CVA Biology I - B10vrv3103
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CVA Biology I - B10vrv3103

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Copyright - Adapted from Pearson

Copyright - Adapted from Pearson

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    CVA Biology I - B10vrv3103 CVA Biology I - B10vrv3103 Presentation Transcript

    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleLesson OverviewLesson Overview10.3 Regulating10.3 Regulatingthe Cell Cyclethe Cell Cycle
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleTHINK ABOUT ITHow do cells know when to divide?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleControls on Cell DivisionHow is the cell cycle regulated?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleControls on Cell DivisionHow is the cell cycle regulated?The cell cycle is controlled by regulatory proteins both inside and outsidethe cell.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleThe controls on cell growth and division can be turned on and off.For example, when an injury such as a broken bone occurs, cells arestimulated to divide rapidly and start the healing process. The rate ofcell division slows when the healing process nears completion.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleThe Discovery of CyclinsCyclins are a family of proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cyclein eukaryotic cells.This graph shows how cyclin levels change throughout the cell cycle infertilized clam eggs.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleRegulatory ProteinsInternal regulators are proteins that respond to events inside a cell.They allow the cell cycle to proceed only once certain processes havehappened inside the cell.External regulators are proteins that respond to events outside thecell. They direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle.Growth factors are external regulators that stimulate the growth anddivision of cells. They are important during embryonic development andwound healing.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleApoptosisApoptosis is a process of programmed cell death.Apoptosis plays a role in development by shaping the structure oftissues and organs in plants and animals. For example, the foot of amouse is shaped the way it is partly because the toes undergoapoptosis during tissue development.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleCancer: Uncontrolled Cell GrowthHow do cancer cells differ from other cells?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleCancer: Uncontrolled Cell GrowthHow do cancer cells differ from other cells?Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of mostcells. As a result, the cells divide uncontrollably.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleCancer is a disorder in which body cells lose the ability tocontrol cell growth.Cancer cells divide uncontrollably to form a mass of cells calleda tumor.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleA benign tumor is noncancerous. It does notspread to surrounding healthy tissue.A malignant tumor is cancerous. It invadesand destroys surrounding healthy tissue andcan spread to other parts of the body. Thespread of cancer cells is called metastasis.Cancer cells absorb nutrients needed by othercells, block nerve connections, and preventorgans from functioning.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleWhat Causes Cancer?Cancers are caused by defects in genes that regulate cell growth anddivision.Some sources of gene defects are smoking tobacco, radiationexposure, defective genes, and viral infection.A damaged or defective p53 gene is common in cancer cells. It causescells to lose the information needed to respond to growth signals.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Regulating the Cell CycleRegulating the Cell CycleTreatments for CancerSome localized tumors can be removed by surgery.Many tumors can be treated with targeted radiation.Chemotherapy is the use of compounds that kill or slow the growth ofcancer cells.