Differentiation

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  • 1. Differentiation and Small Group Instruction
  • 2. Data-Based Decision Making  Planning the content of daily instruction based on frequent, ongoing assessment data  Grouping and regrouping students based on shared needs observed from data
  • 3. Matching Text to Readers 1. Instructional and independent levels are based on an individual student’s reading ability 2. What instructional and independence for one student may not be instructional or independence for another student in the same classroom
  • 4. Why Differentiate Instruction? The range of reading ability in a typical classroom is about five years and is more academically diverse than anytime in history. Kameenui & Carnine, 1998; Mathes, Torgesen, Menchetti, Santi, Nicholas, Robinson, & Grek, 2003
  • 5. Concept of Definition Map Nonexamples: What is it? Differentiated Instruction Examples: What is it like?
  • 6. Concept of Definition Map  With your partner, write your own definition of differentiated instruction.  Brainstorm examples of how a teacher might differentiated instruction.  Brainstorm examples that do NOT depict differentiated instruction.  Identify synonyms that describe what differentiated instruction is like.
  • 7. Concept of Definition Map What is it like? Nonexamples: What is it? Differentiated Instruction Examples: Teaching students according to their individual needs. •Data-based instruction •Individualized instruction •Scaffolding Teaching targeted small groups Flexible grouping patterns Using assessment data to plan instruction Matching text level to student ability Independent projects tailored to student ability Whole class instruction Small groups that never change (tracking) All students reading same text Same independent seatwork assignments to entire class
  • 8. What is Differentiated Instruction?  Varying instructions to meet the needs of all students within the same classroom  Taking students where they are and moving them forward  Flexibly grouping and regrouping students according to shared needs and abilities
  • 9. The Academic Continuum Advanced Readers • Read fluently and with expression • Read independently • Have advanced decoding skills • Have good comprehension Typical Readers • Read less fluently • Developing independence • Developing advanced decoding skills • Developing strategies for comprehension Struggling Readers • Read with labored fluency • Have poor decoding skills • Comprehension hindered by poor reading
  • 10. The most effective learning arrangements increase academic engagement.
  • 11. Effective Classroom Management Factors  Frequent monitoring  Nonverbal signals  Use of routines  Models routines first  Frequent positive interactions (4 to 1 ratio)  Reinforce student accomplishments
  • 12. Develop a Classroom Plan for Differentiated Instruction 1. Routines are the key to sanity. 2. Arrangement of the classroom. 3. Time Allocation. 4. Scheduling.
  • 13. Establishing Routines 1. Rules for Centers  Moving to centers  Asking for help  Being accountable 2. Activities  Previously learned  Academically engaging
  • 14. Moving to Centers  At the beginning of the year practice the routine of moving with the students  Role play how to ask for help  Three before me  Exit slips  Students complete a half sheet of paper that contains a rubric for self-evaluation  Attach to completed work
  • 15. Activities  All activities should be previously learned  Use new words for word sort  Extend word activities into writing activities  Academically engaging  As much fun as cutting out boots and pasting on glitter might be to the students, it is not instructionally relevant.
  • 16. Other Guidelines Make literacy stations an important part of learning each day – not something to do when everything is finished. Have no more than two or three “work stations.” Stations are always the same!!!!!! Less is more!!!!! Don’t have to be cute, just well thought out.
  • 17. Instructional Delivery  Well organized  Task oriented  Explicit  Reduces practice of errors  Demonstration, guided practice with prompts, and feedback
  • 18. Instructional Delivery  Classroom is well organized.  Desks are arranged so that all students are in the teacher's instructional zone.  Instruction is explicit (no guess work). Students know what and why.  All students are being engaged in instruction.  No students are on the peripheral only marginally participating.  No students are sitting alone confused.  No student has been “ written off.”
  • 19. Time Matters This means:  Allocating more time to reading is only a first step.  Carefully choosing instructional materials and activities based on what research suggests is most effective.  Reducing down time and related activities time.
  • 20. Focus on Academics Engaged Time  Critical Factor  Time students actually spend performing an academic task  Students are sitting alone doing things they don’t understand Increasing Engagement  Doesn’t have to be cute!  Unison responses  Partner Activities  Peer Tutoring  Cooperative Learning
  • 21. Grouping Patterns Teachers who get the best outcomes use multiple grouping patterns to accommodate student’s academic diversity.  Whole Group  Small Group  Peer pairing  Cooperative projects Dependent on the the activity and student ability Eye on increasing active engagement.
  • 22. Grouping Practices Group Instructional Focus Group Formation Whole Group  Preview new concepts  Practice concepts not mastered by approximately 2/3 of the class  Review concepts  All students in class Small Group (same ability)  Instruction targeted to specific students’ needs  3 to 6 students  Based on assessment data Small Group (mixed ability)  Practice concepts already introduced  Based on students’ abilities or interests Pairs/Partners  Practice concepts already introduced  Based on assessment data Intervention Group  Instruction targeted to specific students’ needs  Based on assessment data
  • 23. Daily Small Group Lessons  Can include multiple tracks.  Each track will be visited for only a brief time.  Amount of new information should be reduced.  Most of each lesson should be review and generalization.
  • 24. The Differentiated Classroom Look for:  Routines  How classrooms are arranged to facilitate differentiation  How teachers use many techniques for increasing academic engagement during both teacher directed and student directed instruction
  • 25. Teacher-Directed Student-Directed  Gives immediate and specific feedback  Reteaches as necessary  Teaches to mastery  Clear expectations for student behavior  Clear academic objectives  Read, write, discuss, and practice critical skills  Multiple and varied opportunities to practice  Interactive  Engaging  Differentiated  Read, write, discuss, and practice critical skills independently  Accountable for their own learning
  • 26. Grouping Arrangements Teacher-Directed  Whole group  Small group  Same Ability  Mixed Ability  Individual Student-Directed  Work stations  Peer activities  Collaborative groups  Independent work
  • 27. Increasing Academic Engagement During Teacher-Directed Instruction  Increase every student’s opportunity to respond to the teacher.  Use techniques other than calling on one student at time.
  • 28. Techniques: Check for Understanding 1. Everybody Questions 2. Thumbs-Up, Thumbs-Down 3. Use of White Boards 4. Response Cards
  • 29. Academic Engagement During Student-Directed Instruction 1. Work stations 2. Computers 3. Peer-assisted learning 4. Collaborative group routines
  • 30.  A work station is not always completed in a special location in the room.  Most stations can be completed at students’ desks.  Some stations will need to be completed somewhere else in the room. Work Stations
  • 31. What about the students with whom the teacher is not working?  Want to see lowest students getting “double dose.”  Instructional routines for the students who are not being taught directly by the teacher.  Every student knows routines.  Objectives support other aspects of instruction.  Students are partnered.  Students are reading and discussing text selection following specific routines.  Should be active, but not a zoo!
  • 32. Peer Partners  All students in class are paired with peers.  Partners should be different learner types.  Those needing more intense reading instruction paired with typical readers  Typical readers paired with advanced readers
  • 33. Peer Pairing Scheme  Rank-order your students in terms of reading skill.  Split them in half (more skilled half and less skilled half). Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11 Student 12 Student 13 Student 14 Student 15 Student 16 Student 17 Student 18 Student 19 Student 20 Student 21 Student 21 Student 23 Student 24
  • 34. Peer Pairing Scheme  Pair the top-ranked student in the more skilled half with the top-ranked student in the less skilled half.  Continue this process until all of your students have partners.  Consider individual needs and personalities.
  • 35. 1. Reassign partners every four to five weeks. 2. Do not change partners in response to student requests or complaints Other Important Guidelines for Pairings
  • 36. Review of What We Learned In this section you learned: 1. how to plan differentiated instruction using student assessment data, 2. how to use flexible grouping arrangements, 3. techniques to increase academic engagement during both teacher directed and student directed instruction, 4. how to arrange your classroom to facilitate differentiated instruction.
  • 37. Reflections on Effective Differentiated Instruction Currently Do: New Techniques: Pledge: I commit to implementing the following 2 new techniques in my classroom:____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Signature_____________________
  • 38. Remember...  Most reading difficulties can be prevented.  To provide targeted student instruction, student progress must be assessed and evaluated continually.  You are the best intervention strategy your students have. (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998)