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Some thoughts on social cohesion in Latin America

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¿Qué es la cohesión social? ¿Cuál es el estado de este atributo en la región? ¿Cómo se podría mejorar?

Éstas son algunas de las preguntas que la presentación que realizó Eugenio Tironi en la conferencia "Nuevos desafíos para la democracia y el desarrollo en América Latina" intenta responder.

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Some thoughts on social cohesion in Latin America

  1. 1. Portadas 3 libros SOME
THOUGHTS
ON
SOCIAL
COHESION
IN
 LATIN
AMERICA
 Eugenio Tironi Eugenio Tironi Santiago, 13 de mayo 2008 Conference New Challenges for Democracy and Development in Latin America, January 21, 2010, University of California, San Diego Sponsored by the Center on Pacific Economies (CPE) and the Corporación de Estudios para Latinoamérica (CIEPLAN)
  2. 2. What is SC? • Anglo-Saxon Tradition: management of multiculturalism to avoid violence. • Continental European Tradition: expansion of social rights trough state intervention.
  3. 3. AN “HYBRID” DEFINITION: The capacity of a democratic society to foster a legitimate structure for distributing socioeconomic resources (wellbeing), sociopolitical resources (rights) and socio - cultural resources (recognition), through the combined action of the state, the market, families, and community networks.
  4. 4. www.ecosocialsurvey.org 7 países, grandes ciudades, presencial, march – april 2007 1.500 casos 1.200 casos Ciudad de México, Ciudad de Guatemala, Alta Verapaz, Monterrey, Guadalajara, Chiimaltenango, Escuintla, Puebla Huehuetenango, Quetzaltenango, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Mar-Abr 2007 Suchitepequez Mar-Abr 2007 1.400 casos Bogotá, Cali, Medellín, 1.700 casos Barranquilla Sao Paulo, Río de Janeiro, Mar-Abr 2007 Salvador, Porto Alegre Mar-Abr 2007 1.400 casos Lima, Callao, Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo Mar-Abr 2007 1.400 casos 1.400 casos Gran Buenos Aires, Gran Rosario, Gran Córdoba, Gran Santiago, Valparaíso, Viña Gran Mendoza del Mar, Antofagasta, Concepción, Talcahuano, Mar-Abr 2007 Temuco, La Serena, Coquimbo Mar-Abr 2007
  5. 5. I.  FIVE PILLARS OF LATIN AMERICAN SOCIAL COHESTION (LASC)
  6. 6. 1. Moderate perception of social discrimination and polarization.  16% for being poor  11% for race or ethnicity  11% for political alignment  10% for religion beliefs
  7. 7. Degrees of polarization: identification with a group + aversion toward a contrary group SOCIOECON. POLITICAL RELIGIOUS ETHNIC 21 12 38 8
  8. 8. 2. Legitimacy of inequality • Poverty and wealth are attributed to (acquired) factors related to individual achievement rather than to (assigned) factors related to the system itself • Culture of individual achievement is being imposed on all social levels.
  9. 9. Acquisitional reasons to explain wealth and poverty Total 52 Peru 67 Mexico 62 Guatemala 57 Chile 53 Colombia 50 Brazil 41 Argentina 34
  10. 10. 3. The “(Latin) American dream” • Positive experience and high expectations of social mobility. • Future hopes compensate current inequality.
  11. 11. The “Latin American Dream?” High levels of inequality mitigated by high expectations of mobility.
  12. 12. 4. Strong primary bonds and common beliefs • Family attachment: 77% • Number of friends: 5,7 • Known neighbors: 8,4 • National loyalty: 76% • Religious identification: 87%
  13. 13. 4. Strong primary bonds and common beliefs LASC depends more on family ties, religion and the neighborhood than it does on the State, civil society or the market.
  14. 14. 5.”Golden Years” Drop in fertility, Favorable ratio Greater availability Increase in the especially among between of goods and resources that lower income economically active services per homes and social groups. and passive inhabitant. policies can populations. allocate to the education of children, especially for the middle and lower income segments. Demographic bonus
  15. 15. SENSE OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION DEMOGRAPHIC INDIVIDUALISTIC BONUS APROACH LASC PILLARS STRONG PRIMARY BONDS
  16. 16. II. Five threats to LASC
  17. 17. 1. End of the “female subsidy” to LASC • Reduction in traditional extended and nuclear families. • Greater participation by women in the workforce. • The women’s “subsidy” of LASC by taking care of children and the elderly could be coming to an end.
  18. 18. 2. Virus of mistrust • Mistrust of people from outside one’s intimate circle. • High levels of homogamy • “Binding” vs. “bridging” social capital.
  19. 19. 2. Virus of mistrust • Low levels of institutional integration. • Low levels of unconditional support for democracy.
  20. 20. 3. Legitimization of violence Over one third justify the use of force or violence to further social, environmental, ethnic, or political causes.
  21. 21. 4. Specter of disorganization •  30% declare that they live in a neighborhood with drug dealing, robberies, muggings and street violence. •  40% declare feeling victimized and afraid. •  The poorest people are the most vulnerable to fear.
  22. 22. • 35% justify having firearms to defend themselves from crime. • 42% believe that “criminals should not have the same rights” as other citizens. • 35% of those who value democracy declare that criminals’ rights should not be respected.
  23. 23. The threat of authoritarianism could emerge, not from ideologized political elites (as before), but rather from the population’s fear of crime.
  24. 24. 5. Frustrated Hopes Erosion of traditional ties and beliefs as an result of modernization. Social disorder, mistrust, and scant institutional legitimacy. System’s inability to satisfy hopes for progress and social mobility.
  25. 25. END OF “FEMALE SUBSIDY” FRUSTRATION MISTRUST LASC THREATS LEGITIMATION OF INDIVIDUAL VIOLENCE
  26. 26. III. WHAT CAN BE DONE TO STRENGTH SOCIAL COHESION IN LATIN AMERICA?
  27. 27. 1. Social cohesion is a public good that public policy can and should promote
  28. 28. 2. Reinforce the gender issue when devising pro-cohesion public policies.
  29. 29. 3. Revalue families: public social policies cannot be sustained exclusively in the state and the market.
  30. 30. 4. Education contents matters to social cohesion.
  31. 31. • Latin American schools: – From “citizenship” education to “human capital”. – From “The Nation” to global citizenship (human rights, gender, environment concern…) –  From “Republic” to “identities” (ethnicity, communities…)
  32. 32. • SC as a guiding principle of educational contents and practices: 1. To make the Nation the anchors of communities that schools are trying to create 2. To correct the absence or weaknesses of public arena. 3.  To balance anti-political trends of the market culture and the effects of individualization.
  33. 33. 5. Politics matters • Public policy and policymakers must respond to politics and politicians.
  34. 34. Portadas 3 libros SOME
THOUGHTS
ON
SOCIAL
COHESION
IN
 LATIN
AMERICA
 Eugenio Tironi Eugenio Tironi Santiago, 13 de mayo 2008 Conference New Challenges for Democracy and Development in Latin America, January 21, 2010, University of California, San Diego Sponsored by the Center on Pacific Economies (CPE) and the Corporación de Estudios para Latinoamérica (CIEPLAN)

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