Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Basic Cardiac     The    Heart
The Heart• To understand the ECG, it helps to understand  the heart and how the heart works
The Heart• Fun Fact  – The average heart beats 100,000 times, pumping    about 2,000 gallons of blood each day!!
The Heart• Fun Fact  – The adult heart weighs approximately 11oz and is    about the size of its owner’s fist     • A pers...
The Heart• Your heart is a muscular organ that acts like a  pump to send blood throughout your body• Your heart is located...
The Heart• Your Heart is vital to your health and nearly  everything that goes on in your body  – Without the heart’s pump...
The Heart• Pericardium  – Protective sac that surrounds the heart     • Within the pericardium is about 10 mL of serous fl...
Heart Chambers• The inside of your heart is divided into four  chambers
Heart Chambers• The two upper chambers of your heart are  called atria• The atria receive and collect blood
Heart Chambers• The right atrium  – Receives deoxygenated blood returning from the    body through the inferior and superi...
Heart Chambers• The left atrium  – Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs    through the four pulmonary veins
Heart Chambers• The interatrial septum divides the chambers  and helps them contract• Contraction of the atria forces bloo...
Heart Chambers• The two lower chambers of your heart are  called ventricles• The ventricles pump blood out of your heart  ...
Heart Chambers• Right ventricle  – Receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it    through the pulmonary arteries to ...
Heart Chambers• Left ventricle  – Receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium    and pumps it through the aorta and the...
Heart Chambers• The right and left sides of your heart are  divided by an internal wall of tissue called the  septum
Great Vessels• There are blood vessels attached to the heart  that transport blood to and from the lungs  and body  – Pulm...
Great Vessels• Pulmonary arteries and veins  – Transfer blood between the heart and lungs
Great Vessels• Aorta  – Delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the    body
Great Vessels• Superior and Inferior Vena Cava  – Send unoxygenated blood from the body to the    heart
The Heart as a Pump• The left side  – Pumps oxygenated blood and nutrients to the    body’s organs, muscles, and tissues• ...
Heart Valves• With each heartbeat, the heart relaxes and  contracts• During relaxation  – The heart relaxes and fills with...
Heart Valves• For the heart to function properly, your blood  flows in only one direction  – Your heart’s valves make this...
Heart Valves• The valves make sure the blood travels in only  one direction                                               ...
Heart Valves• Healthy valves open and close in very exact  coordination with the pumping action of your  heart’s atria and...
Heart Valves• Four Valves of the Heart  – Aortic  – Mitral  – Pulmonary  – Tricuspid
Heart Valves• Tricuspid valve  – Regulates blood flow between the right atrium    and right ventricle
Heart Valves• Pulmonary valve  – Controls blood flow from the right ventricle into    the pulmonary artery, which carries ...
Heart Valves• Mitral valve  – Lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from    the left atrium into the left ventricle
Heart Valves• Aortic valve  – Opens the way for oxygen-rich blood to pass from    the left ventricle into the aorta, your ...
Heart ValvesAtrioventricular (AV)                 Semilunar (SL)• Tricuspid valve                     • Pulmonic valve   –...
Coronary circulation• The heart has it’s own circulatory system to  supply it with oxygen (coronary arteries) and  to remo...
Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction• Myocardial ischemia  – Occurs when the flow of blood through a coronary    artery is d...
Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction• Myocardial Infarction (MI) or Heart Attack  – Occurs when one of the arteries that sup...
Layers of the Heart Wall• The heart wall is made up of three tissue  layers  – Epicardium  – Myocardium  – Endocardium
Layers of the Heart Wall• Epicardium  – Is the external or outer layer of the heart. This is    where the coronary arterie...
Layers of the Heart Wall• Myocardium  – Is the middle and thickest layer of the heart and is    responsible for the contra...
Layers of the Heart Wall• Endocardium  – Is the innermost layer of the heart
Cardiac Cells• There are two basic types of cardiac cells in  the heart:  – Pacemaker  – Myocardial cells
Cardiac Cells• Pacemaker cells (electrical cells)  – Responsible for the spontaneous generation and    conduction of elect...
Cardiac Cells• Myocardial cells (working cells)  – Contain contractile filaments that are    interconnected  – When electr...
Properties of Cardiac Cells• Automaticity  – Is the ability of the pacemaker cells to    spontaneously initiate an electri...
Properties of Cardiac Cells• Conductivity   – Is a property that refers to the ability of all cardiac     cells to receive...
Properties of Cardiac CellsType of Cardiac Cell Where Found         Primary Function      PropertiesMyocardial cells     M...
Autonomic Nervous System Effects on            the Heart• The nervous system innervates the heart and  alters the heart ra...
Autonomic Nervous System Effects on            the Heart• Parasympathetic nerve fibers  – Originate from the inhibitory ce...
Autonomic Nervous System Effects on            the Heart• Sympathetic nerve fibers  – Originate from the accelerator cente...
Understanding the Heart’s Electrical               System• The heart has an internal electrical system that  controls the ...
Understanding the Heart’s Electrical             System
Understanding the Heart’s Electrical              System• The normal conduction Pathway  – The SA node fires causing atria...
Parts of the Electrical Conduction                   System•   SA node•   AV node•   Bundle of His•   Right and Left Bundl...
Parts of the Electrical Conduction                 System• SA (Sino-atrial) node  – Located in the right upper atrium  – C...
Parts of the Electrical Conduction                 System• AV (atrioventricular) node  – Located in the lower right atrium...
Parts of the Electrical Conduction                 System• Bundle of His  – Directly attached to the AV node and extends  ...
Parts of the Electrical Conduction                 System• Right and Left Bundle Branches  – Divided from the Bundle of Hi...
Parts of the Electrical Conduction                 System• Purkinje Fibers  – Subdivided into smaller fibers from the righ...
Understanding the Heart’s Electrical              System• The normal conduction Pathway  – The SA node fires causing atria...
Pacemaker Sites of the Conduction               System• There are three intrinsic pacemaker sites  within the conduction s...
Pacemaker Sites of the Conduction               System• The intrinsic rate of each site is as follows:   – SA node      • ...
Pacemaker Sites of the Conduction               System• Normally, the SA node is the pacemaker of the  heart  – If the sin...
The Cardiac Cycle• The period from the beginning of one  heartbeat to the beginning of one heartbeat  to the beginning of ...
The Cardiac Cycle• Mechanical Events  – The mechanical part of the cardiac cycle is divided    into two phases: diastole (...
The Cardiac Cycle• Mechanical Events  – During atrial systole (contraction) and ventricular    diastole (relaxation), the ...
The Cardiac Cycle• Mechanical Events  – During atrial diastole (relaxation) and ventricular    systole (contraction), the ...
The Cardiac Cycle• Electrical Events  – The electrical events that occur in the heart    muscle are called depolarization ...
The Cardiac Cycle• Electrical Events  – Depolarization is the formation and spread of    electrical activity in the heart ...
The Cardiac Cycle• Electrical Events  – Repolarization is the return of the cells to the    resting or polarized state  – ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

The heart

560

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
560
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "The heart"

  1. 1. Basic Cardiac The Heart
  2. 2. The Heart• To understand the ECG, it helps to understand the heart and how the heart works
  3. 3. The Heart• Fun Fact – The average heart beats 100,000 times, pumping about 2,000 gallons of blood each day!!
  4. 4. The Heart• Fun Fact – The adult heart weighs approximately 11oz and is about the size of its owner’s fist • A person’s heart size and weight are influenced by their age, body weight and build, frequency of physical exercise, and heart disease
  5. 5. The Heart• Your heart is a muscular organ that acts like a pump to send blood throughout your body• Your heart is located under the ribcage in the center of your chest between your right and left lung• Your heart is at the center of your circulatory system, which delivers blood to all areas of your body
  6. 6. The Heart• Your Heart is vital to your health and nearly everything that goes on in your body – Without the heart’s pumping action, blood can’t circulate within your body• Your blood carries the oxygen and nutrients that your organs need to function normally. – Blood also carries carbon dioxide, a waste product, to your lungs to be passed out of your body and into the air
  7. 7. The Heart• Pericardium – Protective sac that surrounds the heart • Within the pericardium is about 10 mL of serous fluid that acts as a lubricant, preventing friction as the heart beats
  8. 8. Heart Chambers• The inside of your heart is divided into four chambers
  9. 9. Heart Chambers• The two upper chambers of your heart are called atria• The atria receive and collect blood
  10. 10. Heart Chambers• The right atrium – Receives deoxygenated blood returning from the body through the inferior and superior vena cavae and from the heart through the coronary sinus
  11. 11. Heart Chambers• The left atrium – Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the four pulmonary veins
  12. 12. Heart Chambers• The interatrial septum divides the chambers and helps them contract• Contraction of the atria forces blood into the ventricles below
  13. 13. Heart Chambers• The two lower chambers of your heart are called ventricles• The ventricles pump blood out of your heart into the circulatory system to other parts of your body
  14. 14. Heart Chambers• Right ventricle – Receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide
  15. 15. Heart Chambers• Left ventricle – Receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it through the aorta and then out to the rest of the body
  16. 16. Heart Chambers• The right and left sides of your heart are divided by an internal wall of tissue called the septum
  17. 17. Great Vessels• There are blood vessels attached to the heart that transport blood to and from the lungs and body – Pulmonary arteries and veins – Aorta – Superior and inferior vena cava
  18. 18. Great Vessels• Pulmonary arteries and veins – Transfer blood between the heart and lungs
  19. 19. Great Vessels• Aorta – Delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the body
  20. 20. Great Vessels• Superior and Inferior Vena Cava – Send unoxygenated blood from the body to the heart
  21. 21. The Heart as a Pump• The left side – Pumps oxygenated blood and nutrients to the body’s organs, muscles, and tissues• The right side – Pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen
  22. 22. Heart Valves• With each heartbeat, the heart relaxes and contracts• During relaxation – The heart relaxes and fills with blood• During contraction – The heart squeezes and pumps blood out to the body
  23. 23. Heart Valves• For the heart to function properly, your blood flows in only one direction – Your heart’s valves make this possible
  24. 24. Heart Valves• The valves make sure the blood travels in only one direction Blood travels from the body to the right atrium Through the Through the aortic valve into tricuspid valve the aorta and into the right out to the body ventricle Traveling into Through the the left atrium, pulmonic valve through the into the mitral valve into pulmonary the left arteries ventricle
  25. 25. Heart Valves• Healthy valves open and close in very exact coordination with the pumping action of your heart’s atria and ventricles• When your heart beats, the valves make a “LUB-DUB” sound that can be heard with a stethoscope
  26. 26. Heart Valves• Four Valves of the Heart – Aortic – Mitral – Pulmonary – Tricuspid
  27. 27. Heart Valves• Tricuspid valve – Regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle
  28. 28. Heart Valves• Pulmonary valve – Controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery, which carries blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen
  29. 29. Heart Valves• Mitral valve – Lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the left atrium into the left ventricle
  30. 30. Heart Valves• Aortic valve – Opens the way for oxygen-rich blood to pass from the left ventricle into the aorta, your body’s largest artery, where it is delivered to the rest of your body
  31. 31. Heart ValvesAtrioventricular (AV) Semilunar (SL)• Tricuspid valve • Pulmonic valve – Right side of the heart – Right side of the heart – Separates right atrium and – Between right ventricle and right ventricle pulmonary artery• Mitral valve (bicuspid) • Aortic valve – Left side of the heart – Left side of the heart – Separates left atrium and left – Between left ventricle and ventricle aorta
  32. 32. Coronary circulation• The heart has it’s own circulatory system to supply it with oxygen (coronary arteries) and to remove deoxygenated blood (coronary veins)
  33. 33. Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction• Myocardial ischemia – Occurs when the flow of blood through a coronary artery is decreased, the cardiac muscle tissue fed by the coronary artery is deprived of oxygen and nutrients
  34. 34. Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction• Myocardial Infarction (MI) or Heart Attack – Occurs when one of the arteries that supplies the heart muscle becomes blocked – Blockage may be caused by spasm of the artery or by atherosclerosis with acute clot formation – The blockage results in damaged tissue and a permanent loss of contraction of this portion of the heart muscle
  35. 35. Layers of the Heart Wall• The heart wall is made up of three tissue layers – Epicardium – Myocardium – Endocardium
  36. 36. Layers of the Heart Wall• Epicardium – Is the external or outer layer of the heart. This is where the coronary arteries and veins are found
  37. 37. Layers of the Heart Wall• Myocardium – Is the middle and thickest layer of the heart and is responsible for the contraction of the heart
  38. 38. Layers of the Heart Wall• Endocardium – Is the innermost layer of the heart
  39. 39. Cardiac Cells• There are two basic types of cardiac cells in the heart: – Pacemaker – Myocardial cells
  40. 40. Cardiac Cells• Pacemaker cells (electrical cells) – Responsible for the spontaneous generation and conduction of electrical impulses – Found in the electrical conduction system of the heart
  41. 41. Cardiac Cells• Myocardial cells (working cells) – Contain contractile filaments that are interconnected – When electrically stimulated, the filaments slide together and the myocardial cell contracts – These cells form the myocardium (muscular layer of the heart) – These are the working cells and are responsible for contraction and relaxation
  42. 42. Properties of Cardiac Cells• Automaticity – Is the ability of the pacemaker cells to spontaneously initiate an electrical impulse. Only pacemaker cells have the property of automaticity – fires impulses regularly• Contractility – Refers to the ability of the myocardial cells to shorten causing cardiac muscle contraction in response to an electrical stimulus
  43. 43. Properties of Cardiac Cells• Conductivity – Is a property that refers to the ability of all cardiac cells to receive and conduct an electrical impulse to an adjacent cardiac cell• Excitability – Refers to the electrical irritability of all cardiac cells because of an ionic imbalance across the membranes of cells
  44. 44. Properties of Cardiac CellsType of Cardiac Cell Where Found Primary Function PropertiesMyocardial cells Myocardium Contraction and Contractility“working cells” relaxation ExcitabilityPacemaker cells Electrical Generation and Automaticity“Electrical cells” conduction system conduction of Conductivity electrical impulses Excitability
  45. 45. Autonomic Nervous System Effects on the Heart• The nervous system innervates the heart and alters the heart rate, force of contraction, cardiac output, and blood pressure when stimulated
  46. 46. Autonomic Nervous System Effects on the Heart• Parasympathetic nerve fibers – Originate from the inhibitory center of the brain via the vagus nerve • Stimulation of this nerve causes the release of acetylcholine, which decreases the heart rate, force of contraction, cardiac output , and blood pressure
  47. 47. Autonomic Nervous System Effects on the Heart• Sympathetic nerve fibers – Originate from the accelerator center in the brain – Stimulation of these nerve fibers results in the release of norepinephrine, which increases the heart rate, force of contraction, cardiac output, and blood pressure
  48. 48. Understanding the Heart’s Electrical System• The heart has an internal electrical system that controls the speed and rhythm of the heartbeat.• With each heartbeat, an electrical signal spreads from the top of the heart to the bottom• As it travels, the electrical signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood• The process repeats with each new heartbeat• A problem with any part of this process can cause an arrhythmia
  49. 49. Understanding the Heart’s Electrical System
  50. 50. Understanding the Heart’s Electrical System• The normal conduction Pathway – The SA node fires causing atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles – The impulse travels through the atria to the AV node • The AV node briefly delays the impulse allowing time for the ventricles to fill with blood – The impulse then travels through the Bundle of HIS, right and left bundle branches and Purkinje fibers • Causing the ventricles to contract – The ventricles then relax, then the heartbeat process starts all over again in the SA node – Youtube: The Hearts electrical system (0.27)
  51. 51. Parts of the Electrical Conduction System• SA node• AV node• Bundle of His• Right and Left Bundle Branches• Purkinje Fibers
  52. 52. Parts of the Electrical Conduction System• SA (Sino-atrial) node – Located in the right upper atrium – Called the normal pacemaker of the heart • It initiates the electrical impulse that is sent through the heart
  53. 53. Parts of the Electrical Conduction System• AV (atrioventricular) node – Located in the lower right atrium and functions as a “gatekeeper” to the ventricles – It delays the impulses from the SA node and atria for a fraction of a second before sending the impulse to the ventricles – It also will prevent extra beats from being conducted to the ventricles
  54. 54. Parts of the Electrical Conduction System• Bundle of His – Directly attached to the AV node and extends from the top left corner of the right ventricle to the top of the intraventricular septum – It sends the impulses from the AV node rapidly to the lower part of the conduction system in the ventricles
  55. 55. Parts of the Electrical Conduction System• Right and Left Bundle Branches – Divided from the Bundle of His – Found in the intraventricular septum and across the lower portion of the right and left ventricles
  56. 56. Parts of the Electrical Conduction System• Purkinje Fibers – Subdivided into smaller fibers from the right and left bundle branches – Distribute the electrical impulse from the bundle branches to the individual muscle cells in the ventricles
  57. 57. Understanding the Heart’s Electrical System• The normal conduction Pathway – The SA node fires causing atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles – The impulse travels through the atria to the AV node • The AV node briefly delays the impulse allowing time for the ventricles to fill with blood – The impulse then travels through the Bundle of HIS, right and left bundle branches and Purkinje fibers • Causing the ventricles to contract – The ventricles then relax, then the heartbeat process starts all over again in the SA node – Youtube: The Hearts electrical system (0.27)
  58. 58. Pacemaker Sites of the Conduction System• There are three intrinsic pacemaker sites within the conduction system• Each site can produce an electrical impulse or impulses and control the heart rate
  59. 59. Pacemaker Sites of the Conduction System• The intrinsic rate of each site is as follows: – SA node • 60-100 bpm – AV junction • 40-60 bpm – Ventricles • 20-40 bpm
  60. 60. Pacemaker Sites of the Conduction System• Normally, the SA node is the pacemaker of the heart – If the sinus node slows down or fails to initiate depolarization (contraction), either the AV junction or the ventricles will spontaneously produce electrical impulses
  61. 61. The Cardiac Cycle• The period from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next one• Consists of 2 events – Mechanical – Electrical
  62. 62. The Cardiac Cycle• Mechanical Events – The mechanical part of the cardiac cycle is divided into two phases: diastole (rest) and systole (contraction). The atria and ventricles contract and relax in tandem to effectively pump blood through the heart
  63. 63. The Cardiac Cycle• Mechanical Events – During atrial systole (contraction) and ventricular diastole (relaxation), the atria conract and squeeze blood into the ventricles – The ventricles are “at rest” and fill with blood
  64. 64. The Cardiac Cycle• Mechanical Events – During atrial diastole (relaxation) and ventricular systole (contraction), the atria are “at rest” and fill with blood, while the ventricles contract and squeeze blood out of the heart
  65. 65. The Cardiac Cycle• Electrical Events – The electrical events that occur in the heart muscle are called depolarization and repolarization – The exchange of electrolytes (minerals in your body that carry an electric charge) across myocardial cell walls creates the electrical events that stimulate the heart muscle to contract – The major electrolytes that affect cardiac function are sodium and potassium
  66. 66. The Cardiac Cycle• Electrical Events – Depolarization is the formation and spread of electrical activity in the heart – During depolarization, the inside of the cell becomes more positive – Depolarization results in contraction of the heart muscle – During depolarization, the cardiac cells are in a refractory state, which means that they are resistant to additional electrical activity
  67. 67. The Cardiac Cycle• Electrical Events – Repolarization is the return of the cells to the resting or polarized state – During repolarization, the inside of the cell becomes more negatively charged • Known as the recovery phase – Repolarization results in relaxation of the heart muscle
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×