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Toru Nakata
(Senior Researcher,
AIST, Japan)
 Good security sticks to efficiency of business.
 Not protection of information. Utilize them.
 Bad security is reactiv...
 You should close your company, if your goal
is just to avoid information leakage.
 Dwell on why you are using a number ...
 The Weakest link dooms your company
◦ A security expert company, which has excellent
management on email and web, was at...
 Imagine your business scene.
◦ “Go out for the customers with bringing laptops.
Give presentation, Negotiate, send mail ...
 Over 90% of accidents is caused by
employees; lost of information, sending
wrong address, and mistakes about system
sett...
 Wrong security policy is dangerous.
◦ “Do not connect PCs to the net.”  People uses USB
memories to convey files.  Los...
 Information security is the main issue of
company performance.
 The best and brightest employees should
take care of it...
 Plan before incidents
 Reinforce the security policy periodically
 Drill against human error incidents and cyber
attac...
 The 3 typical tactics of cyber fraud
1. Authority impersonation
◦ “The security department require you to read the
attac...
 Change typical mail addresses as decoys
◦ admin@your.com, webmaster@your.com, etc.
 Prepare decoy names of company empl...
 Passwords are hard to hide perfectly.
◦ Key logger, reusing same password, etc.
 Do not rely only on passwords.
 Requi...
 Naïve passwords are often attacked, but they
are very popular.
◦ “123456”, “password”, “admin” , etc.
 Even complex pas...
 Guessing is very easy.
◦ Birthday date, year.
◦ Telephone number
◦ Car number
◦ Postal code
 Isn’t it?
 The present state may be not safe anymore.
◦ Technology changes quickly.
◦ Severe security holes are found every month.
...
 Watch “122” and read as “112”
 Separate long sequences of digits into 2-digit
clusters
◦ Write as “12-2”
 PC can read ...
 Risks are often hidden individually.
◦ Violations of security policy.
◦ Virus-affected PC.
◦ Passwords known only by one...
 Retiring employees bring information with
them.
◦ Knowledge in the brain is inerasable. There is no
perfect control.
 H...
 Do not put all eggs in one basket
◦ Files accessible for everyone?
◦ PCs open to everyone?
◦ Administrators always use p...
 Information becomes power when it is
exchanged.
 If you say nothing, the counterpart says
nothing.
◦ Too strict securit...
 Information flow must not stop especially
under disasters.
◦ Natural disasters
◦ Business disasters (Terrors against you...
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20 tips for information security around human factors and human error

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Most of information leakage are caused by human errors of employee not by the outsiders. Here are some key tips to protect the information security with keeping efficiency of business.

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20 tips for information security around human factors and human error

  1. 1. Toru Nakata (Senior Researcher, AIST, Japan)
  2. 2.  Good security sticks to efficiency of business.  Not protection of information. Utilize them.  Bad security is reactive and passive.
  3. 3.  You should close your company, if your goal is just to avoid information leakage.  Dwell on why you are using a number of information and computers.  Good goal is more concrete and intentional about business; it mentions about service time, service quality and security quality.
  4. 4.  The Weakest link dooms your company ◦ A security expert company, which has excellent management on email and web, was attacked via FAX. A fraud FAX deceived the employee into changing security settings.  Survey all equipment, systems, information flows in your company.
  5. 5.  Imagine your business scene. ◦ “Go out for the customers with bringing laptops. Give presentation, Negotiate, send mail and so on.”  When, where, why, what, and how much is information needed?  Reveal the minimum set of necessary information.
  6. 6.  Over 90% of accidents is caused by employees; lost of information, sending wrong address, and mistakes about system settings.  Apply Systematic protection ◦ Email system to prevent wrong emailing.  Make Management more practical ◦ Consider why your employees behave so risky to bring out the information. Is there any inconvenience at your office?
  7. 7.  Wrong security policy is dangerous. ◦ “Do not connect PCs to the net.”  People uses USB memories to convey files.  Lose memories.  There is no silver bullet. Even the best methods have some bad side effects.  Compare several ways to promote your business and security.
  8. 8.  Information security is the main issue of company performance.  The best and brightest employees should take care of it.  Technology experts are to support.
  9. 9.  Plan before incidents  Reinforce the security policy periodically  Drill against human error incidents and cyber attacks.
  10. 10.  The 3 typical tactics of cyber fraud 1. Authority impersonation ◦ “The security department require you to read the attachment file of this mail!” 2. Panic maker ◦ “I am meeting the customer and need to open a locked file. Please tell me the password now!” 3. Lightly-favored trap ◦ “Lights of someone’s car in the parking is left on. The photo is attacked to this mail.”
  11. 11.  Change typical mail addresses as decoys ◦ admin@your.com, webmaster@your.com, etc.  Prepare decoy names of company employees and organizations ◦ Adversary: “Sorry, I forget the name of the person I met yesterday.” ◦ Employee: “Well, Mr. Suzuki is our boss.” ◦ Adversary: “Yes, Mr. Suzuki is he.” ◦ Employee: “There is no such person in our company!”
  12. 12.  Passwords are hard to hide perfectly. ◦ Key logger, reusing same password, etc.  Do not rely only on passwords.  Require additional and physical keys to access.
  13. 13.  Naïve passwords are often attacked, but they are very popular. ◦ “123456”, “password”, “admin” , etc.  Even complex passwords are breakable when they are challenged limitless times. (Offline attack) ◦ Locking files by passwords are not safe.  Very complex passwords will be written down and posted around the desk.  Two-factor authentication is recommended for various business uses.
  14. 14.  Guessing is very easy. ◦ Birthday date, year. ◦ Telephone number ◦ Car number ◦ Postal code  Isn’t it?
  15. 15.  The present state may be not safe anymore. ◦ Technology changes quickly. ◦ Severe security holes are found every month. ◦ Old-fashioned technology like FAX should be reconsidered to be continued.  Buy powerful solutions, if you have enough budget.  Otherwise, change the policy more protective.
  16. 16.  Watch “122” and read as “112”  Separate long sequences of digits into 2-digit clusters ◦ Write as “12-2”  PC can read numbers aloud. Hear the voice to check the numbers.
  17. 17.  Risks are often hidden individually. ◦ Violations of security policy. ◦ Virus-affected PC. ◦ Passwords known only by one person.  During long vacation, the risks cannot be hide.
  18. 18.  Retiring employees bring information with them. ◦ Knowledge in the brain is inerasable. There is no perfect control.  Have audits with them, and make consensus about information management. ◦ What kinds of information are left, and what are not.
  19. 19.  Do not put all eggs in one basket ◦ Files accessible for everyone? ◦ PCs open to everyone? ◦ Administrators always use powerful admin account?  Put partitions for information.
  20. 20.  Information becomes power when it is exchanged.  If you say nothing, the counterpart says nothing. ◦ Too strict security policy stops your business.  Plan win-win strategy ◦ Some of your information can be given to the counterpart without damaging you. ◦ Likewise, some of their information are vice versa.
  21. 21.  Information flow must not stop especially under disasters. ◦ Natural disasters ◦ Business disasters (Terrors against your products)  Keep several channels to communicate with customers, employees, and neighborhoods.  Utilize social networking services.

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