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HUMANISM, REFORMATION AND
COUNTER-REFORMATION
HUMANISM
- Anthropocentrism: focus on
the human being, considered to
be the centre of the universe
- Interest in Greek and Roman
culture: revival of Antiquity.
- Curiosity about everything
- Search for knowledge
through reason and
experience.
MAIN FEATURES
VITRUVIAN MAN
DRAWN BY LEONARDO DA VINCI IN 1487.
IT REPRESENTS THE HUMAN BODY AS
THE ORIGIN OF THE IDEAL PROPORTIONS
FOR ART AND GEOMETRY
- Many Byzantine wisemen migrated to
the West after the fall of Constantinople
(conquered by the Ottoman Turks).
They brought Byzantine manuscripts
and promoted the spread of Greek
culture and language.
-The invention of the printing press by
Johannes Gutenberg
-The role of sponsors or patrons: rich
bourgeois who sponsored studies and
works of art (the Medici family)
-Creation of universities, schools and
academies.
Gutenberg Bible
FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMANISM
DANTE ALIGHIERI
WRITER
PETRARCH
POET
BOCCACIO
WRITER
PICO DELLA
MIRANDOLA
PHILOSOPHER
LORENZO VALLA
PHILOLOGIST
ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
PHILOSOPHER
AND PHILOLOGIST
MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE
PHILOSOPHER
AND WRITER
THOMAS MORE
THEOLOGIST AND
PHILOSOPHER
PHILOSOPHER
AND PEDAGOGUE
GRAMMARIAN AND
PEDAGOGUE
FIRST
CASTILIAN GRAMMAR
REFORMATION
SALE OF BULLS AND INDULGENCES
Certificate of indulgence
LUXURY AND DEPRAVATION OF
MANY CHURCH MEMBERS
STRICT INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE
CRITICISM TO THE CHURCH
95 Theses of Wittenberg
(1517)
MARTIN
LUTHER
SALVATION
THROUGH FAITH
AUTHORITY
OF THE BIBLE
UNIVERSAL PRIESTHOOD
MARTIN LUTHER´S PROPOSALS
REDUCTION
OF SACRAMENTS:
BAPTISM
COMMUNION
Diet of Worms (1521)
Luther refused to recant and
Emperor Charles V declared him
an outlaw
1520: Pope Leo X´s Bull
excommunicating Martin
Luther
SPREAD OF LUTHERANISM
Many nobles and princes
supported Martin Luther,
because this was a way of
facing the Emperor and
the power of the Church.
Lutheranism became both
a religious and a political
matter.
Diet of Spires, 1529
Some German princes protested against the prohibition of Lutheranism
in the Holy Roman Empire: that was the origin of the word PROTESTANTS
WARS AGAINST THE PROTESTANTS IN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
Charles V at Mühlberg (1547),
painted by Titian
Although at the beginning Charles V
tried to make an agreement with the
Lutheran princes, in 1531 he declared
war against the Schmalkaldic
League (alliance of Lutheran princes).
Charles V defeated them at the Battle
of Mühlberg in 1547. But he was
aware of the fact that he couldn’t
impose Catholicism in the Empire and
finally the Augsburg Peace (1555)
was signed.
AUGSBURG PEACE, 1555
This agreement gave
the German princes the
possibility of choosing
religión in the Holy
Roman Empire: every
prince could choose the
religion he preferred,
but all the inhabitants of
his state had to have
the same religion of his
prince (CUIUS REGIS,
EIUS RELIGIO).
This agreement meant
the end of religion
wars in the Empire,
but intolerance
continued.
- GREEN: Protestant States
- DARK GREEN: Schmalkaldic League
members States
- LIGHT BROWN: territories of the House
of Austria (Habsburg)
- YELLOW AND LIGHT BROWN: Catholic
States
OTHER PROTESTANT CURRENTS
CALVINISM ANGLICANISM
John Calvin
Henry VIII of England
- More radical than Lutheranism
- Predestination doctrine
- Work and enrichment through work
considered to be signs of divine grace
-Dispute between Henry VIII and
the Pope : Henry VIII wanted to
divorce his wife Catalina of Aragón
and the Pope rejected this
-Act of Supremacy: king, head of
the Church of England
CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS
CATHOLICS LUTHERANS
AND
CALVINISTS
ANGLICANS
DOCTRINE
- Salvation through faith
and good works.
- Seven sacraments.
- Adoration of Virgin and
saints.
- Salvation through faith only.
- Two sacraments: baptism and
communion.
- They don´t believe neither in the
Virgin nor in the saints
CULT
- Main ceremony: the
mass.
-Magnificent ceremonies
celebrated in churches
with altars.
- Adoration of images
- Priests have to remain
single and accomplish
chastity.
The mass is replaced by the reading of
the Bible, sermons and singing.
Very simple
ceremonies
Magnificent
ceremonies.
Very austere
temples, without
altar and without
images.
without altar and
images, but not so
austere.
Ministers guide the congregation.
They can get married.
ORGANIZATION
- The Pope is the head of
the Church
-Ecclesial hierarchy:
cardinals and bishops
- No obedience to
the Pope.
- No bishops and
cardinals
-The king is the
head of the
Church
-There are bishops
DIFFERENT PROTESTANT BRANCHES
COUNTER- REFORMATION
- EXCOMMUNICATION OF THE
CRITICAL PEOPLE
- REINFORCEMENT OF THE
INQUISITION
- LIST OF PROHIBITED BOOKS (INDEX
LIBRORUM PROHIBITORUM)
FIRST DECISIONS OF THE CHURCH:
REFORMATION OF
SOME RELIGIOUS
ORDERS:
-CARMELITES
-CARTHUSIANS
San Juan de la Cruz and Santa Teresa of Jesús,
reformers of the Carmelites order.
LATER:
CREATION OF THE SOCIETY OF
JESUS BY SAINT IGNATIUS OF
LOYOLA
-ORGANIZED LIKE AN ARMY
-FOURTH VOW: DIRECT
SUBORDINATION TO THE POPE
-ORIENTED TO EDUCATION AND
MISSIONS IN THE COLONIES.
COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-1563)
- REAFFIRMATION OF CATHOLIC
DOGMAS: SACRAMENTS, VIRGIN,
SAINTS, SALVATION THROUGH
FAITH AND GOOD DEEDS
- VULGATE: ONLY VALID VERSION
OF THE BIBLE.
- PROHIBITION OF SELLING
INDULGENCES (BUT BULLS
CONTINUED TO BE SOLD)
- CREATION OF SEMINARIES
- CATECHISM TO EDUCATE
CHILDREN
- RECOMMENDATION OF GOOD
BEHAVIOUR FOR PRIESTS AND
BISHOPS

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Humanism, Reformation and Counter- Reformation

  • 3. - Anthropocentrism: focus on the human being, considered to be the centre of the universe - Interest in Greek and Roman culture: revival of Antiquity. - Curiosity about everything - Search for knowledge through reason and experience. MAIN FEATURES VITRUVIAN MAN DRAWN BY LEONARDO DA VINCI IN 1487. IT REPRESENTS THE HUMAN BODY AS THE ORIGIN OF THE IDEAL PROPORTIONS FOR ART AND GEOMETRY
  • 4. - Many Byzantine wisemen migrated to the West after the fall of Constantinople (conquered by the Ottoman Turks). They brought Byzantine manuscripts and promoted the spread of Greek culture and language. -The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg -The role of sponsors or patrons: rich bourgeois who sponsored studies and works of art (the Medici family) -Creation of universities, schools and academies. Gutenberg Bible FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMANISM
  • 5. DANTE ALIGHIERI WRITER PETRARCH POET BOCCACIO WRITER PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA PHILOSOPHER LORENZO VALLA PHILOLOGIST ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM PHILOSOPHER AND PHILOLOGIST MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE PHILOSOPHER AND WRITER THOMAS MORE THEOLOGIST AND PHILOSOPHER
  • 8. SALE OF BULLS AND INDULGENCES Certificate of indulgence LUXURY AND DEPRAVATION OF MANY CHURCH MEMBERS STRICT INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE CRITICISM TO THE CHURCH
  • 9. 95 Theses of Wittenberg (1517) MARTIN LUTHER
  • 10. SALVATION THROUGH FAITH AUTHORITY OF THE BIBLE UNIVERSAL PRIESTHOOD MARTIN LUTHER´S PROPOSALS REDUCTION OF SACRAMENTS: BAPTISM COMMUNION
  • 11. Diet of Worms (1521) Luther refused to recant and Emperor Charles V declared him an outlaw 1520: Pope Leo X´s Bull excommunicating Martin Luther
  • 12. SPREAD OF LUTHERANISM Many nobles and princes supported Martin Luther, because this was a way of facing the Emperor and the power of the Church. Lutheranism became both a religious and a political matter.
  • 13.
  • 14. Diet of Spires, 1529 Some German princes protested against the prohibition of Lutheranism in the Holy Roman Empire: that was the origin of the word PROTESTANTS
  • 15. WARS AGAINST THE PROTESTANTS IN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Charles V at Mühlberg (1547), painted by Titian Although at the beginning Charles V tried to make an agreement with the Lutheran princes, in 1531 he declared war against the Schmalkaldic League (alliance of Lutheran princes). Charles V defeated them at the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547. But he was aware of the fact that he couldn’t impose Catholicism in the Empire and finally the Augsburg Peace (1555) was signed.
  • 16. AUGSBURG PEACE, 1555 This agreement gave the German princes the possibility of choosing religión in the Holy Roman Empire: every prince could choose the religion he preferred, but all the inhabitants of his state had to have the same religion of his prince (CUIUS REGIS, EIUS RELIGIO). This agreement meant the end of religion wars in the Empire, but intolerance continued. - GREEN: Protestant States - DARK GREEN: Schmalkaldic League members States - LIGHT BROWN: territories of the House of Austria (Habsburg) - YELLOW AND LIGHT BROWN: Catholic States
  • 17. OTHER PROTESTANT CURRENTS CALVINISM ANGLICANISM John Calvin Henry VIII of England - More radical than Lutheranism - Predestination doctrine - Work and enrichment through work considered to be signs of divine grace -Dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope : Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife Catalina of Aragón and the Pope rejected this -Act of Supremacy: king, head of the Church of England
  • 18.
  • 19. CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS CATHOLICS LUTHERANS AND CALVINISTS ANGLICANS DOCTRINE - Salvation through faith and good works. - Seven sacraments. - Adoration of Virgin and saints. - Salvation through faith only. - Two sacraments: baptism and communion. - They don´t believe neither in the Virgin nor in the saints CULT - Main ceremony: the mass. -Magnificent ceremonies celebrated in churches with altars. - Adoration of images - Priests have to remain single and accomplish chastity. The mass is replaced by the reading of the Bible, sermons and singing. Very simple ceremonies Magnificent ceremonies. Very austere temples, without altar and without images. without altar and images, but not so austere. Ministers guide the congregation. They can get married. ORGANIZATION - The Pope is the head of the Church -Ecclesial hierarchy: cardinals and bishops - No obedience to the Pope. - No bishops and cardinals -The king is the head of the Church -There are bishops
  • 21. COUNTER- REFORMATION - EXCOMMUNICATION OF THE CRITICAL PEOPLE - REINFORCEMENT OF THE INQUISITION - LIST OF PROHIBITED BOOKS (INDEX LIBRORUM PROHIBITORUM) FIRST DECISIONS OF THE CHURCH:
  • 22. REFORMATION OF SOME RELIGIOUS ORDERS: -CARMELITES -CARTHUSIANS San Juan de la Cruz and Santa Teresa of Jesús, reformers of the Carmelites order. LATER:
  • 23. CREATION OF THE SOCIETY OF JESUS BY SAINT IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA -ORGANIZED LIKE AN ARMY -FOURTH VOW: DIRECT SUBORDINATION TO THE POPE -ORIENTED TO EDUCATION AND MISSIONS IN THE COLONIES.
  • 24. COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-1563) - REAFFIRMATION OF CATHOLIC DOGMAS: SACRAMENTS, VIRGIN, SAINTS, SALVATION THROUGH FAITH AND GOOD DEEDS - VULGATE: ONLY VALID VERSION OF THE BIBLE. - PROHIBITION OF SELLING INDULGENCES (BUT BULLS CONTINUED TO BE SOLD) - CREATION OF SEMINARIES - CATECHISM TO EDUCATE CHILDREN - RECOMMENDATION OF GOOD BEHAVIOUR FOR PRIESTS AND BISHOPS