How Do Portraits Communicate Cultural Identity Part 1
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Part One of an essay on how portraits communicate cultural identity. Alan Evans BA Hons Photography

Part One of an essay on how portraits communicate cultural identity. Alan Evans BA Hons Photography

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How Do Portraits Communicate Cultural Identity Part 1 How Do Portraits Communicate Cultural Identity Part 1 Document Transcript

  • Alan Evans BA Hons Photography HOW DO PORTRAITS COMMUNICATE CULTURAL IDENTITY The proposal is to explore the way in which portraits communicate cultural identity. Looking at key theories surrounding portraiture past and present. Beginning with a brief history of portraiture. Looking at what portraits were used for. Exploring Van Gough’s self-portraiture and his portrayal of ordinary people. The people whose portraits were painted and the reasons they were painted. Considering the three elements of portraiture. 1. Likeness 2. Type 3. Commissioning A brief history of the invention of photography and its affect on the painted portrait. Looking at how the range of people sitting for portraits changed. Documenting the brief period of pictorialism and the popularity of the pinhole camera. Likening George Eastman’s Box Brownie and the film camera revolution to today’s Digital revolution. Following the 1950’s exhibition of man, Post war photographers began to document their environments. I will be looking at the work of David Hurn, Bert Hardy, Ian Berry and Robert Frank. Each of these photographers made a photographic study of their own national identity. I will be making comparisons between the differences and similarities in their work and relating this to the social ‘norms’ of the time. I will be looking at the impact that the photographer Martin Parr made through his photographic studies of specific groups of people, their surroundings and their cultural identity. This will aim to cover his work at Hebden Bridge, New Brighton. There are comparisons to be made with the earlier photographers. I will also be looking at the way in which portraiture has been subverted and redefined by contemporary photographers. I will be looking specifically at the portrayal of ethnic and marginalised groups of people. The photographers Dinu Li, Sonia Boyce, Philip Lorca diCorcia, Boris Mikhailov, Ingrid Pollard, Eileen Perrier and Margareta Klingberg have all been involved in documenting cultural identity in some way. I will summarise by looking at the role of the Internet as a living, changing portrait of a universal cultural identity.
  • This paper aims to establish how portraiture communicates cultural identity. This will be achieved by looking at the key theories and ideas past and present of portrait artists and photographers. The intention is to focus on the use of portraiture pre photography and the representation of cultural identity through paintings and the arts at the turn of the last century. Looking at the invention of photography and the affect it had on the traditions of portraiture. The people making portraits and the people being portrayed. Looking at the way in which black culture was portrayed through the arts, the National Geographic Magazine and artists from the turn of the last century onwards. Taking a dictionary definition of portraiture, culture and identity. The paper will aim to establish whether photographers agree with these definitions and highlight the way in which they are adhering to or challenging them. It will compare the work of photographers whom have attempted to document their National Cultural Identity. The paper will also attempt to highlight emerging contemporary portrait photographers who are dealing with cultural identity. It will also attempt to identify a pattern in the circumstances, which lead to the photography of marginalised, people from other cultures. It will also attempt to highlight a shift in direction of racism from the black community towards the Muslim community and immigrants. The 19th century was a time of technological change, of increased mechanization and automation. A sense of optimism about the future and an embracing attitude to technology prevailed. With new advances came the fantastic growth of cities throughout Western society. The pre-industrial rapidly gave way to a world of urban and eventually suburban workers. As new industries developed, people moved to the cities to secure employment. This caused social balances to shift forming an immense new class, which Karl Marx called ‘the Proletariat’. Another shift came with the enormous rise of urban shopkeepers, professionals, small business owners and other non-aristocratic property owners. These people became the most dominant of the classes both economically and socially and were known as “The Bourgeoisie”. By 1900 advertising agencies, firstly in America then Europe helped to stimulate consumer demand and create products that were considered desirable. The simultaneous development of mechanised transport, and advancement in communications linked cities around the world. Some key inventions that became fundamental to life in the new century available to the everyday customer included electric lighting, domestic appliances, the telephone, the gramophone and cinema. The automobile also played a key role in making rural and urban communities more accessible to each other. The radio and the airplane - both transformed people’s lives in terms of dissolving national and regional boundaries. The airplane also prompted travel and encouraged tourism.
  • At the turn of the century the Exposition Universelle was being held in Paris. Black visitors flocked to see the ‘American Negro Exhibit’ on the Rue des Nations. The items exhibited included, photographs, books, fine art, handmade products, industrial products and numerous other items made by independent black artisans. In his book, Black Art A Cultural History, Richard J Powell describes this as being ‘A shining example of what was possible for any oppressed people whether in Africa, Europe, or in the Americas, once the veil of slavery had been lifted, and they had a chance to do something for themselves’. (Richard J Powell, 1997, pg24) The artist Henry Ossawa Tanner, Sculptor May Howard Jackson and photographer C. M. Battey were producing new imagery of black life. Powell describes Tanner’s painting ‘The Banjo Lesson’ as ‘a luminous pictorial narrative about learning, cultural nourishment and cross-generational affection’. (Richard J Powell, 1997, pg26). This image could be deemed as portraying a positive cultural identity. Not all was positive following the emancipation of slavery. White black faced minstrels, comics, art, music and dance orientated towards racist representations of black people. The illustrator Edward W. Kimble is noted as having created his own one-man Negro–stereotype industry through dozens of racist illustrations for books and journals of the period. In a twist of irony the man responsible for putting the word ‘coon’ into common usage was the black Vaudeville performer and composer Ernest Hogan. Powell suggests that Hogan’s song; ‘All Coons Look Alike to Me’ started the ‘coon’ craze and racist representations of blacks worldwide. Images such as this could be deemed as a negative portrayal of cultural identity. The public had to decide which of these artistic representations were accurate. This image, ‘Candle Lightin Time’, was taken by Leigh Richmond Miner (1901). Miner was a member of Hampton Institute’s camera club. The institute was founded in 1868 in Hampton Virginia for the children of ex-slaves and reservation bound American Indians. By 1900 it had almost 1,000 students enrolled. Historian and black activist William, Edward Burghardt Du Bois championed cultural expression and believed that paintings like Tanner’s ‘Banjo
  • Lesson’ and photographs like this one were the guiding lights in the vast gloom and darkness which followed the American Civil War. Powell describes the portrait as ‘Communicating African Americans that stressed both their slave heritage and what Du Bois described as that transfigured spark of divinity’. (Richard J. Powell, 1997, pg33) Prior to the invention of photography, painting was seen as the visual medium through which the world was represented. Wealthy individuals commissioned portrait artists whom worked on the painting over a period of time. The subject was often portrayed amongst items, which symbolised their social status. Books, jewellery, gowns or anything, which communicated wealth or status. Miniature portrait paintings were commonplace in aristocratic households. Portraits have often been presented to others as a gift. They have appeared in many forms including, paintings, sculptures, drawings, engravings, coins and medals. They can also appear in newspapers, magazines, on pottery, mosaics tapestries and bank notes and of course, photographs. The photograph is used to symbolise friendship and displayed in a place of prominence within households worldwide. In the fifteenth and sixteenth century the exchange of portraits was seen as a means of affirming friendships, particularly amongst young men. The artists Van Gough and Gauguin exchanged portraits shortly before they came together at Arles in 1888. Vincent Van Gough made numerous portraits of people in cafes, brothels, or simply working the land. This portraiture provided an insight into the cultural identity of individuals and a nation. In his painting, The Potato Eaters Van Gough states that “I have tried to emphasize that these people, eating their potatoes in the lamplight, have dug the earth with those same hands they put in the dish, and so it speaks of manual labour and of how they have honestly earned their food’. (Cutts, Josephine & Smith, James, 2004, pg49) Van Gough saw his subjects as peers. He was preoccupied with peasants and the working classes. Jean-Francois Millet inspired Van Gough. Millet was also painting scenes of social realism. Van Gough was so inspired by Millet that he began to copy some of his works. The most famous being The Siesta, 1889-90. The nature of people being portrayed was changing. Portraits of ordinary people, servants, farmers, etc were beginning to become commonplace. The nature of art also changed, as collectors could be a factory owner or an aristocrat. The church and state no longer had the monopoly on commissioning works of art. Artists began to experiment with new subject matter and new styles. Artists rejected the depiction of historical events in favour
  • of portraying modern contemporary life. Creating images that presented and analysed class relations, family structures and individual anxieties. The term ‘Modernism’ arose through these radical changes in artist’s attitudes. Modern artists began to champion innovation, inventions and individuality. Modernist art developed as a series of movements. These included Impressionism, Symbolism, Post-Impressionism, Purism, Vortism, Dada and Futurism. Futurism, for example, celebrated technology and innovation with the glorification of speed. Artwork also became more accessible to the public during the 19th century. Accessibility developed in three ways. Through art museums and exhibitions, through lithography and through the modern medium of photography. Photography, developed in 1839 with inventors such as William H. F. Talbot and Louis Jaques- Mande Daguerre. Since its invention photography has been used for creative expression, as a record of the world or to present different perceptions of the world. Photographs have been used for personal mementos, historic records, pornography, factual evidence, fictional work, artistic work, propaganda and numerous other uses. It had a great effect on modern art. Exhibitions began to include the photographic medium. George Eastman the founder of Kodak brought film photography to the masses. Public interest in photography came with the development by Kodak of an easily portable hand held camera. A truly revolutionary and modern development that began to limit the necessity of the professional artist. Eastman’s invention was accompanied with his slogan "You press the button, we do the rest". It was not until the invention of photography that the ordinary man or woman was portrayed in large numbers. This was realised through a fad for the ‘carte de visite’. In 1854 Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi took out a patent on carte- de-visite photographs. These were small postcard sized images usually taken at a photographer’s studio. The subjects were photographed in front of a background, which included a number of props. These ranged from simple curtains to elaborate staged sets, which replicated a wild jungle scene or numerous other objects peculiar to the time. Actors, musicians and writers were placed on carte de visites. This formal set up for photographic portraiture was to become the ‘norm’ for many years to come. Portraits could now be completed within a short period of time without too much fuss. Photography was utilised by artists as a means of improving their workflow. Self-portraits could be constructed from the photograph rather than the artist sitting in front of a mirror. Despite predictions that photography heralded the death of painting, it went on to expand the potential.
  • Photographers set up studios in the main, but some took to the streets. From now on anyone could represent his or her own world and experiences. As a result births, weddings, deaths and other events in peoples lives became the arena of the amateur photographer. Portraiture became widespread. One of the earliest records of street – photojournalistic photography occurred in New York. Jacob Riis emigrated to New York in 1870 and became a police photographer. Riis went into the slums and cellars of New York City in the late 1800’s. His images documented the awful conditions that some immigrants had to live in. He was so appalled at the conditions that he decided to devote himself to reform. His book, How The Other Half Lives, 1890, was the first of its kind to be illustrated with photographs. At the time these images were seen as documentary. Today they could be defined as portraiture. They serve to define the identity of individuals in the New York slums. One could argue that they also represent the ideas, beliefs, values and knowledge of that particular civilization at that particular time and therefore represent cultural identity. The French photographer Eugene Atget was taking photographs of street entertainers and prostitutes. New Realism images were appearing. As a result of the popularity of photography societies and publications began to be formed worldwide. By 1899, the National Geographic Magazine was being circulated. The magazine kept an emotional distance from the rest of the world to begin with. This was partially to do with the fact that communication was cumbersome and long distance travel was uncommon. There was some coverage of the First World War and Immigrants flocking to America in search of a better life. The world was experiencing change and revolution. In 1906 Ghandi began a passive resistance in Natal, India. There was rapid industrial growth. There was extreme poverty in many parts of the world. Racism was prevalent and aimed predominantly at black people. There was a fascination with celebrity and The First World War was about to break out. The war had an affect on both painters and photographers. The German artist Ernst Ludwig Kirchner completed a self-portrait shortly after being released from active service. Kirchner had suffered a nervous breakdown and was exiled to a sanatorium. The portrait of Kirchner as a soldier with an amputated hand is meant to convey his sense of despair and identity crisis. The general public may have been shocked by such a graphic image given that photographs from the war were not freely circulated in the newspapers and magazines of the time. Kirchner had also produced a
  • lithograph titled ‘Tapdancing Negro’ 1914. Richard Powell describes the image as ‘an overture to black popular culture’ (Richard J. Powell, 1997, pg31). Powell goes on to suggest that ‘Most educated blacks of this period rejected those aspects of black culture which perpetuated certain notions of black servility, racial jokes, derogatory pictures, and other disparaging displays’. (Richard J. Powell, 1997, pg31) Thousands of black soldiers had enlisted and fought in a war in Europe to uphold democratic ideals and liberties which were not available to them. The Soldier, 1919 by Edward A. Harleston shows a World War 1 black soldier arms folded with a knowing look. Powell describes this as an embodiment of what African Americans felt about the war. ‘Frustration and simmering anger of knowing that duty to God and country will not be sufficiently acknowledged or rewarded’. (Richard J Powell, 1997, pg39). Powell describes the image in a way, which suggests that he is referring to the broken promises of racial equality, which sparked the lynchings, and race riots of 1919. ‘Harleston’s black veteran, wearing medals, insignia, and an expression which tells of campaigns against both the Germans and his fellow white Army officers, epitomized the growing realization among many blacks that World War 1 was merely a prelude to greater and more overwhelming battles on the home front’. (Richard J. Powell, 1997, pg 39-40). Jean Renoir the son of the impressionist painter, Auguste Renoir made a film about the power of the Charleston, a popular black dance step, Sur Un Air De Charleston, 1926. Renoir’s message in the film was that ‘black creativity was modern society’s only salvation and hope’. The dancer Josephine Baker may have been responding to this call. At nineteen, Baker appeared on the stage of the Champs-Elysee’s Music hall in the 1925 stage show, La Revue Negre. Powell explains that Baker was ‘Virtually nude and carried upside down, like a wounded gazelle, on the back of the robust, Martiniquan dancer Joe Alex, even the most cosmopolitan Parisians were stunned’ (Richard J. Powell, 1997, pg57). Powell suggests that Baker single-handedly defined the ‘New Negro’ in Paris. The term ‘New Negro’ meant an enlightened, politically astute African American. The portrait of the poet Langston Hughes by Winold Reiss (1925) is described as ‘perfectly capturing the common ground from which
  • these newest structures and racial pre-occupations sprang’. Powell asks if it was ironic that a white German artist was asked to portray this modern, black persona. Powell suggests that it made sense given the artist’s cultural distance from American racism. It was the way in which the ‘New Negro’ movement wanted to portray African American identity in art. Paul Colin’s lithograph of a caged and simian-like Josephine Baker, 1927 epitomized the primitive response to black culture exploited by both black and white, not only in France but also in much of the Western world. The African Culture was seen as exotic and dangerous. Technological developments and the increase in world travel were about to offer an alternative representation of black cultural identity. From the 1920's cameras with conventional lenses were cheap and available to a wider audience. Realism found favour over Pictorialism. There was a newfound freedom resulting from lightweight, small format cameras with fast lenses, and ideas of documentary truth. Representation and interpretation of the world was now the prerogative of the masses. Cameras were at hand to record just about any event, which unfolded. Ordinary people were making history through the act of capturing decisive moments on film. Images were being recorded in working class ghettos, family homes, war zones and far flung regions of the world. The new medium was being used to record history in the making. We begin to see character studies and environmental portraits. The photographer James VanDerZee took photographs of ordinary people in Harlem, America, dressed up in order to look glamorous and wealthy. Powell does not see these images as portraits, which map out a cultural identity. He describes the work as ‘A modern, racial motif that transcended a specific black place or black people’, (Richard J Powell, 1997, pg53). Midsummer Night In Harlem by Palmer C Hayden, 1936 is described by Powell as ‘another brash, expressionistic scene of blacks relaxing in an outdoor, urban setting’. (Richard J. Powell, 1997, pg36). We can see a similarity between the works of art completed under Roosevelt’s Federal Arts projects (1935 – 43) and the images appearing in the National Geographic magazine around the same time. The predominant style is figurative, naturalistic and narrative driven. Magazines like the National Geographic were becoming more popular as a result of the public’s fascination for images of people from other cultures. One could argue that portraiture has played a part in documenting these changes but what is a portrait and how does it communicate cultural identity?
  • A dictionary definition of a portrait reads as follows, ‘1. A painting or other likeness of an individual, esp. of the face’. (The Collins Concise Dictionary Of The English Language, pg885) In her book, Portraiture, Shearer West suggests that this definition is too simple. West believes that portraits are not just likenesses but works of art that engage with the ideas of identity as they are perceived, represented, and understood in different times and places. West defines identity as encompassing the character, personality, social standing, relationships, profession, age, and gender of the portrait subject. West does not include any reference to a person’s culture. One could argue that this could also be apparent in a portrait. Historically generic qualities attributed to a sitter have been conveyed through gesture, expression, role-play and props as clues to the sitter’s worth. Shearer West lists three considerations linked to the complexities of portraiture. They are, likeness, type and commissioning. West suggests that the first attribute of likeness is unstable and can differ according to whichever artist or photographer is responsible for the creating the likeness. Historically, artists used a variety of items to achieve this. The Romans used death masks to faithfully reproduce the likeness of the subject. The nineteenth century artist Gilbert Start used life masks for his likenesses. The invention of photography allowed the artist Degas to achieve as exact a likeness as possible of his subjects. This is illustrated in this excerpt from the diary of Julie Manet. ‘Monsieur Degas can think of nothing but photography. He has invited us all to dinner next week and he’ll take our photograph by artificial light; the only thing is you have to pose for three minutes. He wanted to see if we would make good models and made Mr. Renoir pose, but he started laughing’. (The Impressionists, pg213) West argues that the drive for likeness in portraiture must be balanced against the limitations of representations, which can only offer a partial, abstracted, generic, or idealized view of any sitter. One could argue that the second attribute of type is closely linked with photography. Greater numbers of people were recorded as a result of its invention. We could now record and compare vast numbers of people within the same occupation or culture. This approach could be described as scientific, one of ordering and studying large numbers of people in order to form conclusions about the human species. This too has its limitations of representations. The German photographer August Sanders produced a book, People of the twentieth century. His intention was to present reality in a
  • sober and detached manner. He divided his subjects into social categories, e.g. farmers, craftsmen, and other professions. He was not concerned with individual likeness but types. His approach only served to highlight the individuality of his subjects. Shearer West suggests that one of the most concise statements on dualism in portraiture comes from Erwin Panofsky. ‘A portrait aims by definition at two essentials… On the one hand it seeks to bring out whatever it is in the sitter that differs from the rest of humanity and would even differ from himself were he portrayed at a different moment or in a different situation: and this is what distinguishes a portrait from an ‘ideal’ figure or ‘type’. On the other hand it seeks to bring out whatever the sitter has in common with the rest of humanity and what remains in him regardless of place and time; and this is what distinguishes a portrait from a figure forming part of a genre painting or narrative’. (Shearer West, 20004, pg24). In her book, In Focus, 2004, Leah Bendavid - Val suggests that the dictionary definition of a portrait ignores intriguing possibilities. The book itself shows people photographed from behind, masked or half hidden. Bendavid -Val suggests that the word ‘portrait’ calls to mind self-conscious mug shots. The National Geographic is renowned and respected for its portraiture of cultural identity. The magazine’s images are meant to convey information about cultures rather than individuals. Placing people in information rich settings with the purpose of illustrating dress and lifestyle achieves this. A dictionary definition of culture is as follows, 1. The total of the inherited ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge, which constitute the shared bases of social action. 2. The total range of activities and ideas of a people. 3. A particular civilization at a particular period. 4. The artistic and social pursuits, expression, and tastes valued by a society or class. 5. The enlightenment or refinement resulting from these pursuits. (Collins Concise Dictionary Of The English Language, Pg272) Taking these definitions literally, a portrait, which communicates cultural identity, would have to be a painting or other likeness of an individual, especially of the face. It would also represent their ideas, beliefs, values, knowledge and their particular civilization at that time. It would also have to contain unique identifying characteristics by which it can be recognized. Portraits communicate cultural identity because they identify individual characteristics, signs and symbols, which are associated or represented within a particular culture or civilization at a particular time. Indicators
  • within the portrait may contain clues as to the cultural identity. Clothing, colour of skin, environmental surroundings and memorabilia can give contextual clues as to the cultural identity. Yenawine suggests that it has become more difficult to distinguish between cultures. ‘Because of time and circumstances, conquest, trading, migrating to find a better life or for some sort of freedom, new communication systems, and even intermarriage these distinct cultures have become rare’. (Philip Yenawine, 1995, pg10). Yenawine believes that ‘While a figure can be anyone, and is often generalized on purpose, a portrait tries to present both an accurate depiction and to some degree other aspects of a particular person’s character, personality, for example, or moral goodness or authority’. (Philip Yenawine, 1995, pg141). Leah Bendavid-Val writes in her introduction that ‘a person is far too complex to be revealed in any single instant’. (Leah Bendavid-Val, 2004, pg29). The National Geographic Society’s mission is to discover and present the world’s unknown places and populations. Bendavid - Val acknowledges that the book and the magazines accept that the portraits give only a suggestive glimpse as to the individual. According to Bendavid – Val, if we acknowledge this then it removes the burden of the photograph giving total insight. Instead, we are asked to open our hearts and heads to the truths and fantasies of photography itself. Bendavid - Val notes that in the early days of the magazine people were recorded as ethnic types, not as individuals. Bendavid - Val defines the 1930’s as an important period for photography. Photographers began working on the streets capturing people’s behaviour. Although Bendavid – Val questions whether these were portraits she acknowledges the democratization of portraiture through photography. The photographer Stuart Franklin has submitted numerous portraits to the National Geographic. He describes the early work in the magazine as ethnographic, lacking intimacy. Franklin cites Clifton Adams’ photograph of a Sardinian girl smiling, 1923, as ‘a paradigm shift in the National Geographic’s approach to portraiture’. (Stuart Franklin, 2004, pg119). The image is natural, unposed and meaningful. This is more in line with the images in the magazine today. Franklin suggests that there are two problems with portraiture. The first he suggests is that the picture fixes the subject passively in time and space. The second is that the
  • picture abstracts narrowly from dynamic, changing, everyday life. He is unsure of how a portrait should be judged as successful other than rendering immortal something of the mortal character of the subject. He also suggests that portraiture is more at home and more accomplished in immortalising loved ones. Bendavid-Val also places great value on family portraiture. She suggests that they are amongst the dearest possessions in almost every household. ‘The first pictures we care about which are framed, cared for and handed lovingly to next generations’. (Leah Bendavid-Val, 2004, pg72). I would also suggest that these family snapshots play an important part in allowing us to establish and acknowledge our cultural identity. This can be achieved through analysing not only the person or people in the snapshot but the information rich background containing objects which signify a particular time, place, fashion, etc. The 1940’s editions of National Geographic reflected the depression and the Second World War. A revolution of sorts took place with the improvement in the design of cameras and photographic film. National Geographic photographer Sam Abell relates these improvements to the freedom enjoyed by photographers and the subsequent results, which were seen in portraits. He compares this to the digital revolution that we are going through at present. Abell suggests that this freedom and speed to pursue moments in history defined the difference between portraiture pre 1940 and today. He likens the pre 1940 portraits to still life images. The Leica camera was to find popularity amongst young photographers. The young Robert Cappa was documenting the landings in Normandy. Cappa’s motto was, “If your pictures aren’t good enough, you aren’t close enough”. The photographer Dorothea Lange had no such problem. Abell cites Dorothea Lange’s portrait titled ‘Migrant Mother’ as one of the most powerful portraits of the period. The image did not appear in the 1930’s editions of the National Geographic. Abell informs us that ‘The portrait of life they saw month after month was a reassuring one, seen from a distance and rendered in sunny colour’. (Sam Abell, 2004, Pg166). Dorothea Lange started out as a portrait photographer in San Francisco. Shocked by the numbers of homeless and their living conditions she began taking pictures of them on the street. Lange was determined that the photographs she took were uncompromised. No fuss, no adjustments, just what you see at that decisive moment.
  • Henri Cartier Bresson was travelling the world taking intimate portraits and documenting his mantra of ‘”The Decisive Moment”. The Magnum Photo Agency was soon to be formed bringing together some of the world’s finest photographers. Many of these photographers would be dispatched to outer regions of the world including war zones. Some lost their lives in the process. Jodi Cobb is another National Geographic Photographer. She believes that a portrait gives us permission to stare at something, which is forbidden in life. She believes that in this staring we are searching in private for clues to attraction, identity, personality and ancestry. Cobb believes that portraits can provoke, repel and soothe. She believes that the face belongs to the sitter but the portrait is the possession of the photographer. She sees a moral dilemma in this because the sitter wants to look good and so does the photographer. Cobb’s summary is that ‘The pure portrait conveys only what he looks like, how long he’s lived, and his mood at the moment, and the skill-and intent-of the photographer. For the full story she believes we need to see his environment’. (Jodi Cobb, 2004, pg248). Leah Bendavid -Val agrees with this idea and believes that the National Geographic photographers intention is to present an entire cultural situation. Following The Second World War there was a lot of subject matter. The 50’s and 60’s saw the Civil Rights Bill passed. Colour TV was invented. The Russians went into space, and photographers and models became celebrities. The Beatles and Elvis stemmed a youth culture, which eventually turned into hippie culture opposing the war in Vietnam. President Kennedy and Martin Luther King were assassinated. There were race riots in the USA and Cultural Revolution in China. The Berlin Wall was being built. Hard-hitting images were beginning to appear in the media. One of the most famous being a child running along a road in Vietnam having been burnt by napalm. William Allard was just starting out as a photographer in 1964. Allard believes that a fine portrait is about the eyes. Allard documented the culture of the American West through the 60’s, 70’s and 80’s. His portraits are of Amish families, ranchers, inter-racial marriages, black church congregations etc. Allard acknowledges that he had to gain the subjects acceptance and permission in order to take an intimate portrait. Allard moved from the American Mid West and documented life in Peru. In this portrait we see a boy, Eduardo, standing, crying at the side of a road. Allard had taken his picture shortly after a truck had rammed the boy’s sheep off the road and to their death. Allard says
  • that ‘The sight of the boy standing before me registered in my mind as a reflection of much of what Peru can be about for its people. Cold, harsh and cruel, a country where death can come easily to animal and human alike’. (William Allard, 2004, pg315) Allard cites Steve McCurry’s portrait of an Afghan girl as one of the finest and most famous of any portrait published in the National Geographic magazine. Allard believes that a fine portrait tells you something about the spirit of the subject that can be sensed by someone half a world and a different language away, something universal and simple. This may be true and be present in the photographer’s representation of the Peruvian or Afghan cultural identity. Allard concludes his essay by summing up what a portrait should achieve. ‘This is another person in our world and I’d like you to meet him or her. Maybe you will feel like you know a little about them, what are their sorrows, what kind of songs they might sing, what they might be like to sit with in a café and share a cold beer or a glass of wine. A picture that’s good enough can do this’. (Willam Allard, 2004, pg317). There are some whom have attempted to achieve this through a long-term study of a people and a life’s work. One could argue that it is impossible to portray an entire nation’s cultural identity. The French photographer Robert Doisneau followed in the tradition of fellow countryman Eugene Atget in documenting French Cultural identity. He has become synonymous with a way of life defined as ‘French’. Doisneau photographed ordinary men, women and children on the streets and in the cafes and bars of the working class areas of Paris. His style could be likened to that of a storyteller. He utilised photography and its ability to communicate to its full. Doisneau may not have been aware of the post-modern implications of his work. The sensitivity and narrative of his photographs amply