Tendències de futur en seguretat alimentaria     relacionades amb el sector porci                   INNOVAC               ...
Estructura   EFSA   Toxiinfeccions alimentaries en la UE (sector   porci)   Riscs importants en inspeccio carnia de   cana...
From field to plate        We advise on food/feed safety across the entire        food chain                              ...
Working together                 Cooperation with:• 30 national food safety agencies• 400 research institutes• 1500 expert...
How do we do it?           EFSA’s scientists evaluate, assess, advise                                                     ...
Risk Analysis [CAC,01]: a decision paradigm        for Food Safety Governance                                      Prelimi...
The BIOHAZ PanelThe Panel on Biological Hazards deals with  questions on biological hazards relating to Food  Safety and F...
Zoonoses in humans; notification ratesin EU, 2009, EUSR                                   Campylobacteriosis              ...
Salmonellosis in humans in EU, 2005-2009;EUSR                                                45.0       Confirmed cases pe...
Listeriosis in humans in EU, 2005-2009;EUSR                                                   0.40          confirmed case...
L.monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods, meeting the EU criterion ,2006-2009                                                ...
Yersiniosis in humans in EU, 2005-2009:EUSR• Yersiniosis in humans has decreased in EU in 2005-  2009 with a statistically...
Food-borne outbreaks in EU, 2009, EUSR                     Unknown                   Salmonella                       Viru...
Trends in food-borne outbreaks2007-2009; EUSR                    Unknown                  Salmonella                      ...
Food-borne outbreaks caused by Salmonella in EU, 2009Distribution of food vehicle in verified outbreaks caused by Salmonel...
Causative agents in food-borneoutbreaks, 2009; EUSR• Egg and egg products outbreaks – 97% caused  by Salmonella• Pig meat ...
Results : SA based on microbial subtyping,EU-level
Results : SA based on microbial subtyping,by EU-regions
Results : SA based on microbial subtyping,by reporting country
Conclusions (1)Covered by the microbial subtyping approach:•   the relative contribution of sources varied between regions...
Prevalence of Salmonella in pig        production holdingsBaseline survey in EU - 27 in 2008
Prevalence of Salmonella-positivebreeding holdings, 2008         Spain   Netherlands        IrelandUnited Kingdom         ...
Prevalence of Salmonella-positiveproduction holdings, 2008   Netherlands         Spain        IrelandUnited Kingdom       ...
Prevalence of Salmonella-positive breedingholdings versus production holdings, 2008
PH risks from Salmonella in pigsBreeder      Contribution   Slaughter    Contribution    Human                 (%)        ...
QMRA Salmonella in pigs(EFSA-Q-2006-176)• Objective:  estimate to which extent human salmonellosis cases can be  reduced b...
Recommendations• The slaughterhouse remains a critical step of the  pig meat chain in respect to pig and carcass  contamin...
Main risks to PH by Meat Inspection of Pig carcasses • Hazards from scientific literature were ranked   qualitatively base...
Main risks to PH by Meat Inspection of Pig carcasses• High relevance:              Salmonella• Medium relevance:          ...
Inspection methods for new hazards currentlynot covered by the meat inspection system •   A comprehensive pork carcass saf...
Decontamination of carcasses
Background• Art 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 853/2004: legal basis to  approve/authorise the use of substances other than  p...
Risk assessment on use of recycled hotwater as decontamination technique of              carcases         Question No EFSA...
Hot water decontaminationDeluge cabinet for pig carcasses : 80°C for 15 s                                                 ...
Conclusions (1)Microbiological risk assessment• Published available data on the efficacy of recycled hot water  decontamin...
Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety   and efficacy of lactic acid for the removal ofmicrobial surface conta...
Application dossier• EC received an application dossier from USDA for  approval of lactic acid for uses to reduce microbia...
Efficacy: conclusions• Naturally occurring Enterobacteriaceae counts  ⇒ reduced to variable degree, but usually reductions...
Other dossiers in progress• CECURE - cetylpyridinium chloride (“CPC”) in raw  poultry products - to be delivered by 2012 T...
THANK YOU!!!               EFSA is committed to:                  Excellence,                 Independency,               ...
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Tendències en seguretat alimentària del sector porcí - Marta Hugas

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Tendències en seguretat alimentària del sector porcí - Marta Hugas

  1. 1. Tendències de futur en seguretat alimentaria relacionades amb el sector porci INNOVAC Setembre 2011 Dr Marta Hugas Unit on Biological Hazards, Head
  2. 2. Estructura EFSA Toxiinfeccions alimentaries en la UE (sector porci) Riscs importants en inspeccio carnia de canals de porc Avaluacio de riscos Salmonella en porcs Avaluacio de tecniques decontaminacio de canals
  3. 3. From field to plate We advise on food/feed safety across the entire food chain 3
  4. 4. Working together Cooperation with:• 30 national food safety agencies• 400 research institutes• 1500 experts • EU Agencies • 3rd country and international organisations 4
  5. 5. How do we do it? EFSA’s scientists evaluate, assess, advise 5
  6. 6. Risk Analysis [CAC,01]: a decision paradigm for Food Safety Governance Preliminary Review activities Monitoring EC EFSA EC+EFSA RISK RISK RISK MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT COMMUNICATION COM = = = The Policy The Science The Exchange Implementation Options Options selection identification 6
  7. 7. The BIOHAZ PanelThe Panel on Biological Hazards deals with questions on biological hazards relating to Food Safety and Food-borne Diseases, including: Food-borne Zoonoses; Food Hygiene; Microbiology; Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies; Associated Waste Management.
  8. 8. Zoonoses in humans; notification ratesin EU, 2009, EUSR Campylobacteriosis (198,252)Based on the reported Salmonellosis (108,614) fatality rates and the Yersiniosis (7,595) total numbers of VTEC (3,573) reported confirmed Toxoplasmosis (1,259) cases, in 2009: Q fever (1,987) Zoonoses Listeriosis- 270 deaths due to (1,645) Echinococcosis (790) listeriosis; Trichinellosis (748)- 90 deaths due to Brucellosis (401) salmonellosis; and Tuberculosis caused by M. bovis* (115)- 40 deaths due to Rabies (1) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 campylobacteriosis Notif ication rate per 100,000 population 8
  9. 9. Salmonellosis in humans in EU, 2005-2009;EUSR 45.0 Confirmed cases per 100,000 population 40.0 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Significantly decreasing trend in human cases since 2005; decrease of 17.4% compared to 2008 Decrease supposed to be mainly due to successful controls of Salmonella in laying hens, breeding flocks and eggs 9
  10. 10. Listeriosis in humans in EU, 2005-2009;EUSR 0.40 confirmed cases per 100,000 population 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009• In 2009, listeriosis in humans increased; of concern in EU• High case fatality rate of 16.6%, approx. 270 deaths• The highest notification rate in those aged over 65 years: covering 58.5 % of the reported cases
  11. 11. L.monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods, meeting the EU criterion ,2006-2009 Fishery products % non-compliance at retail (smoked fish),RTE products of meat origin soft/semisoft cheeses and RTE Soft and semi-soft cheese, meat products RTE have highest % of 2006 2007 non-compliance Hard cheese, RTE 2008 with the 100 cfu/g 2009 criterion (0.3 -1.1%) Fishery products, RTE No major changes Other RTE products observed over the years 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
  12. 12. Yersiniosis in humans in EU, 2005-2009:EUSR• Yersiniosis in humans has decreased in EU in 2005- 2009 with a statistically significant trend 12
  13. 13. Food-borne outbreaks in EU, 2009, EUSR Unknown Salmonella Viruses Bacterial toxins Campylobacter Verified outbreaks Other causative agents Possible outbreaks Escherichia coli, pathogenic Parasites Other bacterial agents Number of outbreaks5,550 food-borne outbreaks; 48,964 human cases, 4,356 hospitalisationsand 46 deaths in 2009.Main causes Salmonella (31%), viruses (19%), bacterial toxins (10%),Main vehicles eggs (17%), mixed meals (8%), pork (8% )
  14. 14. Trends in food-borne outbreaks2007-2009; EUSR Unknown Salmonella Viruses Bacterial toxins Campylobacter 2007 Other causative agents 2008 2009 Escherichia coli, pathogenic Parasites Other bacterial agents Number of outbreaks• Salmonella outbreaks declined, virus and bacterial toxins outbreaks increased 14
  15. 15. Food-borne outbreaks caused by Salmonella in EU, 2009Distribution of food vehicle in verified outbreaks caused by Salmonella in the EU, 2009 15
  16. 16. Causative agents in food-borneoutbreaks, 2009; EUSR• Egg and egg products outbreaks – 97% caused by Salmonella• Pig meat outbreaks – Trichinella 40%, Clostridium 22%, Salmonella 16%• Mixed and buffet meals outbreaks – Salmonella 23%, Bacillus 20%, Clostridium 20%, Staphylococcus 17%• Fish outbreaks – 65% histamine• Fruit and vegetables outbreaks – 65% viruses
  17. 17. Results : SA based on microbial subtyping,EU-level
  18. 18. Results : SA based on microbial subtyping,by EU-regions
  19. 19. Results : SA based on microbial subtyping,by reporting country
  20. 20. Conclusions (1)Covered by the microbial subtyping approach:• the relative contribution of sources varied between regions and countries• At EU-level : • eggs were estimated to be the most important source, contributing with 48% of all Salmonella cases, followed by pigs (29.6%) • turkeys (4.4%) and broilers (3.7%) were estimated to be less important sources. • around 10% of cases were reported as travel-related, and 3.9% were part of outbreaks with unknown source• Regional analysis: • eggs were the most important source in Northern, Eastern and Western Europe, whereas pigs were the major source in Southern Europe • A large proportion of reported cases in Northern European countries were acquired abroad
  21. 21. Prevalence of Salmonella in pig production holdingsBaseline survey in EU - 27 in 2008
  22. 22. Prevalence of Salmonella-positivebreeding holdings, 2008 Spain Netherlands IrelandUnited Kingdom Italy France Cyprus Portugal Denmark Luxembourg EU prevalence: Hungary EU 28.7% (95%CI: 26.3-31.0) Germany Latvia Belgium Switzerland MS prevalence: SlovakiaCzech Republic ranged from 0 to 64% Poland Austria Bulgaria Sweden Estonia Finland Lithuania Slovenia Norway 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Prevalence of Salmonella positive holdings 22
  23. 23. Prevalence of Salmonella-positiveproduction holdings, 2008 Netherlands Spain IrelandUnited Kingdom Italy Portugal Denmark France Belgium EU Latvia EU prevalence: Hungary Luxembourg 33.3% (95%CI: 30.9-35.7) Germany Slovakia CyprusCzech Republic MS prevalence: Switzerland Slovenia ranged from 0 to 55.7% Poland Lithuania Austria Estonia Bulgaria Norway Sweden Finland 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Prevalence of Salmonella positive holdings 23
  24. 24. Prevalence of Salmonella-positive breedingholdings versus production holdings, 2008
  25. 25. PH risks from Salmonella in pigsBreeder Contribution Slaughter Contribution Human (%) (%)pigs pigs casesPrevalence Prevalence Prevalence Farm level Transport, lairage, slaughter Sources of infection Contamination of carcasses Treatment/control Control measures 25
  26. 26. QMRA Salmonella in pigs(EFSA-Q-2006-176)• Objective: estimate to which extent human salmonellosis cases can be reduced by reducing the prevalence of Salmonella in slaughter and breeder pigs and/or by reducing the carcass contamination at slaughterhouse level• Conclusions; – 80% or 90% reduction of prevalence in slaughter pigs should result in a comparable reduction in the number of human cases – A reduction of two logs of Salmonella numbers on contaminated carcasses would result in a 60-80% reduction of the number of human cases – At farm level, control measures are most effective if they achieve Salmonella-free breeder pigs and feed, and prevention of introduction of Salmonella via environment (i.e. rodents, birds) – At slaughterhouse level prevention of feacal leakage and carcass decontamination are considered efficient 26
  27. 27. Recommendations• The slaughterhouse remains a critical step of the pig meat chain in respect to pig and carcass contamination. Studies to properly assess the ways carcasses become contaminated should be encouraged• Field trials of possible interventions are urgently required.• The airborne transmission of Salmonella in the abattoir should be paid more attention
  28. 28. Main risks to PH by Meat Inspection of Pig carcasses • Hazards from scientific literature were ranked qualitatively based on: – their prevalence in carcasses – source attribution of human cases to pork – incidence and severity in humans Resulting in a shortlist of hazards
  29. 29. Main risks to PH by Meat Inspection of Pig carcasses• High relevance: Salmonella• Medium relevance: Yersinia enterocolitica, Toxoplasma gondii Trichinella• Low relevance: Listeria Campylobacter VTEC Clostridium Mycobacteria Staph aureus HEVHazards ranked based on: prevalence in carcasses, source attribution ofhuman cases to pork and incidence and severity in humans
  30. 30. Inspection methods for new hazards currentlynot covered by the meat inspection system • A comprehensive pork carcass safety assurance, combining a range of preventive measures applied both on-farm and at-abattoir is the only way to ensure effective control of the hazards identified above. • A prerequisite for this system is setting targets in respect to the main hazards to be achieved on chilled carcasses. These would also inform what has to be achieved at earlier steps in the food chain. • At abattoir level, the risk reduction for the main hazards can be achieved through programs based on GMP/GHP and HACCP, including: – hygienic and technology-based measures aimed at avoiding cross-contamination with Salmonella and Yersinia enterocolitica; with additional interventions such as surface decontamination of carcasses if considered necessary; – heat- or freezing-based treatments of carcass meat to inactivate intramuscular parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella if considered necessary and as alternative to related laboratory testing of carcasses; – FCI should be used to differentiate incoming pigs in respect to hazard risks based on herd status via sampling at farms or abattoirs, and to differentiate risk-reduction capacity of abattoirs (process hygiene). • At farm level, the risk reduction for the main hazards can be achieved through measures such as herd health programs, closed breeding pyramids, GHP and GFP and categorisation of animals based on the carrier state of these agents. 30
  31. 31. Decontamination of carcasses
  32. 32. Background• Art 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 853/2004: legal basis to approve/authorise the use of substances other than potable water to remove surface contamination from products of animal origin• Before risk management decision, a risk analysis should be carried out taking into account the results of a risk assessment• EFSA issued a revision of the guidance document (EFSA, 2010) 32
  33. 33. Risk assessment on use of recycled hotwater as decontamination technique of carcases Question No EFSA-Q-2009-892 33
  34. 34. Hot water decontaminationDeluge cabinet for pig carcasses : 80°C for 15 s Source: DTU Denmark 34
  35. 35. Conclusions (1)Microbiological risk assessment• Published available data on the efficacy of recycled hot water decontamination are very limited and relate only to treatment of bovine and porcine carcasses;• No significant differences in microbial decontamination efficacy, between clean hot potable and hot recycled water, by using the recycling operations considered in this document• Application of proper heating regime is the main option to control bacterial cells and protozoan parasites• The main potential microbiological risks in the recycled water derive from heat-resistant bacterial spores• The control option for spores is to define a proper criteria for the HACCP 35
  36. 36. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of lactic acid for the removal ofmicrobial surface contamination of beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings EFSA-Q-2011-00032
  37. 37. Application dossier• EC received an application dossier from USDA for approval of lactic acid for uses to reduce microbial contamination of beef hides, carcasses, cuts and trimmings and requested EFSA to deliver a Scientific Opinion (BIOHAZ and CEF)• Approval was sought for treatments • Beef hides, carcasses, cuts and/or trimmings • Spray washing or misting • Lactic acid (LA) concentrations: 2% - 5% • Temperatures: < 55°C 37
  38. 38. Efficacy: conclusions• Naturally occurring Enterobacteriaceae counts ⇒ reduced to variable degree, but usually reductions were significantly higher compared to untreated or water treated controls (HIGH).• Salmonella and/or STEC/VTEC prevalence ⇒ reduced to variable degrees depending on study design and contamination level, but reductions were generally significantly higher compared to controls (HIGH/MEDIUM)• Inoculated pathogens (Salmonella and/or STEC/VTEC) counts ⇒ reduced to variable degree. Usually reductions higher on carcasses compared to meat cuts and trimmings (MEDIUM). 38
  39. 39. Other dossiers in progress• CECURE - cetylpyridinium chloride (“CPC”) in raw poultry products - to be delivered by 2012 The purpose of the treatment: food processing aid to control the following organisms: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, Staph.aureus, E.coli (including O157:H7), Pseudomonas, total coliforms, viruses, and other naturally occurring microorganisms on raw poultry carcasses• LISTEX P100 (bacteriophage) – for fishery products to control Listeria monocytogenes surface contamination of raw fish 39
  40. 40. THANK YOU!!! EFSA is committed to: Excellence, Independency, Responsiveness and Transparency www.efsa.europa .eu

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