1 Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine


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Notes from Medicinal Plants class at Virginia Tech. This lecture was developed in collaboration with Dr. Chunlin Long of the Kunming Botanical Institute China and is part of a collaborative project funded by the office of International Agricultural Development at Virginia Tech.

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1 Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine

  1. 1. Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants: An Introduction Chunlin Long Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences And Central University for Nationalities Virginia Tech, October 2008
  2. 2. Three Talks I-Introduction. Monday, 13 Oct. II-Chinese Medicinal Plant Resources for Mouth Disorders. Wednesday, 15 Oct. III-Herbs for Medicinal Baths among the Yao Communities in China. Friday, 17 Oct.
  3. 3. Tropical rainforest in southern and SW China
  4. 4. Subtropical forests
  5. 5. Desert and arid or semi-arid region in NW China
  6. 6. Nitraria sibirica, Zygophyllaceae, occurring in the desert
  7. 7. Alpine vegetation
  8. 8. Rich flora and fauna in China Rank 3rd
  9. 9. Rich cultural diversity in China Top 5
  10. 10. Rich traditional knowledge in China
  11. 11. What’s Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plant (TCMP)? TCMP: refers to medicinal plants under guidance of Chinese medicinal theory TCMP: Plant species (taxa), 11146 spp. And 1581 animals and 80 minerals are also used as medicine. In total: 12807 spp. Mono-prescription, eg. Ginseng slice Multi-prescription, eg. Compound salvia tablet (including Salvia miltiorrhiza, Panax notoginseng, and crystal sugar)
  12. 12. Panax ginseng root
  13. 13. Panax ginseng plantation in Northeast China
  14. 14. Salvia miltiorrhiza
  15. 15. Salvia miltiorrhiza, its special flower structure for pollination
  16. 16. Panax nodoginseng plantation in southwest China
  17. 17. Fruits of Panax notoginseng
  18. 18. TCMP: Why Important? Trade quantum: USD $40 billions/year Population involved: over 1 billion Countries/regions benefited: Japan, Korea, SE Asia, Europe, and China Demands in China: 600 million tons/year Species number: 12807 spp. Development history: over 4000 years Management: an authority from central to county level in China, Administrative of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine
  19. 19. Development Dynamics Healthy Historical Social Economic Cultural Political
  20. 20. Philosophy of TCMP: harmony, balance TCM: 阴Yin, 阳Yang, 气Qi (shady, sunny, and affected through network) TCM: 五行Five Elements, namely 金Jin, 木 Mu, 水Shui, 火Huo, 土Tu (metal, wood, water, fire, and soil) TCMP: To use herbs to restore harmony and balance disorders
  21. 21. Nature of TCMP Four drug “QIs”: 四气:是指寒、热、温、凉四种不同的 药性 Cold-Qi Hot-Qi Warm-Qi Cool-Qi Neutral
  22. 22. Nature of TCMP Five taste “QIs” 五味:指辛、甘、酸、苦、咸五种不同 的药味。 Acrid-Qi Sweet-Qi Sour-Qi Bitter-Qi Salty-Qi
  23. 23. Nature of TCMP Other “QIs” 升降浮沉:药物在治疗作用中的趋向 Upward-Qi Downward-Qi Outward-Qi Inward-Qi 归经Gui-jing:药物归向以五脏为核心的 经络联通的身体各组织部分 Em-stem of neurovaso-Qiduot
  24. 24. TCMP: Some Examples Camellia reticulata Lamiophlmis rotata
  25. 25. Verbena officinalis, Verbenaceae The whole plant Mild Cold-Qi; Bitter taste-Qi; Organs emphasized: Liver and spleen Chemicals: Verbenalin, C17H24O10; Berbenalol, C11H14O5; Adenosine, C10H13O4N5; etc. Dosage: 15-31 grams, decoction Ailments: Schistosomiasis; Malaria; Tumefaction of liver or spleen; etc.
  26. 26. Verbena officinalis
  27. 27. Verbena officinalis
  28. 28. Paeonia spp., Paeoniaceae The root bark Mild Cold-Qi; Bitter taste-Qi; Organ emphasized: Liver Chemicals: paeoniflorin; albiflorin; lactiflorin; daucosterol; etc. Dosage: 15-31 grams, decoction Ailments: Schistosomiasis; Malaria; Tumefaction of liver or spleen; etc. Combined medicine: Angelica sinensis; Bupleurum chinense; Ligusticum chuanxiong; etc.
  29. 29. Lonicera japonica, Caprifoliaceae Flowers (and vine stem) Cold-Qi; Sweet taste-Qi; Organs emphasized: Lung, stomach and heart Chemicals: Luteolin, C15H10O6; Lonicein, C27H30O15·2H2O; Loniceraflavone, C15H10O5; Loanin, C17H26O16; etc. Dosage: flower 9-15 g, stem 9-31 g, decoction Ailments: rheum; parotitis; enteritis; etc. Combined medicine: Isatis tinctoria; Forsythia suspensa; Mentha spp.; etc.
  30. 30. Lonicera japonica
  31. 31. Lonicera sp., taken from Christiansburg, Virginia
  32. 32. Lonicera sp., taken from Christiansburg, Virginia
  33. 33. Lycoris radiata, Amaryllidaceae Bulb Warm-Qi; Acrid taste-Qi and sweet-Qi; Poisonous Chemicals: Lycorine, C16H17O4N; Galanthamine, C17H21O3N; Lycoramine, C17H23O3N; Tazettine, C18H21O5N; etc. Dosage: 1.5-3 g, surface sprending; or decoction Ailments: furuncle; food poisoning; icterus; etc.
  34. 34. Lycoris radiata
  35. 35. Lycoris radiata
  36. 36. Belamcanda chinensis, Iridaceae Rhizome Cold-Qi; Bitter taste-Qi; Organs emphasized: Lung and liver Chemicals: Shekanin, C22H22O11; Belamcandin, C24H24O12; Iridin, C24H26O13·H2O; etc. Dosage: 3-6 g, decoction Ailments: tracheitis; faucitis; parotitis; etc. Combined medicine: Platycodon grandiflorus; Scutellaria baicalensis; Glycyrrhiza uralensis; etc.
  37. 37. Belamcanda chinensis
  38. 38. Belamcanda chinensis
  39. 39. Arisaema spp. Araceae Tuber/corm/rhizome of Arisaema or Pinellia Warm-Qi; Acrid taste-Qi, Bitter taste-Qi; Poisonous; Organs emphasized: Lung, liver and spleen Chemicals: sapons; etc. Dosage: 3-9 g, decoction after processed; or surface sprending Ailments: apoplexy; falling sickness; rheumatism; etc. Combined medicine: Saposhnikovia divaricata; Angelica dahurica; dry ginger; etc.
  40. 40. Arisaema erubescence
  41. 41. Arisaema erubescence
  42. 42. Arisaema franchetianum
  43. 43. Arisaema yunnanense
  44. 44. Arisaema heterophyllum
  45. 45. Pinellia ternata, its tubers are also used as Arisaema
  46. 46. Conclusions TCMP, an important medicinal resource TCMP/TCM, with its own nature/ philosophy (harmony and balance), simple but systematic TCMP, mostly in the forms of multi- prescription/combination Many TCMPs are also edible TCMP, modernization by revealing its chemicals and mechanisms TCMP, for human health and welfare
  47. 47. Acknowledgements Prof. Gregory Welbaum My staff and students Natural Science Foundation of China (30170102) Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province (2001C0058M & 2005C0053M) Ministry of Science & Technology of China (2004DKA30430, 2005DKA21006) Ministry of Education of China (CUN- 985-3-3, B08044)
  48. 48. Research Group for Biodiversity and Plant Resources Please visit our web: www.softyoung.com/biodiversity
  49. 49. chunlinlong@hotmail.com Or: long@mail.kib.ac.cn