Humanism, Reformation and Counter- Reformation

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Humanism, Reformation and Counter- Reformation

  1. 1. HUMANISM, REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFORMATION
  2. 2. HUMANISM
  3. 3. - Anthropocentrism: focus on the human being, considered to be the centre of the universe - Interest in Greek and Roman culture: revival of Antiquity. - Curiosity about everything - Search for knowledge through reason and experience. MAIN FEATURES VITRUVIAN MAN DRAWN BY LEONARDO DA VINCI IN 1487. IT REPRESENTS THE HUMAN BODY AS THE ORIGIN OF THE IDEAL PROPORTIONS FOR ART AND GEOMETRY
  4. 4. - Many Byzantine wisemen migrated to the West after the fall of Constantinople (conquered by the Ottoman Turks). They brought Byzantine manuscripts and promoted the spread of Greek culture and language. -The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg -The role of sponsors or patrons: rich bourgeois who sponsored studies and works of art (the Medici family) -Creation of universities, schools and academies. Gutenberg Bible FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMANISM
  5. 5. DANTE ALIGHIERI WRITER PETRARCH POET BOCCACIO WRITER PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA PHILOSOPHER LORENZO VALLA PHILOLOGIST ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM PHILOSOPHER AND PHILOLOGIST MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE PHILOSOPHER AND WRITER THOMAS MORE THEOLOGIST AND PHILOSOPHER
  6. 6. PHILOSOPHER AND PEDAGOGUE GRAMMARIAN AND PEDAGOGUE FIRST CASTILIAN GRAMMAR
  7. 7. REFORMATION
  8. 8. SALE OF BULLS AND INDULGENCES Certificate of indulgence LUXURY AND DEPRAVATION OF MANY CHURCH MEMBERS STRICT INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE CRITICISM TO THE CHURCH
  9. 9. 95 Theses of Wittenberg (1517) MARTIN LUTHER
  10. 10. SALVATION THROUGH FAITH AUTHORITY OF THE BIBLE UNIVERSAL PRIESTHOOD MARTIN LUTHER´S PROPOSALS REDUCTION OF SACRAMENTS: BAPTISM COMMUNION
  11. 11. Diet of Worms (1521) Luther refused to recant and Emperor Charles V declared him an outlaw 1520: Pope Leo X´s Bull excommunicating Martin Luther
  12. 12. SPREAD OF LUTHERANISM Many nobles and princes supported Martin Luther, because this was a way of facing the Emperor and the power of the Church. Lutheranism became both a religious and a political matter.
  13. 13. Diet of Spires, 1529 Some German princes protested against the prohibition of Lutheranism in the Holy Roman Empire: that was the origin of the word PROTESTANTS
  14. 14. WARS AGAINST THE PROTESTANTS IN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Charles V at Mühlberg (1547), painted by Titian Although at the beginning Charles V tried to make an agreement with the Lutheran princes, in 1531 he declared war against the Schmalkaldic League (alliance of Lutheran princes). Charles V defeated them at the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547. But he was aware of the fact that he couldn’t impose Catholicism in the Empire and finally the Augsburg Peace (1555) was signed.
  15. 15. AUGSBURG PEACE, 1555 This agreement gave the German princes the possibility of choosing religión in the Holy Roman Empire: every prince could choose the religion he preferred, but all the inhabitants of his state had to have the same religion of his prince (CUIUS REGIS, EIUS RELIGIO). This agreement meant the end of religion wars in the Empire, but intolerance continued. - GREEN: Protestant States - DARK GREEN: Schmalkaldic League members States - LIGHT BROWN: territories of the House of Austria (Habsburg) - YELLOW AND LIGHT BROWN: Catholic States
  16. 16. OTHER PROTESTANT CURRENTS CALVINISM ANGLICANISM John Calvin Henry VIII of England - More radical than Lutheranism - Predestination doctrine - Work and enrichment through work considered to be signs of divine grace -Dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope : Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife Catalina of Aragón and the Pope rejected this -Act of Supremacy: king, head of the Church of England
  17. 17. CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS CATHOLICS LUTHERANS AND CALVINISTS ANGLICANS DOCTRINE - Salvation through faith and good works. - Seven sacraments. - Adoration of Virgin and saints. - Salvation through faith only. - Two sacraments: baptism and communion. - They don´t believe neither in the Virgin nor in the saints CULT - Main ceremony: the mass. -Magnificent ceremonies celebrated in churches with altars. - Adoration of images - Priests have to remain single and accomplish chastity. The mass is replaced by the reading of the Bible, sermons and singing. Very simple ceremonies Magnificent ceremonies. Very austere temples, without altar and without images. without altar and images, but not so austere. Ministers guide the congregation. They can get married. ORGANIZATION - The Pope is the head of the Church -Ecclesial hierarchy: cardinals and bishops - No obedience to the Pope. - No bishops and cardinals -The king is the head of the Church -There are bishops
  18. 18. DIFFERENT PROTESTANT BRANCHES
  19. 19. COUNTER- REFORMATION - EXCOMMUNICATION OF THE CRITICAL PEOPLE - REINFORCEMENT OF THE INQUISITION - LIST OF PROHIBITED BOOKS (INDEX LIBRORUM PROHIBITORUM) FIRST DECISIONS OF THE CHURCH:
  20. 20. REFORMATION OF SOME RELIGIOUS ORDERS: -CARMELITES -CARTHUSIANS San Juan de la Cruz and Santa Teresa of Jesús, reformers of the Carmelites order. LATER:
  21. 21. CREATION OF THE SOCIETY OF JESUS BY SAINT IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA -ORGANIZED LIKE AN ARMY -FOURTH VOW: DIRECT SUBORDINATION TO THE POPE -ORIENTED TO EDUCATION AND MISSIONS IN THE COLONIES.
  22. 22. COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-1563) - REAFFIRMATION OF CATHOLIC DOGMAS: SACRAMENTS, VIRGIN, SAINTS, SALVATION THROUGH FAITH AND GOOD DEEDS - VULGATE: ONLY VALID VERSION OF THE BIBLE. - PROHIBITION OF SELLING INDULGENCES (BUT BULLS CONTINUED TO BE SOLD) - CREATION OF SEMINARIES - CATECHISM TO EDUCATE CHILDREN - RECOMMENDATION OF GOOD BEHAVIOUR FOR PRIESTS AND BISHOPS

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