhum district in Jharkhand and in MidnaporeDistrict of West Bengal. The traditionally forest-dwelling tribe are not used toagriculture, and rely on the forests for their livelihood.PAHARIYA A community that has the claim of being the earliestinhabitants of the region and finds mention inMegasthenes book as well as Hiuen Tsangstravelogue, has now been pushed to the edge and isan ecologically and biologically endangered tribe.They go on hunting-expeditions, practice share-cropping as well as shifting cultivation, live in mudhouses, collect firewood from forest and practiceherbal medicine. Though poverty, under developmentand lack of education have deprived them of thebenefits of modernization, they celebrate MagahiParab (festival) with ecstatic joy and vivacious songand dance.It resides mainly in Dumka district ofjharkhand
BINJHIA Binjhia are found in Simdega and Khunti in Jharkhand. The Binjhia villages arelocated in and around the forest and hills. They are found living with the othertribes. A few villages are of only Binjhia tribe. Culture :The Binjhia erect their houses with wood, bamboo, mud, leaves,grasses and tiles. They prepare tiles themselves. The houses are generallyrectangular in shape. Each house has two rooms and verandah. The house,there is no separate kitchen and both room. The same room is used for thepurpose of cooking and sleeping. They have wooden rack in the house. Their household possession consists of earthen pots and metal utensils forcooking and serving food, they have mat, baskets, tray and cot which theyprepare themselves. They have knife, sickle, tangi (axe), kudal, khanti, akhurpi and plough as agricultural and hunting gathering implements. They haveharpoon and not for fishing. Dol and flutes are their musical instruments. The Binjhia men wear Half dhoti and a Gamachha when they are in house orworksite. They also wear a plastic shoes or slipper. Women wear Sari, Saya andBlouse. The buy wear only Ganji in early childhood. But in old childhood, theywear paint, Ganji and shirt. The girl wears paint and frock in early childhood. Inlate childhood, they wear salwar suit. They purchase clothes from the localHaat. The Binjhia women are also fond or ornaments. They wear ornaments in finger,wrist feet, neck and ear. The ornaments are made up or steel, copper, bronze,glass, silver and imitation of gold and silver. They also wear beads of forestseeds and thread made ornaments. They have loraha, silant and okhali forcrushing grains.