Where Did The Denominations Come From? session 4


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This is session 4 of a class I presented regarding the history of denominations. This session pertains to the German Reformation and the Swiss Reformation - along with the Anabaptist influence.

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Where Did The Denominations Come From? session 4

  1. 1. Session 3 – Pillars of Reform
  2. 2.  Europe of the Reformation – Germany, Switzerland
  3. 3.  Became a monk in 1515  Attempted to fulfill the law of God and Canon  C.f. Apostle Paul, John Bunyan (years later)  Attempted to pacify an angry God  Slept on the hard floor without cover in dead of winter  Starved and beat himself as punishment for his own sin  The abbot of Luther’s monastery tried to help Luther  “Go away and don’t come back until you have significant sins to confess!”  “Love God” – to which Luther replied, “I hate Him”
  4. 4.  Experienced Conversion in 1515  Discovered the true Gospel in Romans 1:17  C.f. Apostle Paul, John Bunyan (years later)  “I felt myself to be reborn” – Martin Luther  Slept on the hard floor without cover in dead of winter  Starved and beat himself as punishment for his own sin  Salvation by grace through faith was revolutionary  Roman Catholic Church emphasized 7 sacraments, pilgrimage to holy relics, Church canon law  Eastern Orthodox emphasized church liturgy
  5. 5.  Chair of Biblical Studies – Wittenberg University
  6. 6.  Priest and Pastor – Castle Church in Wittenberg
  7. 7.  Command to Build St Peter’s Basilica in Rome  Monks sent out to “fundraise” using indulgences  Meritorious works of Jesus and Saints were applied for a fee  Purgatory (purge of sins) lessened or removed  Indulgences began as method of funding Crusades  Johann Tetzel sent to Wittenberg to “fundraise”  Tetzel extended indulgences even to dead relatives  “A coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs!”  Luther began to preach against Tetzel from the pulpit.
  8. 8. 95 Thesis nailed to Wittenberg Door - Oct 1517
  9. 9.  Penance/ True Repentance – 19 theses Purgatory – 38 theses Remission of Sins – 21 theses Indulgences – 35 theses Clergy Indiscretion – 13 theses Treasures of the Church – 12 theses True Christian Virtue – 25 theses
  10. 10.  Luther asserts that Popes and Councils are subject to the authority of Scripture Eck likened Luther to John Hus as his primary attack Luther afterward appealed to German authorities to consider a “German” state church Eck afterward traveled to Rome to have Luther formally declared a heretic.
  11. 11.  Pope Leo X issued a Papal Bull to Luther condemning his teachings and commanding him to recant in 1520. Luther threw the Bull on a bonfire upon which other Catholic books and paraphernalia were being burned. Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and had him booted out of the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church
  12. 12.  Luther summoned to give an account of his beliefs by Emperor Charles V who was loyal to the Pope.  Spanish son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad  Grandson of Maximilian I (1459-1519) Luther’s safety guaranteed by Duke Frederick III of Saxony  Necessary now as Hus’ fate still echoed in recent history  Frederick III helped to get Charles V crowned Emperor  Frederick founded University of Wittenberg  Frederick III pressed Maximilian I for Chruch Reform decades before Luther.
  13. 13.  Yet again Luther debated Eck and yet again, destroyed him.  Luther asserted his views based on Scripture and called for their refutation from Scripture. They were not.  Luther won new minds and hearts among the royalty present at the Diet. Luther’s famous quote recorded at the Diet:  “My conscience is captive to the Word of God, I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither honest nor safe. Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise. God help me. Amen.”
  14. 14.  Charles V called Luther “swine” and pedaling “filth” and heresy of heretics passed, adding his own. Luther declared an outlaw and gave Luther 2 weeks to leave to return home to Wittenburg Frederick III staged a fake kidnapping and took Luther to his Wartburg Castle  Luther went by pseudo name “Junker George”  Here Luther began to translate the Bible into German
  15. 15.  Charles V declared it illegal for anyone to help Luther. Anyone could kill him without cause or recourse. Frederick III – rescinded the Edict in his lands of Saxony – but it would be reinstated some years later.
  16. 16.  1. How is a person saved?  Not by works but by faith alone. 2. Where does religious authority lie?  Not in clergy or councils but in Scripture. 3. What is the Church?  Community of Christian Believers – all are priests 4. What is the essence of Christian living?  Serving God in any useful calling, ordained or lay
  17. 17.  Only 2 of the 7 Sacraments are Scriptural:  Baptism and Eucharist (Lord’s Supper)  Unscriptural Sacraments:  Penance – confession to an ordained priest  Confirmation – mature deepened commitment to Church  Marriage – Must be in Catholic Church by ordained Priest Holy Orders – Ordination into the Catholic priesthood  Extreme Unction (Last Rites) – at death by ordained Priest Celibacy of Priesthood is not Scriptural  Priests are permitted to marry  Luther married an ex-nun himself
  18. 18.  Called by Charles V – who was backpedaling amidst the rising popularity of the Reformation. Luther did not attend due to threat of arrest  Philip Melancthon a friend and colleague of Luthers, acted as representative.  He presented the Augsburg Confession Ulrich Zwingli arrived with his Fidei Ratio  “Account of Faith” 12 articles providing an early “statement of faith” for the Reformed Church  Based on the Apostles Creed  Outlined differences between Reformed, Catholic, & Lutheran
  19. 19.  Written by Philip Melancthon and submitted to Luther for approval. 28 Articles  21 comprise an early Lutheran “statement of faith”, approved ecclesiology, and Christian living  7 outlined corrected abuses: 7 sacraments, ecclesiology, and asceticism.
  20. 20.  Ordained a Priest in Constance First duties – Priest in Glarus as “chaplain” to mercenaries Spoke out against the lucrative trade & lost his post.  “We are trading blood for gold” Moved on to church in Einsiedeln & met Erasmus  Began learning Greek
  21. 21.  1519 – was promoted to “Grand Cathedral” in Zurich Began arrive, independently, at many of Luther’s conclusions regarding the Catholic Church Preached Matthew verse by verse – first expository preaching of its kind. Plague hit Zurich killing one third of its population  Zwingli contracted the disease but survived  His heart toward “reform” took on a whole new vigor
  22. 22.  Indulgences Purgatory Veneration of Mary Celibacy of Priests – He took a wife himself Refused his church wages from the Pope
  23. 23.  Founded by students of Ulrich Zwingli:  Conrad Grebel and Felix Manz
  24. 24.  Radicals Reformation Movement  Zwingli reformed too slow or not enough  Separation of church and state  Baptism by choice and not as an infant Same council that condemned ‘unscriptural’ teaching: condemned the movement.  George Blaurock baptised in defiance of council 1525 Declared Illegal in 1527 and practices banned.  Anabaptists continued in spite of this ruling
  25. 25.  Zwingli threw his students under the bus  Gave “unofficial” approval for execution  Condemned their views as heretical Zurich City Council made example of Felix Manz  “You have sinned against the waters of baptism so by the waters you shall die”  Common method of martyrdom for them.  Manz was first protestant martyred by another protestant group.
  26. 26.  Heavily persecuted by both Protestant & Catholic alike. Fled Zurich to religiously tolerant Moravia, but were expelled in 1535 and dispersed throughout Europe.  Jakob Hutter – joined movement 1529  His death in 1535 started the Hutterite movement, later to be the Hutterite denomination.  Menno Simons – joined movement 1536  His movement was called “Mennonite”  Amish are a branch of “Mennonites”
  27. 27.  Called by Philip of Hesse to unify Reformation between Luther and Zwingli Luther and Zwingli agreed on 14 of 15 articles of faith  Disagreed on 1 article: The Lord’s Supper  Luther “Denying transubstantiation is like denying the incarnation itself” – thereby elevating a “non-essential” to an “essential”  Zwingli – “Saved by Grace through Faith” not “Grace + Bread.  Luther writes “est” – this bread IS my body. Both movements remain divided over a practice designed to bring unity.
  28. 28.  Civil war among Swiss “Cantons” (states)  5 holdout Catholic states remained 5 Catholic states staged a surprise attack  To break a food embargo/blockade Zwingli, the pacifist, was among the fighting pastors  Given chance to recant, refused, was given death blow Zwingli’s body was quartered, burned, and ashes cast to the wind.
  29. 29.  Left Catholic Church in 1530 and became a French refugee in Switzerland William Farel – common friend with Zwingli – convinced Calvin to remain in Geneva.  Calvin returned to Geneva in 1541 to remain permanently Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion  An apologetic for Christian theology and positions of the Swiss Reformation  Enlarged from 6 chapters to 17 by 1539
  30. 30.  Submitted articles for reform to the Geneva City Council and all were accepted:  Pastors to preach and administer the sacraments  Doctors to instruct believers in the faith  Elders to provide discipline  Deacons to care for the poor and needy  Created a special council for religious affairs Preached over 2000 sermons – twice on Sunday and thrice throughout the week.
  31. 31.  Condemned “Libertines”  Group that believed that the Gospel excused them from civic and ecclesiastic obedience Condemned “Servetus”  Heretic stalker of Calvin – condemned the Trinity and infant baptism  Sent 30 copies of “Institutes” with annotated “errors” found  Was an outlaw on the run but showed up at Calvin’s services – Calvin had him arrested
  32. 32.  Marian (Catholic Queen) exiles from England  “Bloody Mary” for her persecution of protestants  Exiles found safe haven in Geneva with Calvin John Knox – student and protégé of Calvin  Returned to England and Founded Church of Scotland, 1560 – mainline denomination today  Also called “Scottish Presbyterians” William Whittingham returned to England and brought Reformed theology with him.
  33. 33.  Human Wisdom in 2 parts  Knowledge of God; Knowledge of Self Trinitarian and Deity of Jesus Against Icons (c.f. Zwingli) Process of Conversion (book 2 of Institutes)  Faith = firm knowledge of God in Christ  Leads to true repentance & remission of sin  Leads to regeneration = pre-fall Adam status  Perfection in this life impossible – lifelong struggle with sin is to be expected
  34. 34.  T-otal Depravity of Man  God makes one alive without any help from that person U-nconditional Election  God makes one alive without looking for “good” in them L-imited Atonement  God laid his life down for His sheep and no one else Jn 10:11 I-rresistable Grace  God makes one to “want” His grace – not kicking and screaming P-reservation of the Saints  God preserves His people so they can never be lost.