Paul Clayton - Zoonotic Diseases Affecting International Trade


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Zoonotic Diseases Affecting International Trade - Paul Clayton, U.S. Meat Export Federation, from NIAA's One Health: Implications for Animal Agriculture, March 15 - 17, 2010, Kansas City, MO, USA.

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Paul Clayton - Zoonotic Diseases Affecting International Trade

  1. 1. Zoonotic Diseases Affecting International Trade NIAA Annual Meeting March 16, 2010 Paul Clayton U.S. Meat Export Federation
  2. 2. Technical Barriers To Trade 30% 500 Number of AD Measures in Place 450 25% 400 Average Tariff rate 350 20% 300 15% Avg. Tariffs 250 Measures in Force 200 10% 150 100 5% 50 0% 0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Source: Cato Institute
  3. 3. Trade Concerns Reported Solved After 10 Years Solved 27% Partially Solved 7% Not Solved 66% Source: WTO
  4. 4. SPS Trade Concerns by Subject - last 10 years - Other Food Concerns Safety Animal 4% 27% Health & Zoonoses 40% Plant Health 29% Source: WTO
  5. 5. USDA FSIS Export Certificate 9060-5
  6. 6. USDA FSIS Export Certification • FMD on Diseases • Rinderpest • Contagious Bovine (Caprine) Pleuropnaumonia • Peste des Petitis – Ruminants • Anthrax • Tuberculosis • Brucellosis • Vesicular Stomatitis • Blue Tongue • Lumpy Skin • Rift Valley Fever • Theileriosis Hemorrhagic Septicemia • Bovine Babesiosis • African Swine Fever • Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera) • Swine Vesicular Disease • Teschovirus Encephalomyelitis • Pseudo Rabies/Aujesky Disease • Swine Erysipelas • NIPAH Virus • Vesicular Exanthema • Sheep (Goat) Pox • Contagious Agalactia
  7. 7. Alternative Language • The United States has been free of foot and mouth disease for the past 12 months and has been free of rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, lumpy skin disease, Rift Valley fever for the past 24 months. Vaccination has not been carried out against the aforementioned diseases (Korea). • The animals from which the meats originate come from healthy herds under State supervision for the diseases regulated by the State and/or the United States Department of Agriculture, including OIE listed diseases which affect the species and may be carried through meat, and were not slaughtered as a result of any infectious, contagious, or parasitic disease eradication program. The meat is deemed by USDA to not pose a risk of transmission of brucellosis or tuberculosis (Dominica).
  8. 8. Current Restrictions • Beef – BSE – Vesicular Stomatitis • Pork – Trichinae – PRRS/PCVAD – H1N1 • Lamb – Scrapies – Full Bans – Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Russia – Partial Bans Require EV programs • Mexico and Canada
  9. 9. Vesicular Stomatitis • Beef products originating from animals raised in states with counties which have had confirmed bovine cases of vesicular stomatitis within the last 12 months. • Russia and Saudi Arabia
  10. 10. BSE Restrictions • Full Bans – 20 Countries – South America – 6 – Pacific Rim – 7 – Africa/Middle East – 5 – Eastern Europe – 2 • Partial Bans – Require Export Verification – Mexico, Egypt, Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, Lebanon, Singapore, Taiwan, Russia, Thailand, Vietnam, Columbia, Malaysia, Panama, Peru, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, St. Lucia, Ukraine and UAE.
  11. 11. Summary of U.S. BSE Mitigation Procedures Pre- Beef Slaughter & Carcass Production Rendering Slaughter Carcass Chilling Disassembly FDA Exclusion of No air injection Carcass MBM Mammalian Downer stunning Identification Labeling to Ruminant Cattle & Segregation Feed Ban Age [30 Months of Determination Inedible FSIS Age & Older] Processing Feed Antemortem Age Segregation of SRM’s Affidavits inspection & Carcass SRM Removal Identification & Disposal MBM sales Animal Test & Hold [30 mo. of age & designation Identification Policy older] Equipment Sanitation SRM Removal & Handling Feed Mill APHIS Disposal Product Equipment Reviews Surveillance Separation & Clean-out Sanitation & Labeling Procedures Feed Testing Dedicated Equipment FDA AMR & MSM FSIS Postmortem Policies Verification Inspection
  12. 12. BSE Certification Language • The feeding of ruminants with meat and bone meal and greaves derived from ruminants has been banned and the ban has been effectively enforced." • "The meat comes from cattle that were not rendered insensible by a device injecting compressed air or gas into the cranial cavity prior to slaughter, or by any method that cuts the spinal cord." • "The meat or meat products were not derived from the following specified risk materials: the brain, skull, eyes, trigeminal ganglia, spinal cord, vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and the wings of the sacrum), and dorsal root ganglia of cattle 30 months of age and older, and the tonsils and distal ileum of the small intestine of any cattle, regardless of age." • "The meat or meat products were not produced by a process of mechanical separation." • "The meat comes from cattle less than 30 months of age that were subjected to ante and post mortem inspection and showed no evidence of systemic contagious or infectious diseases of animal or public health concern, including suspected or confirmed cases of central nervous system disorders." • "The country or zone of origin is declared as free of foot-and-mouth disease without vaccination, rinderpest, and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia before the International Office of Epizootics and this sanitary condition is recognized by Chile." • "The cattle from which the beef is derived were born, raised, and slaughtered in the exporting country or in a zone with similar epidemiological conditions."
  13. 13. Determination of <30moa Bovine Dentition Production records of birth dates can also be used
  14. 14. Japan’s Requirements for Age <20moa • Basics for the cow calf producer – Calving Records (documented and filed) – Unique Animal Identification (individual or group qualifies) – Transfer of Information – Defined Calving Season – Maintain Records (3 yrs) • Plants can also use A40 bone maturity
  15. 15. Identifying, Marking, & Segregating Carcasses of Cattle that are >30 Months of Age
  16. 16. Specified Risk Materials (SRM) Definitions Associated with U.S. Beef Exports SRM > 30 months of > 30 months of > 30 >12 months of age: the All Ages: All Ages: tonsils, All ages: All Ages: All ages: Definition age: tonsils, age: tonsils, months of skull (excluding the Tonsils, brain, distal ileum, brain, Tonsils, distal Tonsils, distal Tonsils, brain, distal ileum, distal ileum, age: mandible) brain, eyes, eyes, spinal eyes, spinal cord, ileum, brain, ileum, brain, eyes, spinal brain, eyes, brain, eyes, tonsils, and the spinal cord, cord, skull, skull, trigeminal eyes, spinal eyes, spinal cord, skull spinal cord, spinal cord, distal tonsils, intestines from small intestine ganglia, dorsal cord, skull, cord, skull, vertebral trigeminal trigeminal ileum, the duodenum to the (bone-in beef) root ganglia, vertebral vertebral column, small ganglia, skull, ganglia, skull, brain, rectum, and the Tonsils, small vertebral column column column intestine dorsal root dorsal root eyes, mesentery intestine (excluding the (including the (pylorus to ganglia, ganglia, spinal > 30 months of age: (boneless beef) bones of the tail, vertebrae of rectum) vertebral vertebral cord, , dorsal root ganglia, transverse the tail, the column column skull, vertebral column processes of the transverse (excluding the (excluding the vertebral (excluding the vertebrae thoracic and process of the vertebra of the transverse column of the tail, the spinous lumbar vertebrae, thoracic and tail, the dorsal processes of the All ages: and transverse processes and the wings of lumbar spinous thoracic and tonsils, of the cervical, thoracic, the sacrum) vertebrae, and processes and lumbar distal and lumbar vertebrae, the wings of transverse vertebra, the ileum and the wings and the sacrum processes of the wings of the median crest of the cervical, sacrum and the sacrum), tonsils, thoracic, and bones of the intestines from the lumbar tail) duodenum to the rectum, vertebrae, and All ages: and the mesentery the wings and tonsils and All ages: tonsils, median crest of distal ileum intestines from the the sacrum) duodenum to the rectum, All ages: tonsil and the mesentery and distal ileum of the small intestine Countrie ***** FSIS definition OIE European Union Mexico Japan, Vietnam, Russia Singapore Hong Kong, s where Belize, Cayman definition Taiwan, Thailand Egypt, definitio Islands, Chile, for DR, El Controlled n is Salvador, St. Risk applied Kitts and classificati for trade Nevis, St. on purposes Lucia, Ukraine, Columbia, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Panama, Canada, Peru Lebanon, South Korea
  17. 17. Removal of Spinal Cord
  18. 18. SRM Removal & Disposal Carcass Disassembly Removal of Vertebral Column [DRG] Wash/Sanitize Affected Equipment after Carcasses of Cattle ≥30 MOA Vertebral Column [DRG] is removed from Carcasses ≥ 30 MOA
  19. 19. Role of USDA in Certifying Product Code AMS U.S. Packer SOV EC Boneless FSIS Ribeye Roll USDA Bone in Export short rib Certificate Two signatures: SOV signature from AMS and Export Certificate signature from FSIS
  20. 20. Trichinae Restrictions • Freezing according to 9 CFR 318.10 (c)(2)(iv) • Chilled requires testing at approved USDA AMS lab – Trichinae Analyst and Laboratory Certification Program • Cooking according to 9 CFR 318.10 (c)(1)(i) – 140°F for 1 min. or 144°F Instantaneous • EU, Russia, Singapore, Columbia, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Tahiti, Peru, South Africa, Venezuela
  21. 21. Freezing Requirements for Trichinae Mitigation Max. Internal Temp. - °F Minimum Time - Hours 0 106 -5 82 -10 63 -15 48 -20 35 -25 22 -30 8 -35 ½
  22. 22. PRRS/PCVAD • U.S./Australia Free Trade Agreement – Only able to export cooked pork products to Australia • The meat has not been derived from the head or neck (this includes all head and neck tissues cranial to the fourth cervical vertebrae but does not include the shoulders), major peripheral lymph nodes (popliteal – if present, iliac, inguinal, axillary – if present, ventral, middle and dorsal superficial cervical) have been removed and the meat has been deboned. • Raw Packaged Product can go direct to cooking in Australia • 56° C (133° F) for 60 min. • 65° C (149°F) for 20 min. • 70° C (158°F) for 11 min.
  23. 23. Market Displacement • Korea: FMD January 2, 2010 • Taiwan FMD February 13, 2010 • China: FMD October 29, 2009 • Russia: African Swine Fever Sept. 16, 2009 • Russia Classical Swine Fever August 3, 2009 • Brazil Classical Swine Fever March 20, 2009
  24. 24. Summary • “Most countries” – Follow the OIE Code for Animal Disease restrictions for meat imports – BUT may require additional mitigation procedures • USDA FSIS is the competent authority • Disease situations can provide economic opportunities or challenges