Matters Of Life And Death


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Matters Of Life And Death, Hinduism

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Matters Of Life And Death

  1. 1. MATTERS OF LIFE AND DEATH for sion Ses ! sion ams evi Ex op R ock St 1 M stle ar 1 hi Ye W Outcome: To have revised and shown knowledge and understanding of the key issues of the topic!
  2. 2. For the exam you will need to understand: Abortion Life After Death The UK laws on abortion 2 different Christian beliefs Non-religious arguments about about life after death abortion (immortality of the soul and Different attitudes to abortion in the resurrection of the body) Christianity and reasons for these The teachings on life after Different attitudes to abortion in one death of one religion other religion other than Christianity than Christianity Non-religious reasons for Euthanasia believing in life after death What it is and the laws on it (the paranormal) Non-religious arguments Why some people do not about euthanasia believe there is a life after Attitudes to euthanasia in death Christianity and reasons for them Attitudes to abortion in one religion other than Christianity
  3. 3. Key Word Starter: The Key words are the two mark questions which appear in part a) of every four part question in the exam paper. Remember to make sure that you give a 2 mark answer! Resurrection Paranormal Immortality of Abortion the Soul Assisted Suicide Euthanasia Sanctity of Life Voluntary euthanasia Non-voluntary euthanasia
  4. 4. Christian Attitudes to Life after Death Immortality of the Soul: Resurrection of the Body: Many Christians believe humans Some Christians (e.g. are made up of physical body Evangelical Protestants) and the soul (mind / believe that after death the personality). They believe that soul stays on the grave until the soul is immortal and will the time when God will end never die. When the body dies, the world – known as the Last the soul leaves the body to live Day which will follow second with God. Some believe in one coming of Jesus. Then the spiritual heaven place, and dead will be raised and others believe in both a everyone will appear before spiritual form of heaven and God for a final judgment hell that the souls may go to which will determine a fate in depending on their actions in either heaven (for good life. Other Christians again people) or hell (for the believe in no form of hell. sinners)
  5. 5. Resurrection of the Body – Why? Jesus’ body rose from the dead St Paul teaches this in 1 Corinthians It also teaches this in the book of Revelation Jesus said that there would be a It is a part of the Christian final judgement Creeds at the end of the world
  6. 6. Immortality of the Soul – Why? Jesus said the Jesus went up to a criminal on the cross spirit world after would be in paradise his ascension straight after death The New Testament says people like Moses are living in a spiritual heaven Evidence of the paranormal
  7. 7. An all-loving The Bible says lots of God different things Different Ideas in Christianity – Why? The paranormal Multi-faith society makes hell seem hard to believe
  8. 8. Jesus rose from the dead The Bible All Christians says so Life After Death at all – Why? The All the Christian paranormal Churches say so It gives meaning and purpose to this The Creeds say life so, and should be believed
  9. 9. Judaism and Life After Death There are different Interpretations of the Jewish teachings, but generally, they say that after death there is resurrection. This is stated in the Thirteen Principles of Faith which is based on the writings in the Torah and Tenakh. The Torah is the first five books of the Bible. The texts state that God will end this world when he decides to and will then create a new world and resurrect the dead. He will also rebuild the holy city of Jerusalem and the temple for Jews to live in for the rest of eternity.
  10. 10. The different interpretations mean that some Jews believe that only Jews will have an afterlife as they are the chosen people and Jerusalem is for them. Most Jews, however, believe that there will be an afterlife for everyone and people of all religions will be brought together in the New Jerusalem. The teachings of the Tenakh seem to suggest this. Some Jews believe that evil people will go to hell as this is also mentioned in the Tenakh. More Liberal Jews are called Reform Jews, and many of them have similar views to some Christians who believe in the immortality of the soul after death.
  11. 11. Why do Jews believe in Life After Death? - Have a guess! The Holy Book – The teaching of Direct the Talmud communication or inspired by God The Jewish Creed Meaning and Purpose Evidence of the Paranormal
  12. 12. Non-Religious reasons for believing in a Life After Death Near Death Clinically dead for a period of time and then Experiences brought back to life. Often have out of body experiences, visions of light etc. Ghosts, mediums etc. Mediums = people who Evidence of a believe that they can contact the dead Spirit World Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist belief that after Evidence of death the soul is reborn into another body. Reincarnation Possible evidence would be memories of a past life.
  13. 13. Why some people not believe in Life After Death If there is not God, how can If Life After Death were true, there be a heaven? wouldn’t all religions have the same views about it and not different ones? Evidence is either from holy books, which are not believed by non- believers, or the paranormal which scientists have disputed Evidence suggests that the mind cannot live without the brain, but according to belief Where would life after death be? the body (and so brain) dies… How would we recognise souls without bodies in another spiritual world?
  14. 14. Abortion 1967 Abortion Act = Abortion allowed if 2 doctors can agree that: • Mothers life is at risk • Risk of injury to mothers mental / physical health • Risk that another child would put at 1990 Act stated risk mental / physical health of abortions could no existing children longer take place after 24 weeks • Substantial risk of baby being bron unless mothers life seriously handicapped at risk as advances in medicine mean baby STOP PRESS! This has been in the news recently as likely to survive from many people are now arguing that it is too time consuming to require 2 doctors, and also that babies this age are now surviving from 22 weeks!
  15. 15. Key Issues about Abortion When does life begin? Who has the greater chance to life – the mother or the baby? Does the foetus have a soul? Should a woman be allowed to make a decision involving her body? Is abortion murder? Does a foetus have human rights?
  16. 16. Christian Attitudes to Abortion Attitude 1: (e.g. many Evangelical and most Catholic Christians) Believe all abortion is wrong whatever the circumstances Attitude 2: (e.g. Methodist and Church of England Christians) Believe that abortion is wrong, but it must be permitted in certain circumstances e.g. rape, quality of life. Some Christians would even allow it for social reasons.
  17. 17. Reasons for these Attitudes Attitude 1: • Life is holy and belongs to God – he should be the only one to end it • Life begins at conception – when the sperm and the egg meet • 10 commandments say it’s wrong to take life • Every person has a natural right to life – a foetus is a potential person • Catholic Church teaches abortion is wrong whatever the circumstances Attitude 2: • Jesus told Christians love is the most important thing, and in some circumstances, abortion may be the most loving thing to do • Life does not begin at conception • The sanctity of life can be broken in other situations (e.g. a just war), why not in abortion? • Christians should accept technological advances in medicine • Making it legal allows it to be safe and controlled
  18. 18. Judaism and Abortion Some Jews believe never allowed – life begins at conception so abortion is murder and only god has the right to take life Many Jews believe it is wrong but allowed if the mothers life is at risk – abortion is wrong as they believe in the sanctity of life, but the Torah allows killing in self defence and if the mothers life is in risk then abortion is in self defence Some Jews believe allowed when following UK abortion laws – life does not begin until the foetus can survive on its own (in Torah), believe in self defence of mother, and that Jews have a duty to prevent avoidable suffering which is what the UK abortion laws try to do
  19. 19. Euthanasia – Non-religious arguments Euthanasia is considered a crime in the UK and is therefore not legal. Non-religious arguments for it to remain illegal: A cure might be found for the disease Striving to keep alive – doctors must How would you control such a thing? There to everything to is risk of misuse keep a patient alive – they are in the job of saving lives Mean relatives might want not ending them Euthanasia for rich people so that they can gain from their wills People might not be in their right mind when they ask to die
  20. 20. Non-religious arguments for it to be made legal: Quality of life is not worth living The right to die – basic human right If families or doctors can choose when to Loss of human dignity switch off a life support, why can you not make the decision yourself? Many more people can now be saved but live in a poor condition who would have died years ago
  21. 21. Alo n wor g with this ds on the u The Doctrine of Double Effect t n con is ano he las derlin t c issu ept o ther k 2 slid ed f th e e es, eE y uth ana sia The idea that if I take action to achieve one effect, knowing that it will produce another, I cannot be blamed for the second affect. e.g. If I was to give a large dose of painkillers to relieve someone’s pain, knowing that it will shorten the person’s life, I cannot be blamed for this person’s death because I only intended to relieve their pain.
  22. 22. Christian Attitudes to Euthanasia Christians generally believe that Euthanasia is wrong but there are still different attitudes: Most Christians – euthanasia is wrong, but switching off life machines as long as the person is brain dead, and giving dying people pain killers which will shorten their life is not wrong. Why? Believe in sanctity of life – only God should end it. Assisted suicide, voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia are all murder. If someone is brain dead then they’re already dead and they believe in the law of double effect. Some Christians – any form of euthanasia is wrong. Why? They take the Bible teachings literally which bans suicide and switching off life support or giving painkillers is murder.
  23. 23. Judaism and Euthanasia Some Jews believe that Most Jews against any although it is wrong euthanasia – written in switching off life machines torah that suicide is and not striving to keep wrong, believe in someone alive is allowed – sanctity of life and no some rabbi’s have said this, murder and the a brain dead person is Tenakh says only God already dead, and striving can take life to keep someone alive is preventing God from receiving their soul
  24. 24. TIPS! • Never leave a question blank – always have a go! • Try to make sure you are always explaining things as much as possible (reasons why) to get the higher marks • Make sure you read the questions carefully • Take note of the number of marks allocation for the question • Remember exam conditions