Digital Library Initiatives in Turkey:
                A Brief Overview


                                                ...
Outline: Digital Library Initiatives. . .

   • Definitions
   • Open Access (OA) e-theses/dissertations
     archives and...
OA definition
1. “. . . free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access
   to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, trans...
IR definition
• “digital collection capturing the
  intellectual output of a single or
  multi-university community”

• Ac...
c. 1,100 archives & 23M records . . .




                                                                -5
ASIS&T Annual...
OA Archives (as of November 10, 2009)
  •    USA (300)                                                •   Australia (48)
 ...
OA Software

  • DSpace (487)                                                •   Fedora (16)
  • GNU Eprints (348)        ...
IRs in Europe

   European University Association (EUA) recommended OA
     self-archiving mandates for 791 European unive...
230 European digital repositories




                                                                Source: Van der Graa...
Turkish OA Archives and IRs (as of Nov. 2009)
   • METU Library E-Theses (2247 records, OAI-compliant)
   • Ankara Univers...
Turkish OA Archives & IRs: Timeline

   • 2003: METU Library ETD Archive becomes the
     first NDLTD member
   • 2005: OA...
Hacettepe Univ. Experimental OA Archive




                                                                 - 12
 ASIS&T ...
OAIster search on Hacettepe Univ.
Experimental OA Archive




                                                            ...
Hacettepe Univ. Experimental OA Archive

   • Full-texts of graduate theses and dissertations
   • Dublin Core-based metad...
First Operational IR: Ankara Univ.
   Open Archive System




                                                            ...
MITOS Open Access System




                                                                - 16
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, N...
Others . . .




                                                                - 17
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11...
Higher Education Council Theses Center

    • Has 200,000 graduate theses and dissertations
    • More than 175,000 theses...
HEC Theses Center Web Site




                                                                - 19
ASIS&T Annual Meeting,...
Turkish OA e-journals
   • 94% of 253 e-journals published in Turkey
     are OA, including restrospective issues
     (Kü...
OA e-journals




                                                                - 21
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-1...
Turkish NSF OA e-journals




                                                                - 22
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, ...
Turkish Open CourseWare Consortium

    • Founded in 2007 (TAS & HEC)
    • Has 48 members
    • Provides OA through an LM...
TOCC Web Site




                                                                - 24
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-1...
Universities with OCW web sites




                                                                - 25
ASIS&T Annual Mee...
Other Digital Library Initiatives




                                                                - 26
ASIS&T Annual M...
Ministry of Culture




                                                                - 27
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, Novemb...
Prime Ministry




                                                                - 28
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-...
Ministry of Justice




                                                                - 29
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, Novemb...
Ministry of Education




                                                                - 30
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, Nove...
Universities




                                                                - 31
ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11...
Issues
   • Organizational issues
          – Skills of planning, organization and administration
   • Cultural issues
   ...
What can be done?

   • OA, IRs and DLs have to be dealt with on a
     higher level (i.e., TGNA, SPO, Turkish NSF and
   ...
Epilogue
“Stewardship is easy and inexpensive to
  claim; it is expensive and difficult to honor,
  and perhaps it will pr...
Digital Library Initiatives in Turkey:
                A Brief Overview


                                                ...
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Digital library initiatives in Turkey: A brief overview

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Paper presented at 2009 ASIS&T Annual Meeting Thriving on Diversity - Information Opportunities in a Pluralistic World, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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Digital library initiatives in Turkey: A brief overview

  1. 1. Digital Library Initiatives in Turkey: A Brief Overview Yaşar Tonta Department of Information Management Hacettepe University tonta@hacettepe.edu.tr yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/tonta.html -1 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  2. 2. Outline: Digital Library Initiatives. . . • Definitions • Open Access (OA) e-theses/dissertations archives and institutional repositories (IRs) • OA e-journal archives • Open CourseWare archives • Digital library and digital preservation initiatives • Issues • Conclusion -2 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  3. 3. OA definition 1. “. . . free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly . . . 2. A complete version of the work . . . is deposited (and thus published) in at least one online repository . . . maintained by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, inter operability, and long-term archiving.” Source: Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities http://www.zim.mpg.de/openaccess-berlin/berlindeclaration.html -3 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  4. 4. IR definition • “digital collection capturing the intellectual output of a single or multi-university community” • Accessible to end users both within and outside of the institution • IRs: – Institutionally defined; – Scholarly; – Cumulative and perpetual; and – Open and interoperable. Source: Crow, 2002, p. 16. -4 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  5. 5. c. 1,100 archives & 23M records . . . -5 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  6. 6. OA Archives (as of November 10, 2009) • USA (300) • Australia (48) • UK (151) • Sweden (35) • Germany (112) • Netherlands (27) • Japan (71) • Belgium (19) • Brasil (70) • South Africa (15) • Spain (58) • Denmark (14) • Canada (51) • China (11) • India (50) • Hungary (9) • France (50) • Turkey (8) • Italy (48) • ... •http://archives.eprints.org/eprints.php?action=browse#country -6 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  7. 7. OA Software • DSpace (487) • Fedora (16) • GNU Eprints (348) • HAL (10) • Bepress (89) • Greenstone (8) • OPUS (Open • ARNO (6) Publication System) (34) • Others (411) • ETD-db (28) Sources: archives.eprints.org -7 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  8. 8. IRs in Europe European University Association (EUA) recommended OA self-archiving mandates for 791 European universities in 46 countries (Jan. 25, 2008): “all European Universities should create institutional repositories and should mandate that all research publications must be deposited in them immediately upon publication (and made Open Access as soon as possible thereafter). . .[and that] these [funder] self- archiving mandates should be extended to all research results arising from EU research programme/project funding” Source: European, 2008 -8 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  9. 9. 230 European digital repositories Source: Van der Graaf & Van Eijndhoven (2007, p. 73). -9 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  10. 10. Turkish OA Archives and IRs (as of Nov. 2009) • METU Library E-Theses (2247 records, OAI-compliant) • Ankara University Open Archive System (3441 records, OAI-compliant) • Sabancı University Research Database (9069 records, OAI-compliant, Eprints software, Not 100% OA) • Gazi University Open Archive (2057 records, OAI not registered) • Atatürk University Open Archive (578 records, OAI- compliant) • Atılım University Open Archive (218 records, OAI not working) • And other non-registered web-accessible ETD archives - 10 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  11. 11. Turkish OA Archives & IRs: Timeline • 2003: METU Library ETD Archive becomes the first NDLTD member • 2005: OA in Academic Informatics and Library Week meetings • 2005: First experimental OA archive (Hacettepe Univ.) • 2005: First operational OA archive (Ankara Univ.) • 2006: OA Declaration • 2006: Working Group on OA and IRs (ANKOS) • 2006: OA & IRs Advisory Board (TLA, ÜNAK, ULAKBİM) - 11 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  12. 12. Hacettepe Univ. Experimental OA Archive - 12 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  13. 13. OAIster search on Hacettepe Univ. Experimental OA Archive - 13 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  14. 14. Hacettepe Univ. Experimental OA Archive • Full-texts of graduate theses and dissertations • Dublin Core-based metadata • DSpace (installed on Apache Tomcat running on Linux Fedora Core), • First archive in Turkey using the OAI-PMH protocol and OpenURL standard (March 29, 2005). • Registered at CNRI Handle Server (for persistent DOI numbers) • Registered in OAI Registry (prefix 2062) • Contents harvestable by OAIster and Google search crawlers - 14 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  15. 15. First Operational IR: Ankara Univ. Open Archive System - 15 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  16. 16. MITOS Open Access System - 16 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  17. 17. Others . . . - 17 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  18. 18. Higher Education Council Theses Center • Has 200,000 graduate theses and dissertations • More than 175,000 theses were scanned • Seeking approvals of authors of ETDs to make them available through the Web. • More than 25,000 ETDs (13% of the total) are accessible starting from 2008. • 12-fold increase in use of e-theses and 5-fold increase in the number of users • Conservative approach: how long would it take to get approvals of 200.000 theses! • Orphan works - 18 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  19. 19. HEC Theses Center Web Site - 19 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  20. 20. Turkish OA e-journals • 94% of 253 e-journals published in Turkey are OA, including restrospective issues (Küçük & Olcay, 2006) • More than half published by universities • Full-texts available through ULAKBİM’s web site • The 12 scientific journals published by the Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council (TÜBİTAK) are also accessible - 20 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  21. 21. OA e-journals - 21 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  22. 22. Turkish NSF OA e-journals - 22 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  23. 23. Turkish Open CourseWare Consortium • Founded in 2007 (TAS & HEC) • Has 48 members • Provides OA through an LMS, eduCommons, to course materials (syllabi, slides, lecture notes, audio-video records, and so on) • Some MIT’s OpenCourseWare will be translated and made available • Some members offer several courses through OpenCourseWare web sites. - 23 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  24. 24. TOCC Web Site - 24 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  25. 25. Universities with OCW web sites - 25 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  26. 26. Other Digital Library Initiatives - 26 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  27. 27. Ministry of Culture - 27 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  28. 28. Prime Ministry - 28 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  29. 29. Ministry of Justice - 29 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  30. 30. Ministry of Education - 30 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  31. 31. Universities - 31 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  32. 32. Issues • Organizational issues – Skills of planning, organization and administration • Cultural issues – Culture of working together • Coordination of common knowledge and common intelligence – “Digital world is different” • Lack of commitment • Human and monetary resources • Adherence to standards (i.e., OAI-PMH) • Develop services on top of digital libraries • Pay attention to Information Architecture issues: “available” does not necessarily mean readily “accessible” • Create effective search mechanisms - 32 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  33. 33. What can be done? • OA, IRs and DLs have to be dealt with on a higher level (i.e., TGNA, SPO, Turkish NSF and HEC) – Law on Public Access to Research Act • Sign international declarations • Awareness of OA, IRs and DLs should be increased • Research grants should enforce OA for research papers funded by taxpayers • Mandates to set up IRs - 33 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  34. 34. Epilogue “Stewardship is easy and inexpensive to claim; it is expensive and difficult to honor, and perhaps it will prove to be all too easy to later abdicate. Institutions need to think seriously before launching institutional repository programs”. Source: Lynch, 2003 - 34 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada
  35. 35. Digital Library Initiatives in Turkey: A Brief Overview Yaşar Tonta Department of Information Management Hacettepe University tonta@hacettepe.edu.tr yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/tonta.html - 35 ASIS&T Annual Meeting, November 6-11, 2009, Vancouver, Canada

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