Matters of life and death - Edexcel RS


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Matters of life and death - Edexcel RS

  1. 1. Matters Of Life and Death Edexcel Religious Studies GCSE
  2. 2. Key Words: Resurrection: The belief that after death the body stays in the grave until the end of the world when it is raised Immortality of the soul: The Idea that the soul lives on after the death of the body Heaven: A place of paradise where God rules Hell: A place of horrors where Satan rules Paranormal: Unexplained things which are thought to have spiritual causes e.g. ghosts Near-death Experience: When someone about to die has an out of body experience Reincarnation: The belief that after death the souls are reborn into a new body Sanctity of Life: The belief that life is holy and belongs to God Abortion: The removal of the fetus from the womb before it can survive
  3. 3. Euthanasia: The painless killing of someone dying from a painful disease Assisted Suicide: Providing a seriously ill person with the means to commit suicide Voluntary Suicide: The situation where someone in great pain asks a doctor to end his/her life painlessly Non-voluntary Suicide: Ending someone’s life painlessly when they are unable to ask, but you have good reason for thinking they would want you to do so e.g. turning off someone’s life support Quality of Life: The idea that life must have some benefits for it to be worth living YOU MUST LEARN ALL THE KEYWORDS FOR THE EXAM!!
  4. 4. Christian Attitudes to life and death Who? What? Why? Many Protestant Christians • • • After death the body will stay in the grave but the soul will go to God for judgment Difference of opinion for those who don’t go to heaven by there’s no hell • • Other Evangelical Protestant Christians • • After death the body and soul stay in the grave till the end of the world They will be judged, and those who are good go to Heaven and those who have not repented go to Hell • • • Catholic Christians • • • • • They believe in resurrection and immortality of the soul. Those who haven’t sinned since their last confession go to Heaven The soul of a Christian who has sinned will go to purgatory Those who don’t believe in God or have committed unforgivable sins go to Hell Then Jesus will come back and raise the dead and reunite their bodies and souls. God will make a new Heaven and Earth and those in purgatory go to heaven. • • • • Jesus told a thief that he’d be in Heaven that day Jesus said his father’s house had many rooms that he was preparing for his guest Evidence of paranormal e.g. ghosts Jesus said his body was raised from the dead The Creed says ‘I believe in the resurrection of the body and the life everlasting’ St. Paul taught this belief in the Bible The resurrection of Jesus The teaching of the New testament (Bible) The teaching in the Catechism (basic beliefs) of the Catholic Church The Creed says Jesus ‘is seated at the right hand of the father and will come again to judge the living and the dead’
  5. 5. Muslim beliefs about Life after Death • • • • • • Islam teaches that Allah (God) gives each human two angels to record all that they do during their life On the Day of Judgment when raised to life, Allah will give you book of life to either you left or right hand. If it is right then you go to Jannah (Heaven), if it is left then you go to Jahannam (Hell) Heaven is described as a beautiful garden, full of wonderful leaves and flowers, where soothing sounds of birds singing and running water can be heard, while the blessed will enjoy the company of beautiful women as they eat delicious food. Those who are to go to Hell will face terrible torments of fire and smoke as they face punishments, chained and burned by boiling water and painful biting winds. Although some Muslims believe that only Muslims will go to Heaven, others allow allows that non-Muslims (particularly of Abrahamic faiths) who have led morally good lives may also go to Heaven Many people will eventually go to heaven after they have served their punishment in Hell. The greater the sins, the longer the punishment, which is why, following the teachings of the Qur’an, their five daily prayers and the fasting of Ramadan, will help remove their sins so that they can cross straight into Heaven without any punishment
  6. 6. How do beliefs about life after death affect people now? Who? What? Effect? Christians They will be judged by God after death Follow the bible and church Jesus rose from the dead Gives them hope that they too will rise Life after death Comforts them if they have lost a loved one Promise of Heaven Explains suffering Heaven is a wonderful place Encourages good deeds Hell is a horrible place Deters them from sinning Heaven is a wonderful place where God rules They want to go there so become closer to God by praying, fasting and reading the Qur’an Muslims will go to heaven Won’t be scared of death Muslims
  7. 7. Non-religious beliefs in life after death Why would a non-religious person believe in life after death? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. They find the idea of death difficult to cope with Sometimes people feel their deceased loved ones are still around A view that those who lead a good life should be rewarded and the bad punished Earthly life can seem so unfair for some – an afterlife would make things right There is a need to feel that something of who we are carries on after physical death Some people have claimed to experience life after death through a near death experience 7. Some people claim to have experienced paranormal activities Near-death Experiences: Some people claim to have seen a bright light, and relatives who have already passed away when they have been pronounced dead for a small amount of time. They are convinced this proves there is an afterlife. Contacting the dead: Mediums claim to be able to contact the dead Ghosts: Thought to be the spirits of dead people. Reincarnation: This is the belief that a person’s soul is reborn into another body. It is seen as a religious view as it is believed by Sikhs and Hindus. But many non-religious people also believe in reincarnation because of déjà vu or memories from past lives
  8. 8. Non-belief in life after death Why do people believe there is no life after death? 1. They believe there is no evidence for an afterlife 2. They believe that religion offers no good reasons to believe in an afterlife 3. They believe that mediums and other people to attempt to prove there is an afterlife are tricking people 4. They believe that in an age where science explains the world we should not believe in things that are unscientific 5. When a person dies their body decays, so how can they live again? 6. Life after death is simply impossible – we are either alive or dead 7. Physical evidence shows that when you body dies everything about you dies
  9. 9. An abortion is the removal of the fetus from the womb before it can survive Abortion is very controversial because there are many different opinions about when life begins… When does life begin? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Before fertilization At fertilization/conception When the fetus is in the womb When the fetus can live independently At birth Legally in the UK an abortion can take place anywhere up till 24 weeks or 5 months
  10. 10. Arguments for Abortion (Pro-choice) Arguments against Abortion (Pro-life) Sometimes it’s kinder to abort the baby if the child will be badly disabled or really ill There are always loving parents who want to adopt unwanted babies if the mum doesn’t want it Sometimes having the baby will put the mother’s life at risk Just because the child may be disabled doesn’t mean they shouldn’t get a chance at life What if the woman who’s pregnant got raped? An embryo should have the same rights as any other human being The woman has the right to choose what happens to her own body Life begins at conception. All life is special, nobody has the right to kill All babies have the right to be loved and cared for, sometimes the woman may not be able to provide this Abortion can leave emotional scars for the mother, family and medical staff If it’s made illegal women will turn to back street abortions Two wrongs don’t make a right A fetus is not a real human being Some babies have survived at less than 25 weeks It has become just another form of birth control
  11. 11. Christian views on Abortion Conservative Christian views on abortion Other Christian views on abortion Life is a sacred gift from God, so only God has the right to end it – Sanctity of Life Abortion is not good, but may be the most loving thing to do e.g. rape The fetus is created in the image of God from the moment of conception It may be the lesser of two evils e.g. if the baby will be severely disables God has a plan for every human and Cannot be sure that life starts at human beings shouldn’t interfere with that conception Some fetuses are aborted because the aren’t ‘perfect’. Every life is created and valued by God, humans don’t have the right to make this decision Abortion is murder, which is forbidden in the Bible Abortion is okay if… - the baby is a result of rape - the baby will be handicapped - Mother’s life is threatened
  12. 12. Muslim views on Abortion: • Muslims share similar views to Christians about the Sanctity of life. All life is considered sacred and a gift from God. It also teaches that life must not be destroyed without good reason (e.g. punishment for murder) Abortion is considered to be wrong because it is taking away a life • Life begins at birth • Many Muslim scholars say that when the fetus is 120 days old God sends the soul into it, making it a human being. This is called ‘ensoulment’. Some say this happens at 120 days, others say 42 and some others say it happens when the fetus begins to move
  13. 13. • Although abortion is not allowed in Islam there are some circumstances where it is allowed; • BEFORE ENSOULMENT – • If the fetus is suffering from an untreatable defect, genetic blood disorder or the deformity would mean the child could not live a normal life • The mother had been raped • The woman’s life was in danger • AFTER 120 DAYS IF MOTHER’S LIFE WAS IN DANGER because– • The fetus wouldn’t exist if it wasn’t for the mother and in most case the fetus will die anyway • The mother’s life is already established and she has responsibilities to carry out e.g. other children • She is apart of a family • ABORTION NOT ALLOWED IF – • The parents are scared they won’t be able to care for the child • The pregnancy wasn’t planned or it’s inconvenient for the mother • The women becomes pregnant because of adultery
  14. 14. Euthanasia: The painless killing of someone dying from a painful disease Arguments for Euthanasia Arguments Against Euthanasia It allows the patient to die a gentle, pain free death and to exercise their right to die as they choose Some people may be pressurized into choosing euthanasia by their family The patient dies with dignity rather than slowly getting worse, mentally and physically It’s a ‘slippery slop’ – if euthanasia is legalized it may be used in other circumstances. Euthanasia saves medical costs The sanctity of life – life is precious Medical staff can focus their attention on patients who have a chance of recovery Other people argue that death doesn’t have to be undignified and the work of the hospice movement is dedicated to caring for the terminally sick by concentrating on pain relief to the moment of death It relieves the family of emotional and financial burden Doctors can be wrong about diagnosis or cure may be found in the future Assisting someone with suicide will put a lot of pressure on that person and they would have to live with the guilt Someone may change their mind but not be able to tell the doctors The Hippocratic Oath states that doctors must practice medicine ethically, striving to keep people alive
  15. 15. Christian Attitudes to Euthanasia Most Christians are opposed to Euthanasia because: 1. It is taking away the life of a human being which is always murder 2. God created human beings in his image, so only he has the power to take away life 3. Even if a sick person wants to die no-one has the authority to take their life away 4. Life is so important, it should be valued even when someone is in great pain 5. Terminally ill patients can still worship God and show other people God’s love 6. Euthanasia could be used for evil purposes 7. Doctors or relatives may make the choice without consulting the patient 8. No one should be able to make a judgment about the value of another person’s life 9. No person should value themselves so worthless that it would be better to die Some Christians are not so strongly opposed it: • They argue that God intended people to have a good quality of life • They argue that killing the patient may be the most loving thing to do Hospices: Many Christians support the Hospice movement as they; • Provide good quality pain relief • Support the dying and those close to them • Help the dying prepare for death
  16. 16. Muslim Attitudes to Euthanasia Muslims are opposed to euthanasia because; 1. They believe that all life is sacred because it is given by Allah and he chooses when someone should die 2. All human life is valuable and the idea of a life not worth living does not exist in Islam whatever the circumstances 3. It is seen as suicide which is not allowed in Islam 4. All suffering is a test and Muslims must endure suffering without losing faith 5. No-one knows Allah’s plans for individuals and euthanasia would be interfering with that plan. This would have serious consequences in the afterlife 6. It is pleasing to Allah to see the sick and old being looked after However … • Some Muslims allow a terminal patient to choose not to continue with medical treatment (passive euthanasia) if it is causing hardship • Some Muslims would agree to turning off a life-support machine if nothing further could be done • HOWEVER food and drink and ordinary nursing care should never be withdrawn whilst the patient is still alive