Jane Eberle, Ph.D.Zeni Colorado, Ph.D.Emporia State University
   What is Web Accessibility?   Using tenets of Universal Design for Learning   Disabilities Affected by Web Accessibil...
Higher Ed Uses of Technology  • Course information/course management  • Schedules  • Registration  • Grade access  • Libra...
 People with disabilities can use the web “Use” means     Perceive     Understand     Navigate     Interact     Con...
Web Accessibility…Does NOT mean that your course will beabsolutely accessible by everyone.But legally and ethically, we mu...
With respect to an individual… A physical or mental impairment that  substantially limits one or more of the major  life ...
Eighty-five percent of Americanswho live to their full life expectancy will suffer a permanent disability.
   9.3 million people with sensory disabilities     sight     Hearing   21.2 million have conditions limiting    physi...
>750,000,000 people with disabilities“…As we move towards a highly connected world, it is critical that the Web be usable ...
“The Web threatens to become the equivalent   of a classroom building without an access                    ramp.”         ...
Any item, equipment, or product that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional abilities of individuals with di...
“Universal design is the design of products   and environments to be usable by all  people, to the greatest extent possibl...
   Universal Design does not remove academic    challenges;   it removes barriers to access.   Simply stated, Universal...
 Incorporates same fundamental ideas into  learning Addresses needs of all Supports improved access to information Sup...
Seven Principles of UDL    (in Design of Environment,  Communications, and Products)Developed by Center for Universal Desi...
Students with diverse abilitieswill be able to use curriculum.E.g.. Web sites, activities,assignments designed to be used ...
Curriculum accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilitiesE.g. Allowing students to choose between liste...
Design of material is easy to understand regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current conce...
Design communicates necessary information effectively – regardless of user’s sensory abilitiesE.g.. Including captions for...
Minimal hazards or adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actionsE.g.. Guidance when user makes  inappropriate s...
Design can be used efficiently and comfortably - with minimum fatigueE.g.. Convenient, user-friendly technology
Appropriate size and space provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use – regardless of user’s body size, posture, ...
   Design of instructional materials and    activities   Makes learning goals achievable by    individuals with wide dif...
 Achieved by means of flexible curricular  materials and activities Provides alternatives for students with  differing a...
   Need to be aware of laws (handout)   Need awareness of guidelines (handout)   Need tools to level playing field for ...
   Visual Impairments       Cognitive Impairments     Total Blindness          Attributed to conditions     Low Visio...
   What helps:     Users rely on screen readers and magnifiers     Need Alt Tags     Minimize layout tables     Use h...
   What helps:     Multimedia (audio, video, multimedia      presentations, web conferencing) files should be      accom...
   What helps:     Users rely on mouth-sticks to eye tracking devices     Designers should not rely on synchronous real...
 Impairments are wide and varied Suggestions:     Avoid cluttered pages     Make pages easy to navigate     Avoid ext...
 Section 508 – The Law Web Content Accessibility Guidelines  (WCAG) Good Summary of both sets of standards-in  article...
   Evaluation Tools:     http://wave.webaim.org     http://www.totalvalidator.com     http://www.w3.org/WAI/eval/preli...
   Blackboard® is committed to ensuring that our platform is    usable and accessible.    The National Federation of the ...
   Alt Tags     Images     Links   PDF Files- OCR vs Scanned   Multimedia and Videos- Captioning
Turn off images, and check whetherappropriate alternative text for the        images is available.
   No Flashing/Animated images   ALT tags   Description     This is an image of….   Best Practice                    ...
   Alt Tag    o <img src=“coffee" width="250" height="285" alt="Steaming        coffee Cup Graphic"/>Steaming coffee Cup ...
Situation 1Please read the article “Why blogging is Important”:http://www.techblaster.net/2011/02/why-blogging-is-importan...
Turn off the sound, and check  whether audio content is stillavailable through text equivalents.
   Provide captioning and subtitles for    multimedia     http://dotsub.com/     http://universalsubtitles.org     htt...
 Use browser controls to vary font-size: verify  that the font size changes on the screen  accordingly; and that the page...
 Change the display color to gray scale (or  print out page in gray scale or black and  white) and observe whether the co...
 http://www.w3.org/WAI/gettingstarted/Overview.htm http://www.section508.gov/ Colorado, J.T. & Eberle, J.H. (2010). Web...
Universal design for e learning final
Universal design for e learning final
Universal design for e learning final
Universal design for e learning final
Universal design for e learning final
Universal design for e learning final
Universal design for e learning final
Universal design for e learning final
Universal design for e learning final
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Universal design for e learning final

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  • Go to http://wave.webaim.org Enter http://elearning.emporia.edu Enter http://www.emporia.edu Universal subtitles DotSub
  • How many of you have had experiences with needing to make accomodations for learners with disabilities in your online courses? Face-to-face? What kind of accomodations and what was the process?
  • In the next section, I’m going to review the different disabilities and some helpful hints on how to make websites accessible to students with these disabilities. All of this information can be found in the article. Some of this will be fairly technical, but bear with me.
  • Show Voice Over and Zooming in and Out
  • Go to http://wave.webaim.org Enter http://elearning.emporia.edu Enter http://www.emporia.edu What does this all mean??
  • Go to http://wave.webaim.org Enter http://elearning.emporia.edu Enter http://www.emporia.edu What does this all mean??
  • Go to http://wave.webaim.org Enter http://elearning.emporia.edu Enter http://www.emporia.edu What does this all mean??
  • Page 349
  • Open Blackboard and show where to add ALT tags for Image – use ADDIE picture Add Lessig Video – No place for ALT Tag More on Subtitles and Captioning Later
  • Page 349
  • Other Videos: Show IT800 Class Universal Subtitles DotSub
  • Use browser controls to vary font-size: verify that the font size changes on the screen accordingly; and that the page is still usable at larger font sizes. Test with different screen resolution, and/or by resizing the application window to less than maximum, to verify that horizontal scrolling is not required
  • Control Option Command 8
  • Universal design for e learning final

    1. 1. Jane Eberle, Ph.D.Zeni Colorado, Ph.D.Emporia State University
    2. 2.  What is Web Accessibility? Using tenets of Universal Design for Learning Disabilities Affected by Web Accessibility Web Accessibility Standards No ready solutions – some recommendations:  Tips for Web Page and Online Course Accessibility
    3. 3. Higher Ed Uses of Technology • Course information/course management • Schedules • Registration • Grade access • Library • Help desk • Marketing • Evaluations
    4. 4.  People with disabilities can use the web “Use” means  Perceive  Understand  Navigate  Interact  Contribute to
    5. 5. Web Accessibility…Does NOT mean that your course will beabsolutely accessible by everyone.But legally and ethically, we must try tomake it as accessible as possible.
    6. 6. With respect to an individual… A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities A record of such an impairment Being regarded as having such an impairment American Disabilities Act
    7. 7. Eighty-five percent of Americanswho live to their full life expectancy will suffer a permanent disability.
    8. 8.  9.3 million people with sensory disabilities  sight  Hearing 21.2 million have conditions limiting physical activities
    9. 9. >750,000,000 people with disabilities“…As we move towards a highly connected world, it is critical that the Web be usable by anyone, regardless of individual capabilities and disabilities…” Tim Berners-Lee
    10. 10. “The Web threatens to become the equivalent of a classroom building without an access ramp.” Young (1998, p. A31)
    11. 11. Any item, equipment, or product that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional abilities of individuals with disabilities. Paciello (2000)
    12. 12. “Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” Center for Universal Design North Carolina State University
    13. 13.  Universal Design does not remove academic challenges; it removes barriers to access. Simply stated, Universal Design is just good teaching.
    14. 14.  Incorporates same fundamental ideas into learning Addresses needs of all Supports improved access to information Supports improved access to learning
    15. 15. Seven Principles of UDL (in Design of Environment, Communications, and Products)Developed by Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State architects, product designers, engineers, and environmental designers
    16. 16. Students with diverse abilitieswill be able to use curriculum.E.g.. Web sites, activities,assignments designed to be used byeveryone. Alternate forms ofassessment.
    17. 17. Curriculum accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilitiesE.g. Allowing students to choose between listening or reading an assignment
    18. 18. Design of material is easy to understand regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level.E.g.. Easy to use control buttons, directions for activities written in easy-to-understand manner
    19. 19. Design communicates necessary information effectively – regardless of user’s sensory abilitiesE.g.. Including captions for visuals
    20. 20. Minimal hazards or adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actionsE.g.. Guidance when user makes inappropriate selection in a software use
    21. 21. Design can be used efficiently and comfortably - with minimum fatigueE.g.. Convenient, user-friendly technology
    22. 22. Appropriate size and space provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use – regardless of user’s body size, posture, or mobilityE.g.. Make certain equipment is appropriate for tasks and user
    23. 23.  Design of instructional materials and activities Makes learning goals achievable by individuals with wide differences (Including abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember)
    24. 24.  Achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities Provides alternatives for students with differing abilities Alternatives built into design and operating systems of materials – not added later
    25. 25.  Need to be aware of laws (handout) Need awareness of guidelines (handout) Need tools to level playing field for all Need to be prepared at beginning of class
    26. 26.  Visual Impairments  Cognitive Impairments  Total Blindness  Attributed to conditions  Low Vision such as autism, brain  Color Blindness injury, cerebral palsy, mental retardation Hearing Impairments  Impairments may be in Motor Impairments ▪ Perception ▪ Problem solving ▪ Memory
    27. 27.  What helps:  Users rely on screen readers and magnifiers  Need Alt Tags  Minimize layout tables  Use heading labels (H1, H2, etc.)  Do not format information that is requires color recognition Examples of screen readers and magnifiers
    28. 28.  What helps:  Multimedia (audio, video, multimedia presentations, web conferencing) files should be accompanied by real-time text captioning placed on learning websites and delivered electronically  http://deafness.about.com/cs/accessibility/a/webvideo
    29. 29.  What helps:  Users rely on mouth-sticks to eye tracking devices  Designers should not rely on synchronous real- time activities  Those with motor impairments should be given extra time to complete activities
    30. 30.  Impairments are wide and varied Suggestions:  Avoid cluttered pages  Make pages easy to navigate  Avoid extra pop-ups and flashing graphics  Design text so it flows in logical sequence  Use page titles and text headers  Allow users extra time to complete assignments
    31. 31.  Section 508 – The Law Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Good Summary of both sets of standards-in article Differences between Section 508 and WCAG:  Section 508 has 16 Standards and One Level of Compliance  WCAG has 65 checkpoints arranged under 14 separate guidelines and 3 Levels.
    32. 32.  Evaluation Tools:  http://wave.webaim.org  http://www.totalvalidator.com  http://www.w3.org/WAI/eval/preliminary.html  http://www.cynthiasays.com Let’s give this a try!
    33. 33.  Blackboard® is committed to ensuring that our platform is usable and accessible. The National Federation of the Blind (NFB) recently awarded Blackboard Learn™, Release 9.1 with a Nonvisual Accessibility Gold Certification, making it the first learning management system to achieve certification. Blackboard measures and evaluates accessibility levels using two sets of standards: the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) issued by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act issued in the Untied States federal government. Audits of our software releases are conducted by a third party to ensure the accessibility of the products.
    34. 34.  Alt Tags  Images  Links PDF Files- OCR vs Scanned Multimedia and Videos- Captioning
    35. 35. Turn off images, and check whetherappropriate alternative text for the images is available.
    36. 36.  No Flashing/Animated images ALT tags Description  This is an image of…. Best Practice Cow  Provide long description  Use JPEG or PNG  250 x 250 pixels Benefits Students with Disabilities Every student• Screen reader describes the image • If image fails to load, description to the student appears.
    37. 37.  Alt Tag o <img src=“coffee" width="250" height="285" alt="Steaming coffee Cup Graphic"/>Steaming coffee Cup Graphic
    38. 38. Situation 1Please read the article “Why blogging is Important”:http://www.techblaster.net/2011/02/why-blogging-is-important.htmlSituation 2Click Here to read the article “Why blogging is Important”:Situation 3Read the article “Why blogging is Important”
    39. 39. Turn off the sound, and check whether audio content is stillavailable through text equivalents.
    40. 40.  Provide captioning and subtitles for multimedia  http://dotsub.com/  http://universalsubtitles.org  http://deafness.about.com/cs/accessibility/a/webvideo
    41. 41.  Use browser controls to vary font-size: verify that the font size changes on the screen accordingly; and that the page is still usable at larger font sizes. Test with different screen resolution, and/or by resizing the application window to less than maximum, to verify that horizontal scrolling is not required
    42. 42.  Change the display color to gray scale (or print out page in gray scale or black and white) and observe whether the color contrast is adequate. Without using the mouse, use the keyboard to navigate through the links and form controls on a page (for example, using the "Tab" key), making sure that you can access all links and form controls, and that the links clearly indicate what they lead to.
    43. 43.  http://www.w3.org/WAI/gettingstarted/Overview.htm http://www.section508.gov/ Colorado, J.T. & Eberle, J.H. (2010). Web accessibility essentials for online course developers. In H. Song & T. Kidd (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Human Performance and Instructional Technology. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. D’Souza, J. (2012). Web Accessibility Basics. Webinar presented to Instructional Design and Technology Department.

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