Occupational health & industrial hyeigen(paper 6)

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Occupational health & industrial hyeigen(paper 6)

  1. 1. PAPER-6(OCCUPATIONAL & HYGINE) SHORT QUESTIONS1. What is TLV & STEL & TWA?Ans-TLV/TWA(THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE)/(TIME-WEIGHTED AVERAGE)It is the max. conc. Of toxic materials which the worker can tolerate for 8hrs in a day, without any adverse effect to his health.unit:ppm/(mg/m3) for gas,liquid,solid,vapour mppcm for fine particlesSTEL (short term exposure limit)it is the conc. Of toxic materials which can be tolerated by a worker for 15 mins without causing any adverse effect to his health.Unit:ppm/(mg/m3)EXAMPLE:MATERIAL TLV STEL PPM MG/M3 PPM MG/M31.Ammonia o.25 18 35 272.benzene 10 20 25 753.methyl isocyanide 0.02 0.052. What is the TLV of impulsive / interprittent / impact sound?Ans: Permissible level in dB Impulse/day 140 100 135 315 130 1000 125 3160 120 10000Noise greater than 140 dB not permitted at interprittent sound2.ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION?The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines ‘Environmental Sanitation’ as “the control of all those factors in man’s physicalenvironment which exercise or may exercise a deleterious effect on his physical development, health and survival.” WHO has been at the forefront of environmental sanitation and hygiene action over the past years and developedsome key materials intended for policy-makers and technical people dealing with these issues. These materials include guidelines, bestpractice documents and promotion materials.Environmental sanitation/hygiene includes all the activities aimed at improving or maintaining the standard of basic environmentalconditions affecting the well being of people. These conditions include:Clean and safe water supplyClean and safe ambient airEfficient and safe animal, human, and industrial waste disposalProtection of food from biological and chemical contaminantsAdequate housing in clean and safe surroundingsStatistics of environmental sanitationPoor hygiene, lack of sanitation facilities and inadequate quality and quantity of drinking water are the major reasons for the death ofseveral poor people suffering from preventable diseases every year.Women and children are the main victims.Diarrhoeal diseases impact children most severely, killing more than 2 million young children a year in the developing world.Many more children are left underweight and malnourished, stunted mentally and physically and susceptible to several deadly diseases.If adequate global action is not taken then the sufferings of the poor are expected to worsen in the near future3.White Finger Syndrome: OR Ray nard’s phenomenon?White Finger or Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome or Vibration White Finger is an industrial condition caused by exposure to handtransmitted vibration associated with the use of vibrating power tools, such as chainsaws, drills, concrete vibrators, jackhammers,sanders, compactors and even lawnmowers. The vibration caused the tiny capillaries in your fingers to "spasm" and shut down, reducing the flow of red oxygenated blood tothe cells giving your fingers that ghastly white appearance.Effects:Tingling whiteness or numbness in the fingers (blood vessels and nerves affected.Fingers change colour (blood vessels affected)Loss of manual dexterity (nerves and muscles affected)Prevention:Use of proper infrared therapy gloves(PPEs)Good practice in industrial health and safety managementThe effect of legislation on worker vibration limitsThis phenomenon is clinically characterized by a typical triphasic colour response which consists of INITIAL PALLOR, followed byCYANOSIS ( blue color of the periphery) and finally rubber ( REDNESS ) involving the affected extremity. There are three stagesin vibration disease, The initial stage is characterized by SLIGHT IMPAIRED Micro- Circulation of the exposed hand and the arm and impairedsensitivity of the fingers ( PAIN, TOUCH, TEMPERATURE, & VIBRATION ). The first non- specific symptoms are ACRO-PARA ASTHESIAS { where the patient suffers sharp pains in the hands} or a feeling of NUMBNESS in the fingers during the workor shortly afterwards.4.Carboxyl hemoglobin?The human effects of inhaling CO depends upon the following factors The concentration of CO in atmosphere The Duration of inhalation Individual susceptibility.Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin that forms in red blood cells when carbonmonoxide is inhaled or produced in normal metabolism. Large quantities of it hinder delivery of oxygen to the body. Tobacco smoking(through carbon monoxide inhalation) raises the blood levels of COHb by a factor of several times from its normal concentrations, thereby body tissue suffer from anoxima. Hemoglobin has 200-300 times more affinity for CO than oxygen and hence combine carboxy-hemoglobin.It is bright, cherry red.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 1
  2. 2. Effects: In large quantities, the effect of COHb is death - known medically as carboxyhemoglobinemia or carbon monoxide poisoning.However in smaller quantities COHb leads to oxygen deprivation of the body causing tiredness, dizziness and unconsciousness. COHb increases risk of blood clot. It is thought that through this mechanism smoking increases the risk of having an ischemic stroke. Pregnant smokers may give birth to babies of a lower birth mass.5.What is heat syncope?A person with heat syncope suddenly faints or passes out during activities in a hot environment. Heat exhaustion is more common and isthe result of water and/or salt depletion due to excessive sweating. Resulting in a state of circulatory deficiency (Heat syncope). Herebody temp need not be abnormally high but raised. The patient complains of increasing thinst but raised. The patient complains ofincreasing thinst oliguria and weakness. The tongue and mouth are dry. Mental capacity and judgement may be dulled. Later there maybe paraesthesia, incoondination of movement, hallucinations, delirium, coma and death. The pulse is rapid and sings of dehydration arepresent. Tachypnoea may lead to tetary. The cause of death is oligaemic shock. Unfit and unacclimatised individuals are particularly atrisk. symptoms of heat syncope: Symptoms of heat syncope include fainting, dizziness, dry mouth, excessive thirst, excessive sweating,fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting.First-aid treatment: Treatment of heat syncope includes removing clothing, a tepid water bath or sponge bath, oral fluids, intravenousfluids, cardiac monitoring, and rest in a cool environment. Provide 6 to 8 liters of fluid in 24 hours until urine output is normal.6.What is ouch-ouch or itai-itai disease?Itai-itai translated from Japanese is literally "ouch-ouch." It refers to a syndrome that principally consists of a painful skeletal conditionresulting from weak and deformed bones. The disease is characterized initially by complaints of spinal and leg bone pain, and anincreasingly waddling gait due to bone deformities. These symptoms can persist and typically progress for several years, until the patientis eventually unable to walk and becomes bedridden. The clinical symptoms then progress rapidly, with eventually severe debilitatingpain, multiple bone fractures from even mild traumas such as coughing, severe skeletal deformities, anemia, and severe kidney problems,leading to death. It has long been suspected that one primary contributor to itai-itai disease was chronic cadmium poisoning. Cadmium isa relatively rare, tin-white, malleable, ductile.7.First-aid for burns?Ans: -The first –aid care rendered to the burn victim largely depends on the cause of the burn and degree of the severity. Regardless ofthe severity of the burns, infection can be serious problem. Certain principle need to be kept in mind when dealing with any burns victim.1. Remove the victim from burn source.2. Maintain airway and monitor respiration.3. Control any bleeding.4. Treat for shock and maintain body heat.5. Don’t try to clean the burn.6. Apply cold water or tap water over the affected area. Keep the part dipped in the cold water or show it under the slowly running tapfor at least ten minutes or till the pain is reduced.7. Doesn’t prick puncture the blisters?8.What is.LUNGS FUNCTION TEST?This is commonly known as pulmonary(PULL-mun-ary) function test. This test measures the amount of air taken in the lungs with a deepbreath and how quickly it can be expelled.Lung function tests measure:1.How much air you can take into your lungs. This amount is compared to that of other people your age, height, and ex. This allows yourdoctor to see whether youre in the normal range.2.How much air you can blow out of your lungs and how fast you can do it.3.How well your lungs deliver oxygen to your blood.4.The strength of your breathing muscles.The main lung function tests are: (1) Spirometry (2) Lung Transfer Test Using CO (3) Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (4) Lung Volumes.Spirometry (spi-ROM-eh-tre). This test measures how much air you can breathe in and out. It also measures how fast you can blow airout.Lung volume measurement. This test, in addition to spirometry, measures how much air remains in your lungs after you breathe outfully.Lung diffusion capacity. This test measures how well oxygen passes from your lungs to your bloodstream.9. What is Dosimeter?Ans-Dosimeters measure an individuals or an objects exposure to ionizing radiation such as X-rays, alpha rays, beta rays, and gammarays in the environment — particularly to a hazard inflicting cumulative impact over long periods of time, or over a lifetime.it is of twotypes:(1) personal monitoring instrument (2) Portable survey instrumentPersonal monitoring instrumenta. Pocket Dosimeterb. Pocket Dosimeter (with Audible warning) c. Film badge Dosimeter d. MOSFET DosimeterPortable Survey Instrumenta) Ionizing Chamber – G3b) Geiger Muller Survey Meterc) Survey meter for Alpha and Beta Particles10.what is audiometry?Audiometry (from the Latin audīre, "to hear" and metria, “to measure”) is the science of measuring hearing acuity for variations in soundintensity and pitch and for tonal purity, involving thresholds and differing frequencies.Typically, audiometric tests determine a subjectshearing levels with the help of an audiometer, but may also measure ability to discriminate between different sound intensities, recognizepitch, or distinguished speech from background noise. Acoustic reflex and otoacoustic emissions may also be measured. Results ofaudiometric tests are used to diagnose hearing loss or diseases of the ear, and often make use of an Audiogram.The most commonly used assessment of hearing is the determination of the threshold of audibility, i.e. the level of sound required to bejust audible. This level can vary for an individual over a range of up to 5 dB from day to day and from determination to determination, but itprovides an additional and useful tool in monitoring the potential ill effects of exposure to noise. Types: Subjective Audiometryo 1. Pure tone audiometryER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 2
  3. 3. o 2. Speech audiometryo 3. Bekesy audiometry Objective Audiometryo 4. Acoustic impedance audiometry/ Tympanometryo 5. Evoked response audiometry11.WHAT IS Lux meter:The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area. It is used in photometryas a measure of the intensity, as perceived by the human eye, of light that hits or passes through a surface. It is analogous to theradiometric unit watts per square metre, but with the power at each wavelength weighted according to the luminosity function, astandardized model of human visual brightness perception. In English, "lux" is used in both singular and plural.13. What is radiation half-life?Ans: -Radiation of half-life means the rate of decay of radioisotopes according to the time it takes than to loss half their strength(intensity). Half-lives range from fraction of seconds to billions of years. Cobalt-60, for example, has a half-life of 5.3 years. A radioactivematerial loses half its strength when its age is equal to its half-life.14.WHAT IS EDTA?Ans: EDTA stands for Ethyl Di-amine Tetra Acetic-acid. It has important emino poly carboxyl acid. It is a weak acid for which PKA valueis increases with increasing concentration. The 4 carboxyl group & 2 nitrogen act as a legend sides. Its solubility in water is very low &therefore its disodium salt is used in access of the stoichimetric amount.Unlike cyanide poisoning that enzyme inhibition cannot be reverse in heavy metal poisoning. Instead of chemical that can bind stronglylike heavy metal atom is aided to complete with anzine protein for these atoms are widely used as anti dote for heavy metal poisoning.15.Biological monitoring.This is a method of identification & quantification of a substance. This means the measurement of level of substance inside one’s body. Itcould be the measurement of actual substance or its metabolites or if enzyme effected by its blood, urine, hair, nail etc. Biological monitoring system actually monitors the pre clinical changes inside the body before the development of sign & symptomsof a disease process. The objectives of biological monitoring test is to detect the earliest changes at a stage when it is reversible. Thefollowing points are required in carrying out biological test.a. The range of normal value.b. Quality control of the test.Whole body vibration: -Whole body vibration exposure on which the whole body mass is subjected to mechanical vibration such as vibration from tractor seats,any other heavy mobile equipment. Mechanical vibration between 4and 11 Hz will cause the body to resonate it can cause predispositionto back pain and changes in lumbar and thoracic vertebrate.16. Pre-employment/placement Medical Examination?Ans- Pre-employment / Placement examination is the foundation of an occupational health service. It is done at the time of employmentand includes the workers medical, family, occupational and social history. A though physical examination and a battery of biological andradiological examinations, e.g. Chest X Ray, Electro-Cardiogram, (ECG) Vision Testing, Urine & Blood Examinations Special Tests ForEndemic Diseases. A Fresh, recruit may either be totally rejected or given or job suited to his physical and mental abilities. The purposeof placement examination is to place the right man in the right job, so that the worker can perform his duties efficiently without detriment tohis health. This is ergonomics.17.what is the necessity of replacement of medical examination?Ans-. As per Section 87c of Factories Act 1948, every worker including contactor workers must undergo periodic medical examination.The frequency and contents of it depends upon the type of occupational exposure. Ordinarily workers are examined once in a year but incertain cases like lead, toxic dyes, radium etc. Monthly examinations are needed. Sometimes daily examination is also recommended forchemicals like Dichromate.The periodic medical exams to be done are:1. BP 2.Blood test 3. LFT 4. Heart 5. Eye 6. Ear18 -What is anti dot for lead poisoning?Ans:-Intravenous calcium gluconate administration may give satisfactory for lead related abdominal colic. Chelating agents –calciumEDTA.Pencillamine are most commonly in the treatment of lead poisoning.19.How chromium enters the human body and what is its effect?Ans: - Chromium enters the body mostly through inhalation. Inhalation of chromium fines and chromium acid mist. Drinking watercontaining chromium salt to another way (ingestion) contact with chromium hexavalent mist leads to dermatitis (skin)EFFECTS:-It effects skin and lead to dermatitis.20.Silicosis?Ans: -Silicosis is defined as a disease due to breathing air containing silica characterized anatomically by generalized fibrous changesand the development of military nodulation in both junges and clinically by shortness of breath, decreased chest expansion, lessenedcapacity for work, absence of fever, increased susceptibility to tuberculosis of which symptoms may be present by characteristics X-RAYfinding the Silicosis is well known in industries where crystal line free silica dust is present ,such as foundries ,glass manufacturing,granite cutting ,mining and tunneling in quartz rock.21.CO, EDTA?Ans: -(Cobalt Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid): - It is an amino-polycarbixilic acid. It is tetrapholic acid and is represented as H4Y. It isused an antidot for the heavy metal poisoning like Pb, cadmium. Chelation therapy with Co-EDTA has been successfully tried to somepatients with acute poisoning. Co salt of EDTA is injected into the blood stream. The Co atom is replaced by heavy metal irons. 2 2+ 3+ 2 Co [EDTA] + ph pb [EDTA + Co ]. The resulting heavy metal EDTA in such as Pb [EDTA] is exerted in the urine treatment mustoccur very son after the poisoning.22.Dermatitis?Ans: -inflammation of the skin from any cause is called dermatitis. Those diseases induced or aggravated by work related exposuresinclude a wide variety of conditions, those that develop as the result of contact of certain substances and those that develop from theharmful effects such substances may have pre-existing skin diseases.23. What do you mean by target organ? What are the target organs with respect of Pb, Hg, CO, silica dust?Ans: 1. It is a systemic, chronic or acute problem occurs in a particular part of our body.2. Every chemical/poison attacks a particular part of the body as a target organ.Ex:-Chemicals Target organLead poison Central nervous system.Benzene Blood and blood forming organs. Carbon tetrachloride lever.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 3
  4. 4. Hg Brain & nervous system & kidney & bladderCO circulatory systemSilica dust lungs24. Duties of industrial hygienist?1. Directs the industrial hygiene programme.2. Studies work operation sand process to get full details of the nature of the work, materials and equipments used, products and byproducts, number and sex of the employees.3. Interprets results of the examination of the work environment and environs in the terms of ability to impair health. Nature of healthimpairment, workers efficiency and community nuisance and /or damage, and presence specific conclusion to appropriate interestedparties such as management and health official.25.What do by mean by engineering control of noise?Ans: -modification of noise source (such as fitting mufflers to air exhaust nozzles). The noise path (such as placing sound blockingenclosures around equipments) or the receiver (such as constructing and enclosures around the employees work stations). Worker inputis often needed in designing such modification to ensure that they are practical and will not interfere with his or her tasks. Obviouslyhazardous employee noise exposure should be reduce or eliminated by the means of engineering noise control when ever practical andfeasible.26.What are the effects of segmental vibration?Ans: -segmental vibration may be encountered in work with pneumatic tools such as drills and hammers. After some months or years ofexposure, the fine blood vessels of the finger may become increasing sensitive to spasm (white finger). Exposure to vibration may alsoproduce injury of the joint of the hands, elbows and shoulders.27.What you mean by administrative control of noise?Ans: -administrative noise control include replacement of old equipments with quieter new models, adherence to equipmentsmaintenance programmes related to noise control, and changes in employee work schedules to reduce noise doses by limiting exposuretime when practical and technically advisable. Planning and designing to achieve non-hazardous noise level when new productionfacilities are brought on line is an administrative control, which can eliminate the need for an HCP.28.CPR?Ans: - It means Cardio pulmonary resuscitation. It is most effective from of active resuscitation that available today and is useduniversally, by first-aid providers and medical personal alike. The technique is used to buy time in resuscitation of victim, in cardio arrest.Effective CPR can sustain a casualty, until more expert medical treatment is available. If the patient breaths himself often giving mouth tomouth breathing for 1-2 minutes, than heart may bring to contract. If it does not beat give a sharp blow at the middle part of thebreastbone, which may cause breathing of the heart. It these tails apply external cardiac compression quickly.29.First aid for bleeding for nose?Ans: -1-Make the patient lie down comfortable with the leg and slightly raised. 2-Keep the body in such a position so that more blood does not aculeate in the cavities. 3. Transfer him immediately to the hospital in laying down position.30.Work environment monitoring?Ans:-It is a process of measurement and evaluation of hazardous material and processes. Measurement of “EXPOSURE” in terms of“dust level”, chemical fumes noise, fumes, vibration heat, radiation etc. is the basic of environmental monitoring. Primary objective of environmental monitoring is to identify and evaluate any potential hazards to the employees. The stepsinvolved are1. A study of materials and process to decide the scope and extend of study.2. Selecting location, timing and methods for environmental measurements.3. Measurements4. Analysis of data collected and interpretation of results31.What is radiation half-life?Ans: -Radiation of half-life means the rate of decay of radioisotopes according to the time it takes than to loss half their strength(intensity). Half-lives range from fraction of seconds to billions of years. Cobalt-60, for example, has a half-life of 5.3 years. A radioactivematerial loses half its strength when its age is equal to its half-life.32: -What is anti dot for lead poisoning?Ans:-Intravenous calcium gluconate administration may give satisfactory for lead related abdominal colic. Chelating agents –calciumEDTA.Pencillamine are most commonly in the treatment of lead poisoning.33.How chromium enters the human body and what is its effect?Ans: - Chromium enters the body mostly through inhalation. Inhalation of chromium fines and chromium acid mist. Drinking watercontaining chromium salt to another way (ingestion) contact with chromium hexavalent mist leads to dermatitis (skin)EFFECTS:-It effects skin and lead to dermatitis.34.Carcinogenic?Ans: - Carcinogenic are the cancer producing elements. When Carcinogenic materials coming with contact with the skin it producesdermatitis, tumors, cancer etc. occupational tumors tends to occur on the skin surface most exposed to the Carcinogenic and developfrom percutaneous lesionEXAMPLE: - Carcinogenic materials are 1.benzene 2.toluene etc35.Respirable dust?Ans: -The dust size 0.5 micron to 5 micron size are breathed in whole working come out of the respiratory passage when more and moredust particles or deposited in the lungs, reaction take place inside the body formed disease like pnecemoconiosis.36.NIHL?Ans: - The terminology used to refer to the slowly progressive inner ear hear loss that results from exposure to continuous noise over along period of time as contrasted to a caustic trauma or physical injury to the ear.There are two basic types of NIHL: NIHL caused by acoustic trauma and gradually developing NIHL.Acoustic traumaNIHL caused by acoustic trauma refers to permanent cochlear damage from a one-time exposure to excessive sound pressure. This formof NIHL commonly results from exposure to high-intensity sounds such as explosions, gunfire, a large drum hit loudly and firecrackers.Gradually developing NIHLGradually developing NIHL Can be caused by multiple exposures to any source of excessive volume, such as home and vehicle stereos,concerts, nightclubs, excessive noise in the workplace, and personal media players.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 4
  5. 5. Symptoms:The sounds a person hears may become distorted or muffled, and it may be difficult for the person to understand speech.Effect:Exposure to harmful sounds causes damage to the hair cells as well as the auditory, or hearing, nerve (see figure). Impulse sound canresult in immediate hearing loss that may be permanent. This kind of hearing loss may be accompanied by tinnitus—a ringing, buzzing, orroaring in the ears or head—which may subside over time.37.Splint?Ans: - Use splint to support, immobilizes and protect parts with injuries such as known or suspected fractures, dislocations or severesprains. When in doubt, treat the injury as a fracture and splint it. Many types of splints are available commercially. Easily applied andquickly inflated plastic splints give support to injured limbs. Improvised splints may be made from pieces of wood, broom handles,newspapers, heavy cardboard, boards, magazines or similar firm materials. Use inflatable splints to immobilize fractures of the lower legor forearm. It is rigid support provided to the fractured victims to avoid dislocation of bone. It is a first process provided to the victim beforeshift to the hospital. Sometimes body parts are also used as splint.38. mental health?Ans: - mental health depends up on the many factors these include: -1. Status of mental health while joining and heredity.2. The social background and living condition.3. Social factors with in the working groups4. Adjustment between the man and the job5. Adjustment of the rural worker with urban working living conditions6. Human needs and difference between expectation and satisfaction levels39. Minor nystagmas?Ans: - Nystamas, vertigo, photophobia, headache, insomnia and blepharospasm are the common symptoms. The vertigo may be sosever as to be displaying but in cases where this is so, there appears to be a considerable functional overlay. Detective vision is sometimes reported. This condition results from poor lighting conditions underground. But due to advanced technology in underground lightingminer’s nystagmas practically doesn’t exist.40.Glare?Ans: - Glare is produced by excessive light stimuli i.e., excessive luminance in the field of vision which disturb the adoption process of theretina. Discomfort glare is caused by too much contract of brightness between on object and its background and is due to poorly designedlighting ex-direct glare of automobile headlight in night drive.41. What is asbestosis?Ans: Asbestos is the commercial name given to certain types of fibrous materials. The fine dust of asbestos enters the body by inhalation& deposited in the lungs causing respiratory insufficiency, which may leads to death is called asbestosis. This disease appears only bylong exposure in asbestos industries. Carcinoma also caused due to long exposure to asbestos dusts.42. How will you eliminate NIHL (Noise)?Ans: NIHL can be eliminated by following methods. Identification of noise sources & eliminate timely with engineering control. Measurement of noise level including personal exposure periodically. Periodic check hearing capacity by AUDIOMETRY test. Using proper PPEs.43. What are the precautions against vibration?Ans: following methods can eliminate the effect of vibration. Control at the source Use special vibrating equipments with vibration absorbing spring, seats. Use standard types of PPEs. Reducing the exposure by job rotation. Regular medical examination.44. What is the health effect of poor illuminationAns: Minor nystagmas, vertigo, photophobia, headache, insomnia are the common health hazards results from poor illumination. Rapidmovement of eye ball are also presently seen due to poor illumination.45. What are the method of controlling dust?Ans: The dust hazard can be controlled by Substitution Ventilation / Exhaustion Isolation Engineering control Administrative control By using of PPEs.46. Which dust are more dangerous?Ans: Coal dust, iron dust, asbestos, silica dust, cotton fiber dust, sugar cane dust are more dangerous dust regarding health hazard.47. What is the effect of CO on human body?Ans: CO enters to the body by inhalation. CO combined with hemoglobin in human body forms carboxy hemoglobin & high concentrationof carboxy hemoglobin in blood leads to death. The initial symptom of effect of CO includes giddiness, headache, and unconsciousness.48. What are the hazards associated with mercury?Ans: The hazards associated with exposure to mercury are serious effects on nervous system, renal functioning, behaviour changes,excessive salivation, dis-colourisation of gums, teeth, fall of teeth, tremour in nimbs, irritation, ulser in the skin etc.49. What PPEs are used for eye & ear protection?Ans: Anti scratched & single or double lense, UV proof goggles are used for eye protection. Ear plug & ear muff are used foe ear protection.50. what are the levels of noise permissible as per factory act 1948?Ans: As per factory act 1948 the permissible levels of noise vary depending upon the time of exposure.Exposure time Permissible level8 hrs. --------- 90 dBAER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 5
  6. 6. 6 hrs. --------- 92 dBA4 hrs. --------- 95 dBA2 hrs. --------- 100 dBA1 hr. --------- 105 dBA½ hr. --------- 110 dBA¼ hr. --------- 115 dBAMore than 115 dBA is not allowed.51. What are the effects of high temperature on human body?Ans: The effects of high temperature on human body are Systematic effect like: - Heat stroke, heat cramp, heat exhaustion, and dehydration. Skin effect like:- prickly heat, skin cancer, rodent ulser etc. Psychoneurotic effect like:- Hear fatigue, loss of emotional control.52. Why first aid training is necessary?Ans: First aid training is necessary to give the casualty immediate, appropriate & adequate treatment to preserve life, prevent furtherworsening of injury & to promote recovery of the casualty.53. What effect on human body while working in confined space?Ans: The minimum oxygen level for safe entry in to confined space is 18%. Once the level falls below this, a person working in theconfined space is like to develop serious symptoms of oxygen starvation. Generally symptoms are headache, difficulty in breathing,ringing in the ears, loss of muscle control & feeling of Euphorbia and often oxygen starvation leads to death.54. What are the target organs with respect of Pb, Hg, CO, silica dust?Ans: Target organs forPb brain & nervous systemHg Brain & nervous system & kidney & bladderCO circulatory systemSilica dust lungs55.Whole body vibration: - Whole body vibration exposure on which the whole body mass is subjected to mechanical vibration such asvibration from tractor seats, any other heavy mobile equipment. Mechanical vibration between 4and 11 Hz will cause the body to resonateit can cause predisposition to back pain and changes in lumbar and thoracic vertebrate.56. WHAT IS COAL MINORS LUNGThis is also known as Pneumoconiosis. It is caused due to long time exposure in dusty industry where coal is used. Due to long timeexposure and due to deposited of coal dust in lungs, the lungs become black in appear and bad effect on the lungs.57. WHAT IS BYSINOSIS.Bysinosis is due to inhalation of cotton fiber dust over long period of time. The symptoms are chronic cough & progressive dyspnoea,ending in chronic pronchits & emphysema. Incidence of bysinosis is reported to be 7 to 8 % in large textile industries of India workers.58. PMF (Progressive massive Fibrosis)Ans: This is the second step of anthracosis. This causes severe respiratory disability & frequently results premature death. Once a background of simple pneumoconiosis has been attended in the coal workers a PMF may develop out of it with out further exposure to it.59. Occupational GermatidiesAns: Occupational germatidies is a big health problem in many industries. The causes may be physical, chemical, biological & plantproducts.Physical Cold, heat, moisture, friction, pressure, X-rays & others.Chemical : Solvent, chlorinated phenol, grease, coaltar etcBiological: Living agents such as virus, bacteria, fungi & parasites.Plant Products Leaves, vegetables, fruits etc.60. Incubation Period/Ans: From the entry of exogenous agent in the body of the human host to till the manifestation of disease symptom is known asincubation period. During this period the germs are reproduced & multiplied then manifest the diseased symptoms. The incubation periodis different for different diseases.61. What do you mean by “Roentgen?”Ans: It is an unit of radiation exposure dose of quantity defined as that amount of X-ray or  - radiations which produces one electrostatic 3unit of charge of either size in 1 M of air at standard temperature & pressure or the intensity of radiation or those rate at any moment , atany point is measured in “Roentgen / hour” Radiations are measured because of their properties of intensity i.;e. producing pairs of + ve & - ve electrical charges as they passthrough the air. The unit of measurement is called “ Roentgen”62. Toxic effect of organic lead (Pb) compound?Ans: The toxic effect of the organic compound is mostly on the central nervous system, which also causes insomnia, headache, mentalconfusion, delirium etc.63.Function of the bandage?Ans:- The use of the bandage is very common even in our day today injuries. A function of bandages are a) To keep the injured part atrest and support its weight by means of a sling . B) To secure a limb to a splint to the trunk or its fellow c) To control bleeding .d) To keepdressing in place. d) To protect wound from exposure sepsis.64.Do’s and Don’t in burn injury?Do’s: Make sure you stop the burning process Try to calm down the victim Plunge or run the water on the burnt surface till the victim is comfortable Cover the area which is burnt with sterile and moist cloth Always lift up the affected area above the level of heart Very badly burnt victims should be laid on a neat surface by giving leg rise. Lay the victim sideways in cases of inhalational burns like gasping patient. Seek for medical advice or care immediatelyDon’ts: Make sure you don’t cover the victim with a blanket or thick cloth, except while putting off the flames.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 6
  7. 7.  Do not remove the dressings that support the burnt surface Do not use ice cool water to cool down the burnt area. The temperature of water should be 15°C. Avoid using home remedies or any unregistered products to apply on the burnt area. Never feed orally in spite of severe thirst to a severely burnt victim .65. Role of Nine/ Do’s & Don’t burn injury?Ans- In this rule the whole body is divided into 12 parts. 11 nos. of parts considers as 9 % each and twelve no of parts i.e. (private part)constituting 1 % . => 11 x 9 % + 1 % = 100 %. The skin area involved in a burn case is more important then the depth. Even a superficial burn involving more than 5 % of the bodysurface is serious. By following rule of nine the percentage of skin area involved can be calculated roughly. The body surface is divided into followingpercentages area.Head and Neck- 9 %, Front of each leg- 9 %, Chest- 9 %, back of each leg- 9 %, Abdomen- 9 %, Each hand- 9 %, Back- 18 % andGenital- 1 %.66. LD-50?Ans- If a number of animals are exposed to a toxic substance, when the concentration reaches a certain level , some , but not all ofthese animals will be killed. Result of such studies are used to calculate the Lethal Dose (LD) of toxic substance.The LD 50 is the concentration that kills half of the exposed animals , but it does not mean that the other half are in good condition ofhealth. They may almost die and they may or may not recover- that is a separate consideration.67. LC-50?Ans- When considering inhalation exposures, LD 50 is not too much useful,- the dose by inhalation is needed. A similar designation,Lethal Concentration (LC) is used for air borne materials . An LC 50 might be 500 pars per million (ppm) , which means that when adefined experimental animal population is exposed to calculated concentration of a substance . for example :- a concentration of 500ppm , that concentration of the substance is expected to cause the death of 50 % of the animals in a stated length of time.68.WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY ERGONOMICS?It is also called human factor engineering, studies the physical and behavioral inter action between humans and there environments onand off the job. When workers and their environment are mismatched, injury levels rise, production is inefficient and other incidents occurthat detract from organizational efficiency and worker well fair. The objective to design a system in which the work place layout, workmethods, machines and equipments and work environment (such as noise and illumination) are computable with the physical andbehavioral limitations of the worker.69.DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF TOXICOLOGIST IN AN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CENTRE.Toxicologist is the type of specialist who will take the sample of the concerned target organ of the occupational disease to which theworker is exposed at the time of shift starts and also again at the end of the shift. Then he will analyse both the samples and comparesthe analysis to get a result that much a particular worker is exposed to that particular disease with in eight hours of duty.70.WHAT TYPE OF TESTS DONE DURING PERIODICAL MEDICAL EXAMINATION?According to section 87 (c) of Factories Act 1948 every employee has to be under go periodic medical examination at a duration of oneyear except the special cases. The tests conducted during periodic medical examination are as Form 31 as follows: -(1) Sl No. (2)Dept/Works. (3) Name of work. (4) Sex. (5) Age.(as last birth day). (6) Date of employment. (7) Date of leaving or transfer to other workwith reasons for discharge or transfer. (8) Nature of job/occupation. (9) Raw materials, products or bi products likely to be exposed to.(10) Date. (11) Results. (12) Signs & symptoms observed during examination. (13) Nature of tests & results there off. (14) If declared unfit for work state period of suspension with reasons in details. (15) Whether certificate of unfit issued to the worker. (16) Recertified fit toresume duty on. (17) Signature of the certifying surgeon with date.71.WHAT IS THE TLV OF CONTINUOUS NOISE AS PER FACTORIES ACT?Total Time of Exposure (continuous or a sound pressure level in dBA number of short term exposure). Per days in hour according tomodern rules xxiv of factories 1948 are as follows: - Hours/day Permissible Sound level in dBA 8 90 6 92 4 95 3 97 2 100 3/2 102 1 105 ¾ 107 ½ 110 ¼ 115Note: - No exposure, in excess of 115dBA is to be permitted.72.WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENVIROMENTAL & BIOLOGICAL SAMPLING? Environmental Monitoring Biological Sampling It is a process of measurement and evaluation of This is a method of identification and quantification of hazardous materials and process. Measurement of a substance means the measurement of level of exposure in terms of dust level, chemical fumes, noise substance in side one’s body. It could be the vibration, heat, radiation is the basis if environmental measurement of actual substance or its metabolites monitoring. These include grab sampling, fixed point or if enzyme affected by its blood, urine, hair and nail. monitoring, continuous 8 hours monitoring and personal It actually monitors the pre clinical changes in the monitoring. body before the development of sign and symptoms of a disease. The points required for it are: - (1) the range of normal value. (2) Quality control of the test.73-What are the effect of non ionizing radiation? The following are the health effect of non ionizing radiation: - (1) Head ache. (2) Increased susceptibility to fatigue. (3) Diminishedintellectual capabilities. (4) Dullness. (5) Partial loss of memory. (6) Decreased sexual ability. (7) Irritability. (8) Sleeplessness. (9)Emotional instability. (10) Chest pain. (11) Hypertension. (12) Sinus Arrhythmias. (13) Bradycardia. (14) Cardio vascular problem.74.Write any two occupational diseases as per factory Act ?ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 7
  8. 8. Ans: - According to factory Act 1987(Amend) in Third schedule two occupational diseases are Lead poisoning, including poisoning by any preparation of compound of lead or their sequelae) Phosphorous poisoning or its sequelae.75.Health hazard of heat.?Ans: the common physical hazard due to heat. The direct effects of heat exposure are burns, heat exhaustion, heat stroke and heatcramps. The indirect effects are decrease efficiency, increased fatigue and enhanced accident rates. Many industries have local hotspots-ovens and furnaces, which radiate heat. Radiant heat is the main problem in foundry, glass and steel industries, while heat stagnation isthe principal problem in jute and cotton textile industries. High temperatures are also found in mines area. Physical work under hightemperature areas is very stressful and impairs the health and efficiency of the workers. For gainful work involving sustained andrepeated work, a reasonable temperature must be maintained in each work areas.FIRST-AID:- Immediate rapid cooling by ice bath r warp in wet bed sheet/blanket. Fan it with coolers. Call doctor or shift him to medical.76- What is Heat Exhaustion?Ans- Weakness, fatigue, headache loss of appetite, vomiting temp normal of body, cold, moist skin, heavy sweating, weak pulse, shallowrespiration.What to do?:- Move to a cool place and lie down in a well ventilated room. Give cool drinking water.77. What is Heat syncope?Ans:- Fainting while standing in hot environment, lack of acclimatization occur after exercise.What to do?:- Move to a cool place and lie down, give water.78- What is personal sampler?Ans: - A small battery operated instrument, which can be carried on the person, exposed which helps measure the time weightedconcentration to which a person is exposed in 8 hours.LFT This is commonly known as pulmonary function test. This test measures the amount of air taken in the lungs with a deep breath andhow quickly it can be expelled. The main lung function tests are:(1) Spirometry (2) Lung Transfer Test Using CO (3) Maximum Voluntary (Ventilation (4) Lung Volumes.79 . What is Serveillance?Ans Serveillance means to watch over with great attention ,authority and often with suspicion. It is based on collation and interpretation ofdata collected from monitoring programs and from any other available sources, with a view to the detection of changes in health status ofpopulations.80. What is B.A.L?Ans- it is used as of physiological anti-dot in arsenic, bismuth, mercury, copper, gold and other heavy metals .Many heavy metals have agreat affinity for (SH) medicines and combines with them in tissues and deprive the body of the use of respiratory enzyme of tissue cell .Dimercaprol has two unsaturated ( SH)groups ,which combine with the metal and this prevent union of arsenic with the SH group of therespiratory system.81. What is impulsive noise?and its TLV?Ans: If the noise level involves maximum at intervals of more than 1 (one) second than it is called impulse noise.Permissible level in dB Impulse/day 140 100 135 315 130 1000 125 3160 120 10000Noise greater than 140 dB not permitted at interprittent sound82. what is the necessity of replacement of medical examination?Ans. As per Section 87c of Factories Act 1948, every worker including contactor workers must undergo periodic medical examination. Thefrequency and contents of it depends upon the type of occupational exposure. Ordinarily workers are examined once in a year but incertain cases like lead, toxic dyes, radium etc. Monthly examinations are needed. Sometimes daily examination is also recommended forchemicals like Dichromate.The periodic medical exams to be done are:1. BP2. Blood test3. LFT4. heart5. Eye6. Ear83. What is Heat sinkoff.Ans: - Heat exhaustion is more common and is the result of water and/or salt depletion due to excessive sweating. Resulting in a state ofcirculatory deficiency (Heat syncope). Here body temp need not be abnormally high but raised. The patient complains of increasing thinstbut raised. The patient complains of increasing thinst oliguria and weakness. The tongue and mouth are dry. Mental capacity andjudgement may be dulled. Later there may be paraesthesia, incoondination of movement, hallucinations, delirium, coma and death. Thepulse is rapid and sings of dehydration are present. Tachypnoea may lead to tetary. The cause of death is oligaemic shock. Unfit andunacclimatised individuals are particularly at risk. The treatment includes rest in cool room and administration of 6 to 8 liters of fluid in 24hours until urine out put is normal. Inravenous drip of 5% dextrose is ideal when the patient is unable to take oral fluids.84. What is Miners Nistagmus?Ans: - Nystaman, ventigo, Photophobia, Headache insomia and blepharspasm are the common symptoms. The vertigo may be so severas to be displaying but in case where this is so, their appears to be a considerable functional overlay. Detective vision in comes timereported. This condition underground. But due to advance technology in under ground lighting miner’s nystagmas practically dies notexits.85. What is SOUND LEVEL METER?Ans-It is battery operated electronics equipment used for the measurement of sound level in the high noise areas. It needs calibrationchecks periodically for efficient operation.86. Describe the role of toxicologist in an occupational health service centre.Ans-Toxicologist is the type of specialist who will take the sample of the concerned target organ of the occupational disease to which theworker is exposed at the time of shift starts and also again at the end of the shift. Then he will analyse both the samples and comparesthe analysis to get a result that much a particular worker is exposed to that particular disease with in eight hours of duty.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 8
  9. 9. 87. What are the Role of ergonomics in office work?Ans It is also called human factor engineering, studies the physical and behavioral inter action between humans and there environmentson and off the job. When workers and their environment are mismatched, injury levels rise, production is inefficient and other incidentsoccur that detract from organizational efficiency and worker well fair. The objective to design a system in which the work place layout,work methods, machines and equipments and work environment (such as noiseAnd illumination) are computable with the physical and behavioral limitations of the worker.88. PHENUMOCONIOSISIt is an occupational disease due to air pollution. The inhalation of dust, fumes or other noxious substances may give rise to specificpathological changes in the lungs. Dust within the size range of 0.5 to 3 microns is a health hazard producing after a variable period ofexposure lung disease named pneumoconiosis, which may cripple a man by reducing his working capacity due to lung fibrosis and othercomplications.89.CO MONITERIt is a battery operated electronics devices to detect the % of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. Co is a slow poison having TLV 50ppm and STEL 400ppm it is very essential to detect CO in atmosphere.90. BARIOR CREAMWhile handling petroleum products, a carboxylic acid derivative there is a chance of skin infection or dermatitis. To avoid this barriercream is a boon for workers.91. PERSONAL HYGIENEThis includes washing of hands before taking food, keeping clothing neat and clean, good house keeping at work place as well as athome, good ventilated and clean sanitary arrangements at industry and at home, using spittoons.92. Arsenic Poisoning? nAns- Def : - Arsenic poisoning in industries is a disease due to inhalation of arsenic compounds & its characterized by scheme changesinflammation of nerves anemia & diarrhea.Causative agent: - Arsenic and its compounds.Occupations involved:- Sulphuric acid makers. Painters. Insecticide makers.92. Welder’s flash?Occupational exposure to UV radiation occurs mainly in arc-welding .Radiation mainly affect the eyes leading to intense conjunctivitiscalled as Welder Flash.Symptoms: Redness of eyes & pain ,disappear within the few days but has no permanent effect on vision or deeper structures of eye. 5 MARK QUESTIONS93. What are the causes of electrical accidents & hazards involved? First-aid in case of electrical shock.Ans: causes of electrical accidents are :-1. Unqualified / Unauthorized person operating , testing, repairing or installing electrical equipments.2. Lack of adequate work place around and electrically equipments.3. Defective insulation.4. Broken, burned, wet or damaged parts.5. Inadequate guarding of exposed energized parts.6. Use of defective tools.7. Use of tools in unsafe place & unsafe manner.8. Failure of the work man to de-energized equipments.9. Failure to use proper PPEs.10. Working in a unsafe work environment.11. Insulation failure.94. Decompression sickness?Ans: - when the workers are engaged in high-pressure environment like under water and compressed air chamber, body get acclimatized.The gases like oxygen dissolve increasing the concentration in blood. As long as they are kept under such environment without reducing the pressure, they seem to be maintaining better health status.But when they suddenly brought surface from under water on the compressed chamber air is released the following health effects mayresult.1. Itching all over the body.2. Sever pain in joints.3. Difficulty in breathings.4. Paralysis in limbs.5. Small tears in lungs.95. Periodical Medical Examination?Ans- Many diseases of occupational origin require months or even years for their development. Their slow development, very often, leadto their non-recognition in the early stages and this is harmful to the workers. This is the reason why a periodical medical checkup ofworkers is very necessary when they handle toxic or poisonous substances.The frequency and contents of periodical medical examinations will depend upon the type of occupational exposure. Ordinarily workersare examined once in a year. But in certain occupational exposure (eg. Leda, Toxidyes radium) monthly examinations are indicated.Sometimes, even daily examinations may be needed such as when irritant chemicals like dichromate’s are handled. The periodicalexamination may be supplemented where necessary by biological and radiological examinations. Particular care should be given toworkers returning from medical leave to assess the nature and degree of any disability and to assess suitability or other wise of returningto the same job.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 9
  10. 10. 96-What do you mean by Heat Stress ?discuss heat disorder ,its preventive measures & treatment ? o oAns-Our body is capable of maintaining its temperature with in 36 c-38 c by generating or loosing heat as necessary. Skin plays a majorrole. It produces a lot of sweat by its evaporation the body loose its excess heat. Heat stress results from a combination of environmentalfactors, such a temp, humidity, solar, load, duration of exposure, work rest pouse, type of work, age, health status obesity, type of clothingand acclimatisation (adjustment)Failure of body to adjust the heat stress produces disorders a) Depletion of self due to produce sweating, b) Rise in body temperature dueto failure of lthermal regulatory mechanism.Disorders are:- I) systematic like:- heat stroke, heat exhaustio, heat syncope, heat cramp and dehydration.ii):- Prickly heat, cancer, rodentulcer etc. iii) Psychoneurotic:- Heat fatigue, loss of emotional control. oHeat stroke happens at body temp> 40.5 c.Heat exhaustion is caused by simultaneous excessive fluit and salt from the body.Prevention and control of heat stress.:- Adequate in take of fluid and salt (ASS):- salt sugar solution. Proper protective clothing. Safe exposure time adjustment. Engineering control of environment heat/ ventilation. Medical control ( Training and education, work rest pouse) Acclimatisation ( acquainted) of the workers.Heat stroke:-Headache, vomiting dizziness, weakness, hot dry skin, no sweating. High temp, rapid strong pulse, rapid, deep respiration, loss ofconsciousness, coma, convulsion.98.What is ESP (Electro static precipitator) and how it helps in reducing dust pollution. ?Ans -The principal component of ESP are two sets of electrodes insulated from each other. The first set is composed of rows electricallygrounded vertically parallel plate, called the collection electrodes between which the dust laden gas flows. The sound set of electrodesconsists of wires called the discharge of emitting electrodes that centrally located between each pair of parallel plates. The wires carry aunidirectional, non-uniform of electric field whose magnitude is greatest near the discharge electrodes.Process to reduce dust pollution:Electrostatic smoke precipitators work by forcing dirty flue gas (the gas escaping from a smokestack) past two electrodes (electricalterminals), which take the form of metal wires, bars, or plates inside a pipe or smokestack. The first electrode is charged to a very highnegative voltage. As the dirt particles move past it, they pick up a negative charge. Higher up the pipe (or further along, if its a horizontalpipe), theres a second electrode consisting of metal plates charged to a high positive voltage. Since unlike charges attract, the negativelycharged soot particles are attracted to the positively charged plates and stick there. From time to time, the collecting plates have to beshaken to empty away the soot; that can be done either manually (by someone brushing them clean) or automatically (by some kind ofautomated shaking or brushing mechanism in a process called rapping).Illustration: Electrostatic smoke precipitators use static electricity to remove the soot from smoke. Dirty air moves past negativelycharged wires (shown as −ve) so the soot particles pick up a negative charge. The negatively charged particles of soot then stick topositively charged plates (shown as +ve) further along the pipe. Much cleaner air emerges from the pipe as a result. Most precipitatorsalso have simple fabric filters at each end of the pipe (shown by the orange bars) to remove larger soot particles.99. What are the steps of noise control & give a check list for a noisy work place?Ans: Following are the steps of noise control. Redesign noise source or use other process. Maintain & modify existing source Block the noise transmission path. Enclose the workers, reduce noise dose & allow limit nos. of workers to expose. Use of proper PPEs.Check list for noisy work place:- Do your ears ring at the end of the days work? Do you have to talk very loudly? Do your machine make a lot of noise? Does the sound of bus, car, radio or the people taking seem quieter after the shift then before? Do your family members complain of you, shouting after the days work? Do you have difficulty in hearing people when others are also speaking?Are older workers in your work place excessively hard of hearing?ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 10
  11. 11. 100-What Do You Mean By Hearing Conservation Program?Ans-An effective hearing conservation programme should be under taken where exposure to industrial noise is capable of producinghearing loss. The object is to insure that an employee’s hearing is not affected during his working life to an extent greater than that usuallyoccurring with age and to preserve it a level sufficient for normal speech receptionConservation program is needed in situation where the hearing loss, as measured by audiometry, is more than 10dB at 400Hz.it alsoindicated when the sound levels in the working environments more than 90dB and there is difficulty to communicate by speech.The program consists of: - Noise exposure analysis Engineering control noise Protection of hearing and ear defenders where necessary, and Measurement of hearing by audiometry.101-Why hearing conservation is necessary? It is understood that noise damages the hearing either temporarily or permanently. It creates physical, mental stress and causesaccidents due to poor communication at work place. Hearing is priceless for every individual. Without a good hearing one cannot enjoy or even lead a normal life. Impaired hearing may affect job performance. It affects health, wellbeing and some times even loss of employment. It is statutorily necessary to protect the hearing of the workers exposed to excess noise it is the responsibility of the occupier of thefactory and agent of the mines.102-What are the principles behind HCP? Every industry should have a hearing conservation policy. A trained and responsible person preferably from OHS should supervise the programme. A complete noise survey of the entire work place should be conducted with the help of a sound level meter, octave band analyzer andnoisy areas are to be identified Areas where noise level exceeds 85 dB (critical level) noise control programme should be implemented. Workplace noise survey should be repeated every year to exclude or exclude areas where noise level has been brought below thecritical level and new areas where noise level gone beyond the critical level respectively. HCP is important for all employees and not for those employees exposed to high noise. Awareness programme should be organized to convince every one that this programme is organized medically and its objective is toprevent hearing loss among the employees. The audiometric test should be performed among all employees before recruitment, on transfer to noisy jobs at periodic intervals andbefore superannuation. Interpretation of the audiogram should be done by an audiologist/otologist/ENT specialist/occupational physician. At least opinion oftwo of them should be considered while making the diagnosis. All audiograms are to be preserved till the retirement of the employee. Noise dose received by each exposed employee during 8 hours of work should be computed by using noise dosimeter and an individualnoise exposure card to be maintained. Noise control and hearing protection programme should go simultaneously. Hearing protectors should be made available free of cost to all employees. HCP is a team work. It becomes successful if employees, management, trade unions and OHS center work together.HCP therefore is not only restricted to performing noise measurement at the workplace or audiometry of exposed workers or supplyingear protectors to the individuals it is rather some thing beyond this.103-What are the components of HCP? Noise measurement and control. Hearing protection Audiometric testing of employees Education about HCP Record keeping Rehabilitation of employees with hearing impairment. 104.first-aid trainingAns: - First aid: - it is the prompt treatment assistance given to accident victim or to person incase of sudden illness before the medical aidis available. The person who is trained to give such assistance is called a first-aider. The sufferer is called victim or casualty. The medical aid is the treatment given to the sufferer by the doctor or any other trained medical staff, either on the spot, in the home,or in the hospitals.Principle: -The principles of the first-aid are based on the practical knowledge of medicine and surgery. The treatment given by first aiderno way replaces medical treatment. The duties of a first-aider stops when medical help or aid become available.Aim of the first aid: -The main aim of first-aid is to To save life To prevent the condition becoming worse.105-What is Bassymosis? Cause and its control, preventive measures?Ans-Bassymosis is the name given to an occupational disease of the lung caused by inhalation of bagasse or sugar cane dust. India hasa large no of cane sugar industry. Bassymosis has been shown to be due to thermo philic actenomycete for which the name THERMO Actino-mycetes was suggestedby S.Achary.The symptoms consists of breathlessness, cough, Heamoptysis , and slight fever .Initialy there is acute diffuse bronchitis.Skia gram may show motting in fungs or shadows .There is a impairment of pulmonary function.if treated early there is a resolution of theacute inflammatory condition of the lung .If left untreated there is diffuse fibrosis, emphysema and bronchietasis.Preventive measure Dust control –easure for the prevention and suppression of dust such as wet process , enclosed a apparatus ,exhaust ventilationetc.should be used. Personal protection:-Personal protective equipments (masks or respirators with mechanical filters or with oxygen or air supply) may be necessary.Medical control :-Initial medical examination and periodical redical checkups of workers are indicated.Bagasse controle :-ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 11
  12. 12. By keeping the moisture content below 20 percent and spraying the bagasse with 2 percetnage prop ionic acid,a widely usedfungicide.bagasse can be rendered safe for manufacturing use.106. What is Tertiary Prevention?Ans - Tertiary prevention generally consists of the prevention of disease progression and attendant suffering after it is clinically obviousand a diagnosis established. This activity also includes the rehabilitation of disabling conditions. Examples include eliminating offendingallergens from asthmatic patients; routine screening for and management of early renal, eye, and foot problems among diabetics; andpreventing reoccurrence of heart attack with anti clotting medications and physical modalities to regain function among stroke patients.For many common chronic illnesses, protocols to promote tertiary preventive interventions have been developed, often called "diseasemanagement." Disease treatments are not usually included, but the boundary with tertiary prevention is not always clear.107. What is Sickness benefit?Sickness benefit consists of cash payment for maximum period of 91 days. The daily rate of sickness benefit is calculated at half ofaverage daily wages. The insured worker who is getting sickness benefit should be under the medical treatment at a dispensary orhospital maintained by the corporation. It is not payable for more than 91 days in the aggregate in any continuous period of 365 days.This benefit is useful to a worker who is unable to attend his work due to sickness.Insured persons suffering from long term diseases are entitled to get extended sickness benefit up to an additional 309 days and the rateof payment in such cases is about 63% of the wages.108.What are the effects of Ionizing radiation on health?Ans I)RADIATION SICKNESS / MALAISEThis is caused by the damage to Gastro Intestinal tract. It may develop with in a few hours to 24 hours depending upon the dosereceived. It may last for 2-3 days usually radiation sickness occur at dose of 150r and above. The earlier symptoms are Fatigue,Nausea, Indigestion, Loss of appetite, which may develop to vomiting , diarrhoea, may be with blood etc. with higher doses.II)DELAYED EFFECTS :The delayed effects like loss of body hair with appearance of blood spots due to haemorrhages under the skin, which occur after aboutfour weeks or so, then the blood forming system is injured by radiation and destroys body natural immunization against diseases ofRespiratory function and Gastro Intestinal Diseases.III) LONG TERM EFFECTS / OR INJURIES.These are Anaemia , Blood Cancer, Bone Or Tissue Cancer and Tumours, which usually develop many years after exposure. rPremature aging loss of vigour may occur. These dangers are not imminent below a dose of 100 .IV) GENETIC DAMAGEWhen the radioactive organs and germ cells which transmit the habitability to future generations, affect the Gene & , genetic damagesare caused. The damage caused by radiation is directly propositional to total dose received by the population, i.e. whether a few gethigh doses or a large number get lesser doses. Young persons should be avoided to work only above 35 years allowed to work as 30- r80r doubled Gene mutation and 100 gives defective child birth.109. What is understood by “Substitution” in Industrial Hygiene?Substitution is a method of control of hazard. Substitution means replacement of raw materials used. Substitution of material can be avery effective way of controlling hazardous exposure. A classical example is using Red Phosphorous in place of White Phosphorouswhich eradicated the serious occupational disease known as ‘Phossy Jaw’; common among match workers. Substitution can take place inthree forms:1. Substitution of Materials2. Substitution of Process.3. Substitution of Equipments.110.What is the need of PPE and why suitable PPE’s are required?In industry it may be possible to substitute a dangerous substance with another substance to isolate the process and to have automaticand mechanical handling of the substances or to have controlled ventilation of the process or to plan and arrange operation such thatPersonal Protective Devices are not required; but sometimes it may not be possible to introduce such measures or there might be abreakdown in the plant or in the control measure. Under such circumstances it will become necessary to use Personal ProtectiveEquipment. It must be borne in mind that Personal Protective Equipments do not eliminate hazards. These devices are designed tointerpose an effective barrier between a person and harmful objects, substances or radiations etc.Suitable PPE’s are required for:-1. Adequate protection against the hazards to which the worker will be exposed.2. Eliminating the injury or reducing the severity of the injury.3. It effectively avoids the contact of dangerous substances including chemicals.111-What is Occupational dermatitis?Inflammation of the skin from any cause is called dermatitis. Those diseases induced or aggravated by work related exposures include awide variety of conditions, those that develop as the result of contact of certain substances and those that develop from the harmfuleffects such substances may have pre-existing skin diseases. Occupational dermatitis is a major problem in many industries. The causemay be due to the effect of physical, chemical, biological and or plant products.Physical: - cold, heat, moisture, friction, pressure, X – ray & others.Chemical: - solvents, chlorinated phenol, grease, coal tar etc.Biological: - living agents such as virus, bacteria, fungi & parasites.Plant products: - leaves, vegetables, fruits etc.112- What are the effects of noise on human health?Exposure to noise may produce non-auditory adverse effects on the human system and cause various health disorders unrelated directlyto the noise.Speech Interference: Interference with speech is very common in noisy area and ability to communicate by speech is most important.Usually noise, which are hazardous to hearing also interfere with speechPhysiological Effects Sleep disturbance and stress reaction has been the main effects leading to various types of aliments. Studiescarried out has shown beyond doubt that stress reaction causes1. Variation in blood pressure2. Variation in respiration3. Dilatation of pupils4. Other disease like peripheral vascular disturbance, hypo cholesterol heart disease, vascular neuropathy, psychological tension,irritability, myopathy, mysculoskelatal disorders.Behavioral Effects Excessive noisily conditions can cause mental disturbances and reduce the output and efficiency by adversely themoral however it is also said to precipitate the latent neurosis.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 12
  13. 13. 113. what are the targeted organ for co gas and how this gas affects human being?Ans:- Co is produced by incomplete combustion of carbon compounds. As many of the gases used I industry contain Co in varyingproportion, there is an ever present hazard where ever their used. The exhaust gases of petrol and diesel engines also produce Co anddangerous quantities may be generated in confined spaces.GAS Co Co2 CH4 H2 N2Coal gas16% 02% 20% 55% TraceProducer 30% 10% Trace 10% 50%Water 40% 05% Trace 50% 03%Blast fur27% 15% Trace 02% 55%Coke oven09%03% 25% 55% 06%Even in mines Co is dangerous constituents of after damp, the gas produce during underground explosion from methane and coal dust.Co is colourless, odorless and the early science of intoxication is insidious (dangerous) factors, which combined to make it especiallydangerous. The initial symptoms include giddiness and headache and even the patient looses the power in his legs and becomesunconscious. Concentration of 3500 ppm is immediately hazardous to life.Co has greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen and combines with it to form carboxy hemoglobin. The symptoms of intoxication canbe correlated with the carboxy hemoglobin concentration. Death occurs when the blood is 60% to 80% saturated with carboxy-haemoglobin.114- What is Ear plug and Ear muff?Ans-Noise level above 90dBA is hazardous for an employee more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours a week. So mainly 2 types of earprotector or PPEs is used. Such as -1) Earplug: - Earplug is made of plastic, rubber or polythene foam. Ear plug are ear protectors that is inserted in the external ear canalthe various types are:-a) glass down b) Moulded ear plugs made of soft flexible materials which should be chemically insert and cab beeasily cleaned. C) Universal ear plug which fits all outer ear. D) Amplitude selective ear plugs. e) Self fitting ear plugs.2) Ear muff: - it is made of sponge materials which covers external ear and provides better than ear plug. Usually designed forvery high land dangerous noise levels. Attention is better than that of ear plugs. Ear muffs are devices that fit around the ears and aresupported either from a hard hat or from a head bend that connects the individual muffs.115. How Vibration In Industries Reduced?The vibration in an industry can be reduced as follows: Tools which are light to handle and have reduced vibration level to be used. Old excessive vibrating machine parts to be replaced. Inspection, adjustment and oiling of machine and equipments to be done regularly. All the machine parts to be suitably tightened. Use of automated and remote control machines to be introduced. Before begging work always self massage your arms legs and worm of. PPEs like hand gloves to be used. Short rest breaks in between work to be taken. All work site to be equipped with hot water taps and hot drinks. Regular medical examination of workers.116. What is heat cramp?Ans: - Excruciating pain in the limbs, abdominal muscles after exposure to heat is common in certain groups of workers. It is due tosodium salt (NaCl) depletion in the sweat and failure to replace the same. The condition may get relieved by removing the victim to a coolatmosphere and administrating salted drink117.What is explosive meter?Ans: - A sample of the atomosphere to be tested is drawn over a heated catalytic filament which from the part of the balance electricalcircuit, combustibles in the sample burn on the filament so raising its temperature and increasing n its resistance. The resulting in balanceof the circuit causes a deflection in the meter, which is roughly proportional to the concentration of combustible vapour in the sample. Thescale graduation represents the percentage of the lower explosive limit. Thus a deflection of the meter pointer between 0 and 100%shows how closely the atomosphere being tested approaches the minimum concentration required for explosion.118.BIOLOGICAL SAMPLINGThe most frequently used toxicity testing is Acute oral LD50 Acute dermal toxicity this test gives the effects of skin absorption following a single applicator Acute or primary irritator this concerns the immediate effects of a chemical on skin, eyes or mucous membranes. Acute inhalation Sub acute and chronic skin absorption. Sub acute and chronic inhalationSuch toxicity testing, obviously, cannot be carried out or human beings. There- fore all biological sampling and testing is mostly carriedout by or experimentation on rates mice, guinea, pigs or other laboratory animals. LD100 and LC100 require 100 %of the sample group.LD50 or LC50 requires 50% death in sample groups .to determine such lethal limits for the protection of human health, biologicalsampling and testing on other animals has become a scientific need. Therefore biological sampling and testing are continuously variedout at the work place.119. What is glare? How to minimize it ?Ans- It is defined as the excess brightness in the field of vision which causes discomfort, interference or eye fatigue. It reduces efficiencyof the eye as it disturbs the adoption process of the retina of eye. Glare is two types- (a) Direct glare, (b) Reflected glare.To minimize the direct glare:- Decreasing the brightness of the light source. By positioning the light source so that it will not fall within the field of vision. Increasing the brightness of the area, of the surrounding glare against which it is seen.To minimize the reflected glare:- Decreasing the brightness of the light source, Positioning the light source, Increasing the level of illumination by increasing the number of light source, Changing the character of the offending surface to illuminate the reflection.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 13
  14. 14. 120.First-aid for chemical burns?Ans: -The first –aid care rendered to the burn victim largely depends on the cause of the burn and degree of the severity. Regardless ofthe severity of the burns, infection can be serious problem. Certain principle need to be kept in mind when dealing with any burns victim.8. Remove the victim from burn source.9. Maintain airway and monitor respiration.10. Control any bleeding.11. Treat for shock and maintain body heat.12. Don’t try to clean the burn.13. Apply cold water or tap water over the affected area. Keep the part dipped in the cold water or show it under the slowly running tapfor at least ten minutes or till the pain is reduced.14. Don’t prick puncture the blisters.121. Environmental monitoringIt is a process of measurement & evaluation of hazardous material & process. Measurement of exposure in terms of dust level, chemicalfume, noise, vibration, heat, radiation etc. is the basis of environmental monitoring. The fundamental goal of any occupational healthprogramme should be the reduction of occupational disease by the elimination of exposure to toxic substances and hazard physical agentor by their control to levels to be safe.Criteria for good environmental monitoring programme:- The programme should be start with stated aims to identify levels of hazard. All results generated by programme should be available to worker. There must be clear cut action plan formulated before hand based on which control mechanism would be applied in monitoringreveals hazardous condition in the work environment. The action level should be jointly before hand.Fixation of significant level should be taken into consideration the maximum possible errors associated with the techniques employed forinitial determination.Sampling & monitoring Techniques:1. Grab sampling:- Taking air sample for analysis important points to note when & from which area the samples were taken, whether thesample taken falls nearer the breathing zone.2. Fixed point monitoring: - This shows total exposure but at various through out the day.3. Continuous 8 hrs monitoring:- This gives total exposure for a day as well as variation of concentration during a day.4. Personal monitoring:- This is probably the best method of environmental monitoring where monitoring is done on the person. Personalmonitor is fitted on the person so that it could give a true picture of exposure.122. Biological monitoring.This is a method of identification & quantification of a substance. This means the measurement of level of substance inside one’s body. Itcould be the measurement of actual substance or its metabolites or if enzyme effected by its blood, urine, hair, nail etc. Biological monitoring system actually monitors the pre clinical changes inside the body before the development of sign & symptomsof a disease process. The objectives of biological monitoring test is to detect the earliest changes at a stage when it is reversible. Thefollowing points are required in carrying out biological test.a. The range of normal value.b. Quality control of the test.123. Air supply type respirator. Ans:- Air supply type of respirator are divided in to two parts.i) Air supplied form separate sourceii) Self content breathing apparatusi) Air supplied from separate sources:-It is divided 3 types: -a) Air line respirator b) Suction hose type c) pressure hose mask typeii) Self content breathing apparatus:-It is divided into 2 types:- a) open circuit b) close circuita. Air line respirator:- It consists of a full mask face piece or a loose fitting hood on helmet or which are is supplied to a small diameterhose.(i) Continuous flow type respirator:-In continuous flow type air is supplied continuously to the face piece ad excess air ente4ring it and the exhaled air escape in to thesurrounding atmosphere.(ii) Demand type airline Respirator:-It provides automatic respiratory control by responding to breathing requirement of the user.b. Suction hose mask:-It consist of a full face piece connected to a large diameter (30 to 40) flexible non kinking hose.c. Pressure hose mask:-This hose mask is similar to the suction hose mask except that the air is fed in the hose by a hand or motor operated blower.Self contained breathing apparatus SCBA OR BA sets:- Limitation of hose mask is trailing hose which may result in entanglement and user must return by tracing his route in lthe contaminatedarea SCBA is self sufficient breathing apparatus which permits freedom of movement as the user carried the supply of breathable air. Itsof two types. A) compressed oxygen type. B) compressed air type.SCBA has be classified as demand compressed O2 or air breathing apparatus. compressed O2 recirculating breathing apparatus. O2 regenerating type breathing apparatus.Demand type self content breathing apparatus.This apparatus in which the user gets respirable oxygen or air from compressed cylinder which is an integral part of the apparatus andenable the user to breathe independently.Compressed oxygen re-circulating type breathing apparatus:In this type, high-pressure oxygen passes through a pressure reducing and regulating valve in to a breathing bag.Oxygen regenerating type breathing apparatus:In this apparatus moisture content from the users exhaled breathe reacts with ganular chemical in a canister to liberate oxygen. Also theexhaled Co2 is absorbed by the chemical in the canister. This oxygen enters a breathing bag from which the user in-hales.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 14
  15. 15. 123. Chemical cartridge type respirator: - This type of respirator is usually consist of a half mask provided with one or two cartridge likecanister the cartridge are filled of with appropriate chemicals for a specific contaminant. It is a non-emergency respirator and it should notbe used in oxygen deficiency atmosphere. It is recommended that it should not be used in atmosphere containing more than 0.1%contaminant by volume. Under IS 8522 – 1977 specification for chemical cartridge respirator have been described.124. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning?Ans:- Co is produced by incomplete combustion of carbon compounds. As many ofl the gases used I industry contain Co in varyingproportion, there is an ever present hazard where ever their used. The exhaust gases of petrol and diesel engines also produce Co anddangerous quantities may be generated in confined spaces.GAS Co Co2 CH4 H2 N2Coal gas 16% 02% 20% 55% TraceProducer gas30% 10% Trace 10% 50%Water gas 40% 05% Trace 50% 03%Blast furnace gas 27% 15% Trace 02% 55%Coke oven gas 09% 03% 25% 55% 06%Even in mines Co is dangerous constituents of after damp, the gas produce during underground explosion from methane and coal dust.Co is colourless, odorless and the early science of intoxication is insidious (dangerous) factors, which combined to make it especiallydangerous. The initial symptoms include giddiness and headache and even the patient looses the power in his legs and becomesunconscious. Concentration of 3500 ppm is immediately hazardous to life.Co has greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen and combines with it to form carboxy hemoglobin. The symptoms of intoxication canbe correlated with the carboxy hemoglobin concentration. Death occurs when the blood is 60% to 80% saturated with carboxy-haemoglobin.Carboxy hemoglobin symptoms of intoxication concentration in blood.Less than 20% No except, slightly breathlessness20-30% Flushing, slight headache, Nausea ,vomiting, irritability and impared judgment.40-50% Symptoms as above but not severe fainting exertion.50-60% Loss of consciousness.More than 60% Depression of respiratory center leading to death.After recovery from Co poisoning the patient may experienced severe headache. If asphyxiation has been prolonged, organic braindamage may result death. Co is not a cumulative poisoning.125. Health hazard of heat. o oAns:- Our body is capable of maintaining its temperature with in 36 c-38 c by generating or loosing heat as necessary. Skin plays amajor role. It produces a lot of sweat by its evaporation the body loose its excess heat. Heat stress results from a combination ofenvironmental factors, such a temp, humidity, solar, load, duration of exposure, work rest pouse, type of work, age, health status obesity,type of clothing and acclimatisation (adjustment)Failure of body to adjust the heat stress produces disorders a) Depletion of self due to produce sweating, b) Rise in body temperature dueto failure of lthermal regulatory mechanism.Disorders are:- I) systematic like:- heat stroke, heat exhaustio, heat syncope, heat cramp and dehydration.ii):- Prickly heat, cancer, rodentulcer etc. iii) Psychoneurotic:- Heat fatigue, loss of emotional control. oHeat stroke happens at body temp> 40.5 c.Heat exhaustion is caused by simultaneous excessive fluit and salt from the body.Prevention and control of heat stress.:-i) Adequate in take of fluid and salt (ASS):- salt sugar solution.ii) Proper protective clothing.iii) Safe exposure time adjustment.iv) Engineering control of environment heat/ ventilation.v) Medical control ( Training and education, work rest pouse)vi) Acclimatisation ( acquainted) of the workers.Heat stroke:-Headache, vomiting dizziness, weakness, hot dry skin, no sweating. High temp, rapid strong pulse, rapid, deep respiration, loss of consciousness, coma, convulsion.What to do?:- Immediate rapid cooling by ice bath r warp in wet bed sheet/blanket. Fan it with coolers. Call doctor or shift him to medical.Heat Exhaustion:- Weakness, fatigue, headache loss of appetite, vomiting temp normal of body, cold, moist skin, heavy sweating, weakpulse, shallow respiration.What to do?:- Move to a cool place and lie down in a well ventilated room. Give cool drinking water.Heat cramps:- Painful spasm of arm, leg or abdominal muscles during or after work, heavy sweating.What to do ? :- Move to a cool place. Give salted fluid.Heat syncope:- Fainting while standing in hot environment, lack of acclimatization occur after exercise.What to do?:- Move to a cool place and lie down, give water.Prickly heat:- Painful, itchy, red rash occur during sweating due to humid heat.What to do? :- Move to a cool place, apply calamine lotion or cool wet cloth.Heat Fatigue:- Weariness, irritability, loss of skill for fine or precision work, decrease in ability to concentrate, lack of acclimatization, otheremotional and psychological stress.Responsibilities of occupational health physician.Ans:-Occupational health should aim at the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being ofworkers in all occupations; the prevention among workers of departures from health caused by their employment from risks resulting fromfactors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological andpsychological equipment, and, to summarize, the adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job.126. What are the causes of electrical accidents & hazards involved? First-aid in case of electrical shock.Ans: causes of electrical accidents are :-1. Unqualified / Unauthorized person operating , testing, repairing or installing electrical equipments.2. lack of adequate work place around and electrically equipments.3. defective insulation.4. Broken, burned, wet or damaged parts.5. inadequate guarding of exposed energized parts.6. Use of defective tools.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 15
  16. 16. 7. use of tools in unsafe place & unsafe manner.8. Failure of the work man to de-energized equipments.9. failure to use proper PPEs.10. Working in a unsafe work environment. 11. insulation failure.127. CO poisoning?Ans- Co poisoning is the most common of all poisoning in industry today. It is colorless & odorless and therefore, gives no warming of itspresence under any circumstances. The mechanisms of toxicity are(a) It has 200 to 300 times more affinity towards haemoglobin than oxygen and produces carboxy haemoglobin.(b) It inhibites cytochrome A3 Oxitase (Cytochrom-monoxide binding) at the cellular level. The acute effects are : faintness, giddiness,tightness of chest, weakness in the legs, pink complexion (cherry red lips) etc. The chronic effects are headache, nausea, occasionalbreathlessness, cough, ischemia of heart, muscle weakness, dizziness, confusion, stupor & unconsciousness, poor memory, paralysis,parkinsonism etc.Mercury Poisoning:The clinical pictures of mercury poisoning are like –Gingivitis, excess salivation, glositis, gastritis, tremors, speech defect, kidney damage (Nephritic syndrome), features of psychosis i.e.extreme irritability, sudden outburst of temper, loss of memory etc., hemorrhage on the lens (Mercuria Lentis), Minamata Disease etc.Arsenic Poisoning:Toxicity may be acute when there is ingestion of arsenic. It causes acute diarrhoea, shock and death. The chronic toxicity may be like –hyperpigmentation, eczematous dermatitis, ulceration of skin, skin cancer, loss of vibration sense, difficulty in walking, pain and burningsensation of calf muscles, hepatic cirrhosis, anaemia, painless perforation of nasal septa, bronchitis, pneumonitis, broad wide strip type ofline under the nailbed called Mess Line. ArsineGas is the gaseous form of arsenic which is very toxic. It is the commonest cause of occupational jaundice.128. What are the different causes of burn injury?Ans- Causes of burn injury are:- Dry heat such as fire, hot or molten metal, flash and ignited petrol. Electricity or lightening. Corrosive chemicals like strong acids/ alkalies.Burns are classified according to the degree of injury to body tissues- In first degree the outer skin is reddened and welted or slightly swollen. In second degree the under skin is affected and blisters are formed. But in third degree the skin is destroyed and tissues underneath are damaged. Perhaps the most common kind of burn is sun burn. Chemical burns are occurred due to contact with strong and corrosive acids like, H2SO4, HCL etc. Electric burns are caused by unguarded electric outlets. Low tension & A.C. supplies are very dangerous as electric currents passesthrough the tissues. Powder burns are generally occurred by fire crackers and blank pistols.129. What is Harvard Physical Fitness?Ans- For physical fitness, food & nutrition is necessary to provide- Energy in form of heat for mechanical work. Growth (body building), repair and reproduction. Maintenance and regulation of tissue functions. Maintenance of body temp. Build resistance against infections of the body.Due to intestinal parasites and infections some nutritional diseases are occurred. Obesity disease one of them. To know about obesitythere is a calculation procedure i.e. Body Mass Index (BMI) Test- According to Broca index,BMI= Height in cm – 100= weight in Kg. According to Quetlet’s index, 2BMI= weight in Kg/ height in mtrIf the result is in between 20-25 that is normal, if BMI is more than 25 or 30, then it is obesity.130. How to eliminate NIHL?Ans- NIHL means Noise Induced Hearing Loss. It can be eliminated by prevention and controlled method:-- Reduce noise at source by silencing devices. There should be use of sound absorbing material in machinery. Factories with more than 100dB noise must provided ear protection equipment to its workers. In general ear plugs or ear muffsshould be used by the workers. Growth of residential areas around loud noise producing factories should be discouraged. No worker should ever penetrate in to an area where the sound level exceeds 140dB(A). Common use of loud speakers should be restricted. This is one of the commonest noise nuisance of present era. Homes on road sides should have sound proof walls.131. Medical Surveilance?Ans- Periodic inspection of working environment provides information of primary importance in the prevention of occupational disabilities.The physician should pay frequent visits to the factory in order to acquaint himself with various aspects of the working environment suchas temperature, lighting, ventilation, humidity, noise cubic space, air pollution and sanitation which have an important bearing on thehealth and welfare of the workers. He should be acquainted with the raw materials, processes and products manufactured. He shouldalso study the various aspects of occupational physiology such as occurrence of fatigue, night work, shift work, weight carried by theworkers and render advice to the factory management on all maters connected with the health and welfare of the workers. For studiesof this kind the physician should enlist the co-operation of safety Engineers, Industrial Hygienists and Psychologists.132. Safety procedure for confined space entry ?a. Treat every confined space as hazardous until you are sure it is safe.b. Find out potential hazard you may face, what safety equipments are required & what to do in an emergencyc. Ventilate confined area completely with normal air, using recommended procedure even if no hazard was decided by testingd. If possible remove residue, sludge etc which can release harmful gases. Before entering filled with water.e. Obtain a “work permit”. This authorizes you to enter confined space & indicate precaution to be taken.ER. SANGRAM(9090379935) PAGE 16

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