Europe of the Reformation – Germany, Switzerland
Became a monk in 1515 Attempted to fulfill the law of God and Canon C.f. Apostle Paul, John Bunyan (years later) Attempted to pacify an angry God Slept on the hard floor without cover in dead of winter Starved and beat himself as punishment for his own sin The abbot of Luther’s monastery tried to help Luther “Go away and don’t come back until you have significant sins to confess!” “Love God” – to which Luther replied, “I hate Him”
Experienced Conversion in 1515 Discovered the true Gospel in Romans 1:17 C.f. Apostle Paul, John Bunyan (years later) “I felt myself to be reborn” – Martin Luther Slept on the hard floor without cover in dead of winter Starved and beat himself as punishment for his own sin Salvation by grace through faith was revolutionary Roman Catholic Church emphasized 7 sacraments, pilgrimage to holy relics, Church canon law Eastern Orthodox emphasized church liturgy
Chair of Biblical Studies – Wittenberg University
Priest and Pastor – Castle Church in Wittenberg
Command to Build St Peter’s Basilica in Rome Monks sent out to “fundraise” using indulgences Meritorious works of Jesus and Saints were applied for a fee Purgatory (purge of sins) lessened or removed Indulgences began as method of funding Crusades Johann Tetzel sent to Wittenberg to “fundraise” Tetzel extended indulgences even to dead relatives “A coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs!” Luther began to preach against Tetzel from the pulpit.
Penance/ True Repentance – 19 theses Purgatory – 38 theses Remission of Sins – 21 theses Indulgences – 35 theses Clergy Indiscretion – 13 theses Treasures of the Church – 12 theses True Christian Virtue – 25 theses
Luther asserts that Popes and Councils are subject to the authority of Scripture Eck likened Luther to John Hus as his primary attack Luther afterward appealed to German authorities to consider a “German” state church Eck afterward traveled to Rome to have Luther formally declared a heretic.
Pope Leo X issued a Papal Bull to Luther condemning his teachings and commanding him to recant in 1520. Luther threw the Bull on a bonfire upon which other Catholic books and paraphernalia were being burned. Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and had him booted out of the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church
Luther summoned to give an account of his beliefs by Emperor Charles V who was loyal to the Pope. Spanish son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad Grandson of Maximilian I (1459-1519) Luther’s safety guaranteed by Duke Frederick III of Saxony Necessary now as Hus’ fate still echoed in recent history Frederick III helped to get Charles V crowned Emperor Frederick founded University of Wittenberg Frederick III pressed Maximilian I for Chruch Reform decades before Luther.
Yet again Luther debated Eck and yet again, destroyed him. Luther asserted his views based on Scripture and called for their refutation from Scripture. They were not. Luther won new minds and hearts among the royalty present at the Diet. Luther’s famous quote recorded at the Diet: “My conscience is captive to the Word of God, I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither honest nor safe. Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise. God help me. Amen.”
Charles V called Luther “swine” and pedaling “filth” and heresy of heretics passed, adding his own. Luther declared an outlaw and gave Luther 2 weeks to leave to return home to Wittenburg Frederick III staged a fake kidnapping and took Luther to his Wartburg Castle Luther went by pseudo name “Junker George” Here Luther began to translate the Bible into German
Charles V declared it illegal for anyone to help Luther. Anyone could kill him without cause or recourse. Frederick III – rescinded the Edict in his lands of Saxony – but it would be reinstated some years later.
1. How is a person saved? Not by works but by faith alone. 2. Where does religious authority lie? Not in clergy or councils but in Scripture. 3. What is the Church? Community of Christian Believers – all are priests 4. What is the essence of Christian living? Serving God in any useful calling, ordained or lay
Only 2 of the 7 Sacraments are Scriptural: Baptism and Eucharist (Lord’s Supper) Unscriptural Sacraments: Penance – confession to an ordained priest Confirmation – mature deepened commitment to Church Marriage – Must be in Catholic Church by ordained Priest Holy Orders – Ordination into the Catholic priesthood Extreme Unction (Last Rites) – at death by ordained Priest Celibacy of Priesthood is not Scriptural Priests are permitted to marry Luther married an ex-nun himself
Called by Charles V – who was backpedaling amidst the rising popularity of the Reformation. Luther did not attend due to threat of arrest Philip Melancthon a friend and colleague of Luthers, acted as representative. He presented the Augsburg Confession Ulrich Zwingli arrived with his Fidei Ratio “Account of Faith” 12 articles providing an early “statement of faith” for the Reformed Church Based on the Apostles Creed Outlined differences between Reformed, Catholic, & Lutheran
Written by Philip Melancthon and submitted to Luther for approval. 28 Articles 21 comprise an early Lutheran “statement of faith”, approved ecclesiology, and Christian living 7 outlined corrected abuses: 7 sacraments, ecclesiology, and asceticism.
Ordained a Priest in Constance First duties – Priest in Glarus as “chaplain” to mercenaries Spoke out against the lucrative trade & lost his post. “We are trading blood for gold” Moved on to church in Einsiedeln & met Erasmus Began learning Greek
1519 – was promoted to “Grand Cathedral” in Zurich Began arrive, independently, at many of Luther’s conclusions regarding the Catholic Church Preached Matthew verse by verse – first expository preaching of its kind. Plague hit Zurich killing one third of its population Zwingli contracted the disease but survived His heart toward “reform” took on a whole new vigor
Indulgences Purgatory Veneration of Mary Celibacy of Priests – He took a wife himself Refused his church wages from the Pope
Founded by students of Ulrich Zwingli: Conrad Grebel and Felix Manz
Radicals Reformation Movement Zwingli reformed too slow or not enough Separation of church and state Baptism by choice and not as an infant Same council that condemned ‘unscriptural’ teaching: condemned the movement. George Blaurock baptised in defiance of council 1525 Declared Illegal in 1527 and practices banned. Anabaptists continued in spite of this ruling
Zwingli threw his students under the bus Gave “unofficial” approval for execution Condemned their views as heretical Zurich City Council made example of Felix Manz “You have sinned against the waters of baptism so by the waters you shall die” Common method of martyrdom for them. Manz was first protestant martyred by another protestant group.
Heavily persecuted by both Protestant & Catholic alike. Fled Zurich to religiously tolerant Moravia, but were expelled in 1535 and dispersed throughout Europe. Jakob Hutter – joined movement 1529 His death in 1535 started the Hutterite movement, later to be the Hutterite denomination. Menno Simons – joined movement 1536 His movement was called “Mennonite” Amish are a branch of “Mennonites”
Called by Philip of Hesse to unify Reformation between Luther and Zwingli Luther and Zwingli agreed on 14 of 15 articles of faith Disagreed on 1 article: The Lord’s Supper Luther “Denying transubstantiation is like denying the incarnation itself” – thereby elevating a “non-essential” to an “essential” Zwingli – “Saved by Grace through Faith” not “Grace + Bread. Luther writes “est” – this bread IS my body. Both movements remain divided over a practice designed to bring unity.
Civil war among Swiss “Cantons” (states) 5 holdout Catholic states remained 5 Catholic states staged a surprise attack To break a food embargo/blockade Zwingli, the pacifist, was among the fighting pastors Given chance to recant, refused, was given death blow Zwingli’s body was quartered, burned, and ashes cast to the wind.
Left Catholic Church in 1530 and became a French refugee in Switzerland William Farel – common friend with Zwingli – convinced Calvin to remain in Geneva. Calvin returned to Geneva in 1541 to remain permanently Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion An apologetic for Christian theology and positions of the Swiss Reformation Enlarged from 6 chapters to 17 by 1539
Submitted articles for reform to the Geneva City Council and all were accepted: Pastors to preach and administer the sacraments Doctors to instruct believers in the faith Elders to provide discipline Deacons to care for the poor and needy Created a special council for religious affairs Preached over 2000 sermons – twice on Sunday and thrice throughout the week.
Condemned “Libertines” Group that believed that the Gospel excused them from civic and ecclesiastic obedience Condemned “Servetus” Heretic stalker of Calvin – condemned the Trinity and infant baptism Sent 30 copies of “Institutes” with annotated “errors” found Was an outlaw on the run but showed up at Calvin’s services – Calvin had him arrested
Marian (Catholic Queen) exiles from England “Bloody Mary” for her persecution of protestants Exiles found safe haven in Geneva with Calvin John Knox – student and protégé of Calvin Returned to England and Founded Church of Scotland, 1560 – mainline denomination today Also called “Scottish Presbyterians” William Whittingham returned to England and brought Reformed theology with him.
Human Wisdom in 2 parts Knowledge of God; Knowledge of Self Trinitarian and Deity of Jesus Against Icons (c.f. Zwingli) Process of Conversion (book 2 of Institutes) Faith = firm knowledge of God in Christ Leads to true repentance & remission of sin Leads to regeneration = pre-fall Adam status Perfection in this life impossible – lifelong struggle with sin is to be expected
T-otal Depravity of Man God makes one alive without any help from that person U-nconditional Election God makes one alive without looking for “good” in them L-imited Atonement God laid his life down for His sheep and no one else Jn 10:11 I-rresistable Grace God makes one to “want” His grace – not kicking and screaming P-reservation of the Saints God preserves His people so they can never be lost.