1. Teachers did find some content useful (*give example of loudspeaker) 2. when they met with other teachers from various different countries and language context, and when they talked about learning resources, they found ways to use them in their own teaching, 3. We tried to work on understanding what makes them cross contexts??
But where does this “magical travel well” reside? Is it a) something about the resource? b) is it about the easiness to find the resource? or c) is it te teacher, who has a lot of pedagogical ideas ? e.g. a creative teacher who uses many different types of example in their teacher? d) the context where it is used in? In eQnet 2 ways to work on this, metadata and lists of criteria and the “social way”
We have continued working on check-lists for learning resources that could help us to revel the quality...
The concept and creation of the first cataloguing cards occurred during the French Revolution (1789)- The idea is that the object, for example a book, can be described and indexed separately by using metadata. Essentially, metadata is “data *about* the data”.
A cataloguing card represents metadata about each object in the collection and helps accessing the object. The metadata description determines *click* the author, *click* the title and *click* makes the access points available. The metadata description is usually done by librarians or trained indexers who know the cataloguing system, are familiar with controlled vocabularies and know the content area.
How is the metadata used? esample of learning resource portal called LRE, it is an access point for primary and secondary teachers in Europe to find learning resources. *click*. The resources come from more than 20 different content providers and digital libraries from around the world. The content is aligned to different national curricula and, of course, is also in different languages. *click*. What makes it possible for teachers to search learning resources on this portal is the metadata that is used to describe each learning resource, just like in our earlier example of libraries to facilitate the cross-language retrieval of resources. sqdsdS
There are a number of problems when searching learning resources across language boundaries. (click) I give you examples of our main problems. The learning resource description by a librarian or indexer in one context, let’s say a learning resource described with metadata in Finland based on the Finnish curriculum, might not yield relevant results for a teacher who is searching for resources in another country context, say, in the Netherlands. Second, the expert vocabularies by pedagogical and linguistic experts, even when made in collaboration with end-users, seldom translate well to the information seeking tasks of the end-users - teachers.This problem is propagated when taken to a different lingual and country contexts. Despite the multi-million euro efforts of making standardised metadata available for sharing and reusing learning resources, we find that there is still room for improvement.
Furthermore, related to the problematic, I give you an example of Google. It is the most common way for anyone to find information nowadays. It’s success lies in the PageRank algorithm, which, unlike in our case, does NOT build on cataloguing or metadata. It actually measures the relative importance of a website, within a set of websites. This relevance is based on hyperlinks between these websites. It is important to note that these hyperlinks are placed usually when the content is created and rely on the creators’ judgement on the importance of these links. * Click *Unfortunately, such link-structure rarely exist between learning resources in heterogeneous repositories, and even less often across different languages. Thus, it is im possible to assign similar numerical weights for learning resources in a multilingual context. This forces us to evaluate other options.
So, an idea came about to combine the two approaches that were introduced in the beginning. The learning resource portal with metadata represent the human-made top-down order. Tagging came about around 2003 and introduced a new way for any individual to organise digital objects around them by using simple keywords, called tags. *click* On our portal, this means that we let teachers add simple tags and ratings to a resource when they find it relevant. sqdsdS
This, in turn, has a potential to modify the behaviour of other individuals, as they might be inclined to use the tag as a navigational aid for their own resource discovery process.
This follows the same ideas as in nature, where we can see different ways where order and patterns emerge from the bottom-up. Like these birds, no one is in control to tell them what to do, every individual follows 2 simple rules: “stay aligned” and keep the distance. When focusing on the colony level, *and not on individuals,* complexity and patterns arise.
An ant colony is an often used example where larger scale order emerges from small scale interaction. Self-organisation here represents the idea that even if individuals follow simple rules, the resulting group behaviour can be surprisingly complex and effective, for example, success in finding the shortest route to a food source.
Similar behaviour can also be observed among humans, we also look for the “shortest way for the food sources” and follow trails from others. In that process we leave marks, *Click* in this case foot paths emerge *Click* that are more efficient and time saving than the original road. it is typical that they are reinforced over time. *Click* This phenomenon is known as stigmergy.
As teachers add tags to individual resources that they find relevant, new patterns start emerging at the “colony level” which modifies the environment of the portal. * Click * The tags and ratings now appear related to the resources. * Click * On the other hand, lists of the most bookmarked items and global tagcloud emerge creating patterns on the system level. sqdsdS
Similarly, thanks to tags, new connections between users from different countries emerge. *Click* here are users from Austria, Hungary and Finland, *click* who all have showed their interest through tagging on the same learning resource. sqdsdS
We found that tags create new link-structures between learning resources in different languages. These resources, *click* represented here by Slovakian, Finnish and Spanish resources and which reside in different servers in different countries, never had any links between them *click* before the users created the tag “interactive” that now connects them using the orange edges. sqdsdS
Using and discovering learning resources across contexts: eQnet Dr. Riina Vuorikari May 21, 2010 Brussels
<ul><li>About learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>Can learning resources really be reused by teachers from different countries? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what makes them travel well? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how can they be found and shared easily? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>eQNet teachers network </li></ul>«Travel well» learning resources
<ul><li>Sharing and reuse of digital learning resources are the drivers of a “learning object economy” </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of scale: “if we all share the content, production costs per unit go down” </li></ul><ul><li>-> Sharing learning resources metadata to improve reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Did anyone ask: “Do teachers think learning resources from a country other than their own are useful for education? </li></ul>Why digital learning resources ?
<ul><li>Context = country, language, educational system, curriculum... </li></ul><ul><li>We have gained understanding that some content is more useful than other.. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. science, cross-curriculum topics, language learning </li></ul>Can resources cross contexts?
Where to find « travel well » attributes? 2. Easyness to find the resource (e.g. metadata & searchability) 4. Actual use of resources (e.g. evidence that LO is used in different contexts) 1. Creating resources (e.g. visual, easy translation, language independent,..) 3. Selecting « travel well » resources (e.g. personal choice vs. based on criteria) Gut feeling?
Search for «travel well» attributes (1) <ul><li>Checklists on quality of learning resources, technical aspects, usability, .... </li></ul>
<ul><li>Discovering learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>across language boundaries is challenging! </li></ul><ul><li>Main problem: the resource & its metadata description are made in a different context from where </li></ul><ul><li>the resource is discovered and/or actually used </li></ul>One part of the problem
<ul><ul><li>Learning resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in different languages do not cross-reference via hyperlinks! </li></ul></ul>Not applicable! The other part of the problem
Add a rating Add a tag Easiness to find resources: can tags help?
Social tags make digital trails visible! by Stiphy