Disabilities and Accessible Web


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Short (10min) overview of the topic according to WAI

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Disabilities and Accessible Web

  1. 1. Disabilities and Accessible Web Wladyslaw Bultrowicz Wladyslaw Bultrowicz wladyslaw.bultrowicz @deri.org SemInf, 21 .03.2007
  2. 2. Presentation outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Possible classification of disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Couple “ dos & don’ts” </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive Technologies & Adaptive Strategies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>There are many disabilities that can affect access to Web </li></ul><ul><li>Abilities can vary from person to person, and over time . </li></ul><ul><li>People can have combinations of different disabilities, and combinations of varying levels of severity. </li></ul><ul><li>There are (as yet no universally accepted) categorizations of disability, despite efforts towards that goal. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>Current Web is not really easy to use for people with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Web has increasingly important role in society. Access to the Web is vital. Equal opportunities! </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements designed for disabled can benefit Web users who do not have disabilities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classification <ul><li>V isual disabilities (blindness, low vision, color blindness) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid (blindness): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>images that do not have alternative text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complex images (e.g., graphs or charts) that are not adequately described </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms that cannot be tabbed through in a logical sequence or that are poorly labeled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>browsers and authoring tools that lack keyboard support for all commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-standard document formats that may be difficult for screen reader to interpret </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Classification <ul><li>Avoid (low vision) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages with absolute font sizes that do not change easily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages that, because of inconsistent layout, are difficult to navigate when enlarged, due to loss of surrounding context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid (color blindness) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>color that is used as a unique marker to emphasize text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>text that inadequately contrasts with background color or patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>browsers that do not support user override of authors' style sheets </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Classification <ul><li>H earing impairments ( deafness , hard of hearing ) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of captions or transcripts of audio on the Web, including webcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requirements for voice input on Web sites </li></ul></ul>(Mich ae l walks through his high rise apartment to a large wall covered in newspaper clippings and starts tearing them down, revealing a large window. He puts the articles into a box. Then Micha e l takes the hard drive chip from his computer and walks out onto the balcony. Giving a sigh, he heaves it into the river.) CUT TO: [EXT. CHICAGO SAVINGS BANK-DAY] CUT TO: [INT.MAIN AREA OF THE BANK-DAY] Micha e l: (Fires three rounds into the air, then points the gun at the clerk) The vault. Open it. Clerk: We can ’ t. The branch manager ’ s not here. Micha e l: (Looks away and back at her.) Where is he?
  8. 8. Classification <ul><li>P hysical disabilities (motor disabilities, amputies ) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time-limited response options on Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>browsers and authoring tools that do not support keyboard alternatives for mouse commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms that cannot be tabbed through in a logical order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S peech disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web sites that require voice-based interaction and have no alternative input mode </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Classification <ul><li>C ognitive and neurological disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dyslexia and dyscalculia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>memory impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mental health disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seizure disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distracting (audio/video) elements that cannot easily be turned off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of visual or audio frequencies that can trigger seizures </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Assistive Technologies & Adaptive Strategies <ul><li>alternative keyboards or switches (small/big keys, key guards) </li></ul><ul><li>braille machines </li></ul><ul><li>screen magnifiers </li></ul><ul><li>screen readers </li></ul><ul><li>speech recognition /synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>text browsers </li></ul><ul><li>visual notification </li></ul><ul><li>voice browsers </li></ul><ul><li>tabbing through structural elements </li></ul>
  11. 11. Remember! <ul><li>Make Semantic Web real … and accessible !! </li></ul>