Stopping and Starting Cancer Cell Cycle Weakens and Defeats Multiple Myeloma AND Anxiety Linked to Shortened Telomeres, Accelerated Aging
Natalia Zapata Zuluaga U.P.B
The news are related to cell cycle, becausethe cancers and the reduction of telomeres,are a consequence of cell division.The cycle control mechanisms areresponsible for that daughter cells do notshow any mutation, so these controlmechanisms have been important point formedical treatment.
Cancer is a disease where cells divideuncontrollably because they aredamaged apoptotic mechanisms. Thesemutated cells grow and serve nofunction, only consume a very highamount of energy and replicate withoutcontrol.The control system of the cell cycle is abiochemical device consists of a set ofinteractive regulatory proteins: thecyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases,lead and coordinate the basic processesof the cycle as DNA replication and celldivision.
The control points are:G1 checkpoint: It starts the processthat initiates the S phaseG2 checkpoint: We evaluated the integrity, damage or unreplicatedDNA, they are sufficient nutrients in the medium to continue theprocess of division. It is most common point where it stops the cycle ifthere are any problems.Metaphase checkpoint: verify that the chromosomes are aligned at themetaphase properly before entering anaphase. This item protects againstloss or gain of chromosomes.
Any alteration in the enzymes that act at checkpoints, can reach thegeneration of cancer cells.For example, CDK4 and CDK6 active cells in the first G1 phase to thelater stages where the cell divides in two. In many cancers types,these two enzymes are over-expressed, ensuring continued growth. EP 0332991, a small molecule synthesized by Pfizer is exceptionally selective for CDK4 and CDK6. Dr. Chen-Kiang says, "Since the program of gene expression is coupled to the cell cycle, we hypothesized that inhibition of gene expression CDK4/CDK6 remains scheduled for early G1, while avoiding gene expression time scheduled for other cell cycle phases "
The researchers discovered a botezomib which hold the G1 phase, itcauses the cell to lose a protein called IRF4, a essential factor for thesurvival of myeloma cells, and won several pro-apoptotic proteins."These findings demonstrate for the first time the genes survival andapoptosis are regulated by cell cycle in cancer cells, and suggest newmolecular targets for intervention," Dr. Chen-Kiang
Telomeres are sequences at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes.-They protect chromosomes and prevent the degradation of DNA- Preventing fusion with other chromosomes- Facilitate duplication without losing end
These have the feature to become shorter with increasing celldivision, so are considered markers of biological and cell aging.In the study the researchersobtained blood samplesfrom 5.243 women age 42 to69 years, and measured thelongitus their telomeres.
They obtained the result that a high level of phobic anxiety is arisk factor with shorter telomeres.Therefore this study wants to make a directly relationship withpremature aging and phobic anxiety, although this study cantprove cause and effect or problem came first, the anxiety orshorter telomeres.
The modification in the cell cycle,may be the answer for the cure ofcancer, because it will preventbad cells reproduceindiscriminately giving thedoctors a chance that the diseasedoes not develop further andtherefore be able to remove thetumor.
The repair of damagedorgans could be achievedthrough the modificationof this cycle, because ifwe could accelerate theprocess to create goodnew cells we couldimprove the quality oflife for many patients.But in this case wouldhave to consider how tostop this process whenno longer needed,because otherwise wecould lead to cancer.
Understand processes such as aging and growth are intimatelyrelated issues with the cell cycle, because depending on how is thiscycle will be able to see macroscopic signs.Molecular medicine has become the new approach to treatment, soany improvement on this, a great knowledge brought
- MARTINEZ SÁNCHEZ, Lina María. Biología molecular. 2. ed. Medellín: UPB.Fac. de Medicina, 2006. 208 p. 55 – 58- CICLO CELULAR Y DUPLICACIÓN DEL ADN [Genomas Sur]. Argentina.Márquez Silvia, Ifrán Sergio Daniel, Zabala Enrique. [ July 15 / 2012 ]http:/genimasur.com/lecturas/Guia12a.htm-STOPPING AND STARTING CANCER CELL CYCLE WEAKENS AND DEFEATSMULTIPLE MYELOMA [ Weill Conell Medical Collage ] NEW YORK June 21, 2012[ July 15 / 2012 ]http://weill.cornell.edu/new/releases/wcmc/wcmc_2012/06_21_12.shtml- ANXIETY LINKED TO SHORTENED TELOMERES, ACCELERATED AGING[Science Daily] July 11, 2012 [ July 17 / 2012 ]http://www.sciencedaly.com/releases/2012/07/120711210102