Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Emotion, Arousal, Attention and Flow: Chaining Emotional States to Improve Human Computer Interaction

26,811 views

Published on

An overview of how designing for emotion relates to UX and flow, how the appearance and interaction of products communicate a personality to the user, and how emotions can be "chained" to enhance persuasion and influence behaviour.

Published in: Technology

Emotion, Arousal, Attention and Flow: Chaining Emotional States to Improve Human Computer Interaction

  1. 1. Emotion, Arousal, Attention and Flow: Chaining Emotional States to Improve Human-Computer Interaction by Trevor van Gorp Dr. Ron Wardell Faculty of Environmental Design University of Calgary Edie Adams Microsoft Research © Trevor van Gorp, 2006 March 26th, 2006 Trevor van Gorp, BFA (Hon.), M.E.Des (Industrial Design) User Experience Consultant nForm User Experience Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  2. 2. Why is Emotion Important to UX? “ Let's not forget that the little emotions are the great captains of our lives and we obey them without realizing it.“ Vincent Van Gogh, 1889
  3. 3. Why is Emotion Important to UX? <ul><li>• Emotion is the “experience” in “User Experience” </li></ul>• Would you let layout, interaction, or information architecture occur randomly? • Our lives are chains of emotional states
  4. 4. Introduction and Overview <ul><li>• Unanswered questions: </li></ul>? <ul><ul><li>What differentiates one emotion from another? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What emotional states should be our goal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What specific product properties elicit changes in emotions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In what sequence should we elicit emotions? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What differentiates one emotion from another?
  6. 6. Differentiating by Dimensions <ul><li>Differentiating by levels of: </li></ul>Emotional States (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Desmet 2002) • Value (Pleasant vs. Unpleasant) • Physiological arousal (Anxiety vs. Boredom)
  7. 7. Differentiating by Expressions <ul><li>• Internal, private expressions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in breathing patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviour </li></ul></ul>• External, public expressions: <ul><ul><li>feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in body posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vocalizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facial expressions </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What emotional states should be our goal?
  9. 9. Emotions and Cognition <ul><li>• Emotions affect cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strength of attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relaxed body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>open, creative thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tense body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detail-oriented thinking </li></ul></ul></ul>(Norman 2004)
  10. 10. Emotions and Cognition <ul><li>• Yerkes-Dodson law </li></ul>(van Gorp 2006 from Yerkes-Dodson, 1908)
  11. 11. Arousal, Attention, and Flow <ul><li>• Flow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>task has clear goals and immediate feedback </li></ul></ul>• Attention - selects relevant information • Focus of attention - is what enters consciousness (Csikszentmahalyi 1990) <ul><ul><li>focused attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>few interruptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>challenge matches skills </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Anxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1990 - Dots and text added: van Gorp 2006) Level of Physiological Arousal
  13. 13. Emotional States (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Desmet 2002, Russell 1980) Flow (adapted from Csikszentmahalyi 1990)
  14. 14. What specific product properties elicit changes in emotions?
  15. 15. Products as Personalities <ul><li>• People attribute personality to products based on their appearance and how they interact (Reeves and Nass 1989) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interaction as Conversation http://www.amp88.plus.com/file%20open%20error.JPG
  17. 17. Interaction as Conversation Omni Graffle 4
  18. 18. Interaction as Conversation
  19. 19. Personalities and Conversations • What visual characteristics are associated with personality type? Submissive • smaller • lighter in colour • lighter in weight • rounded • feminine Dominant • larger • darker • heavier • angular • masculine www.sitesdesignedbysites.com www1.folha.uol.com.br
  20. 20. In what sequence should we elicit emotions?
  21. 21. State Chaining Emotional States (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Desmet 2002) Flow (adapted from Csikszentmahalyi 1990)
  22. 22. State Chaining Pacing, Rapport and Leading: Interaction, Personality and Behaviour (van Gorp 2006)
  23. 23. State Chaining <ul><li>• Connecting related emotional states </li></ul>State Chaining: From Problem State to Desired State (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Dilts and De Lozier 2000)
  24. 24. The Affect Circumplex (van Gorp 2006) adapted from (Desmet 2002)
  25. 25. State Chaining Example - New User (van Gorp 2006)
  26. 26. Design Process
  27. 27. Existing Application Interaction
  28. 28. Interface Wireframes
  29. 29. Interface Wireframes
  30. 30. Interface Wireframes
  31. 31. Interface Wireframes
  32. 32. Interface Wireframes
  33. 33. Interface Wireframes
  34. 34. Interface Wireframes
  35. 35. Interface Wireframes
  36. 36. Interface Wireframes
  37. 37. Interface Wireframes
  38. 38. Visual Design
  39. 39. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  40. 40. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  41. 41. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  42. 42. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  43. 43. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  44. 44. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  45. 45. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  46. 46. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  47. 47. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  48. 48. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  49. 49. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  50. 50. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  51. 51. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  52. 52. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  53. 53. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  54. 54. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  55. 55. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  56. 56. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  57. 57. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  58. 58. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  59. 59. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  60. 60. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  61. 61. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  62. 62. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  63. 63. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  64. 64. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  65. 65. www.nform.ca [email_address]
  66. 66. References <ul><li>Cacioppo, J. T., Larsen, J. T., Smith, N. K., & Berntson, G. G. (2004). “The affect system: What lurks below the surface of feelings?” In A. S. R. Manstead, N. H. Frijda, & A. H. Fischer (Eds.), Feelings and emotions: The Amsterdam conference (pp. 221-240). New York: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Eugene Rochberg-Halton. (1981). The Meaning of Things - Domestic Symbols and the Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1990). Flow - the Psychology of Optimal Experience . New York: Harper Perennial. </li></ul><ul><li>Desmet, Pieter, R. (2002). Designing Emotions . Pieter Desmet. Delft. </li></ul>
  67. 67. References <ul><li>Dilts, Robert and Judith De Lozier. (2000a). “Chaining”. Encyclopedia of NLP. Scotts Valley: NLP University Press. http:// nlpuniversitypress .com/html/CaCom15.html accessed on July 21, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Fehrman, Kenneth R. and Cherie Fehrman. (2000). Color - The Secret Influence . New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Fogg, B.J. (2003). Persuasive Technology - Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan, Patrick, W. (2000). Designing Pleasurable Products. London: Taylor & Francis. </li></ul><ul><li>Kemper, Theodore D. (1978). A Social Interactional Theory of Emotions. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Norman, Donald A. (2004). Emotional Design - Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things . New York: Basic Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Plutchik, Robert, and H. R. Conte, eds. (1997). Circumplex Models of Personality and Emotions . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. </li></ul>
  68. 68. References <ul><li>Reeves, Byron and C. Nass. (1998). The Media Equation - How People Treat Computers, Television and New Media Like Real People and Places. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Russell, J.A. (1980). “A circumplex model of affect”. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161–1178. </li></ul><ul><li>Thoits, Peggy, A. (2004). “Emotion Norms, Emotion Work, and Social Order.” in Antony S.R. Manstead and Nico Frijda, Agnesta Fischer, eds. (2004). Feelings and Emotions - the Amsterdam Symposium. pp.359-378. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>van Gorp, T. (2006). Emotion Arousal Attention and Flow: Chaining Emotional States to Improve Human-Computer Interaction. Master’s Degree Project. Forthcoming - University of Calgary. </li></ul><ul><li>Yerkes Robert M., and John D.Dodson (1908) “The Relation of Strength of Stimulus to Rapidity of Habit-Formation” Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology , 18, 459-482) </li></ul>

×