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Self-regulation and personality as key factors of decision making in emergency situations - Tatiana Indina - London, UK - 2011


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Poster london ECP Conference 2011

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Self-regulation and personality as key factors of decision making in emergency situations - Tatiana Indina - London, UK - 2011

  1. 1. PERSONALITY AND SELF-REGULATION DIFFERENCES AS KEY FACTORS OF DECISION MAKING EFFICIENCY IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS TATIANA A. INDINA PhD, senior researcher, laboratory of Self-Regulation ( PSYCHOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF EDUCATION, MOSCOW, RUSSIAINTRODUCTION a specificity of interrelation between decision making efficiency and intensity of personality and regulatory features of a subject.Under the conditions of today’s Russian reality the issue of study of personality andregulation differences of professionals who make decisions in emergency situations Picture 1. Relation between decision making, self-regulation and personalityis as relevant as ever. Emergency situations (ES) are primarily the specific conditions indexesof subjective activity realization and, particularly, decision making (DM) in uncertainenvironment.Recently conducted theoretical historical data analysis made it possible to point outthe following basic conditions of decision making of specialists in ES:•    High degree of uncertainty and low situation outcome predictability,•    Lack of information required for decision making,•    Rigid time limits,•    High risk level,•    Highly stressful working conditions,•    Increased responsibility for the made decision, high cost of a mistake,•    Rigidly regulated actions of a specialist according to requirements of standardsand instructions,•    Need to generate non-standard decisions in non-standard situations,•    Need to work in team and take concerted actions in an emergency situation. Picture 4. Personality profiles for effective and not effective decision makingEmergency events of the current reality raise an issue of necessity of developmentand practical application of real instruments aimed at assessment and improvementof efficiency of decision making in extreme living conditions and professional situa-tions, as well as of maximum use of individual regulatory and personality resourcesfor increasing efficiency of decisions made under ES conditions.METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHThe present research is carried out within the framework of a regulatory approachto decision making. Studies of researchers of self-regulation psychology laboratory According to the results, DM parameters of information acquisition and situationof the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education show that well- evaluation in decision making significantly positively correlate with a regulatoryformed conscious self-regulation system as an ability to manage and organize one’s feature of Modelling of significant operational conditions (r=0,37; p<0,01) andown activities for achievement of stated objectives ensures efficiency of profession- (r=0,39; p<0,01) correspondingly. Acquisition of the necessary information andal activities of specialists (Konopkin O.A., Morosanova V.I., Osnitskiy A.K., Oboznov situation evaluation are the essential preparatory stage of decision making andA.A., etc.) imply that a subject creates a model of conditions crucial for decision making. In an emergency situation it is evaluation of means necessary for liquidationAccording to our assumptions, regulatory sphere in decision making provides con- of its consequences, required resources, level of specialists training, etc. (Seescious control and management of one’s own activity on all stages of decision makingand implementation, ensuring decision planning and programming activities, mod- picture 1.)elling of significant decision conditions, introduction of necessary corrections to de- Formation of subjective task representation in decision making requires that acision, assessment of results and consequences of the decision made. The conscious specialist clearly states objectives of activities and provides high level of Au-self-regulation system makes it possible to mobilize personality and cognitive re- tonomy. According to the obtained results, formation of subjective task repre-sources of a person in order to solve a lot of practical tasks. sentation as a decision making stage is positively related to regulatory featuresFrom the regulatory approach positions we determine decision making as a process of Autonomy (r=0.78; p<0.01) and Goal planning (r=0.53; p<0.01).consisting in conscious comparison by the subject of decision alternatives, takinginto account his/her objectives, acquisition of information necessary for analysis of Construction of alternatives as one of the basic decision making parameterssignificant external and internal conditions, choice of methods and means of deci- significantly positively correlates with a regulatory feature of Programmingsion implementation, as well as conscious assessment of its results and consequences (r=0.54; p<0.01) and elaboration of an executive action programme – Program-(Morosanova V.I., Indina T.A., 2006, 2009). ming (r=0.33; p<0.01). The choice of decision alternative significantly positively Picture 3. Regulation profiles in effective and not effective decision making correlates with the feature of regulatory Flexibility (r=0.70; p<0.001) – an abilityWe suppose that onscious self-regulation system of a person plays a key role on all to reorganize an action programme taking into account changing circumstances, Specialists with the highest decision making efficiency are characterized withstages of decision preparation and organization. It enables involvement of person- and a regulatory feature of Results assessment (r=0.32; p<0.05) – ability of a pronounced regulatory features of result assessment, modelling of significantality and cognitive resources in the decision making process, thus providing man- subject to forecast and evaluate consequences of decisions made. operational conditions, decision programming. Personality particularities of spe-agement and control over efficiency of the decision to be made on the part of con- cialists who are highly efficient in decision making include such pronouncedsciousness. Decision implementation significantly positively correlates with Programming features as Openness to new experience, Rationality, Agreeableness. (r=0.41; p<0.01) and reveals in stage-wise performance of focused actions aimed at implementation of the decision made. Specialists with low decision making efficiency are characterized with low level of development of the basic regulatory features and high level of neuroticismMETHOD, PROCEDURE & MEA- Picture 2. Relations between decision making effectiveness with self-regu- lation and personality traits. and readiness to risk.SURES As it follows from the obtained results of an empirical research, decision making efficiency depends, first of all, on development in extreme profile specialistsHypothesis of our research consisted in an assumption that there is an interrelation of such features as Agreeableness, Rationality, Openness to new experience,between intensity of regulatory and personality features and specificity of decision as well as training of their conscious self-regulation system, i.e. ability to con-making in ES; and efficiency of decision making of specialists in ES is ensured by sciously control their activities and, therefore, decision making. Developed abil-means of regulatory and personality differences. ity of situation analysis and control is an indispensable component of efficientResearch sample decision making.The total research sample amounted to 180 persons – extreme profile specialists Complexes of regulatory and personality features pointed out in our research(officers, rescuers and firemen, bodyguards and personnel of security services of serve as mechanisms enabling efficient making of decisions by specialists inMoscow and Republic of Tatarstan) – aged from 24 to 60 years. emergency situations.Research methods Our research proves that decision making efficiency and personality components are interrelated through conscious self-regulation system. Regulatory sphere- To assess development of regulatory sphere and study the role of regulatory provides involvement of individual personality features in a decision makingmechanisms in decision making a questionnaire “Self-Regulation Profile Question- process, which allows to increase its efficiency as a whole, as well as efficiencynaire” (SPQ) by Morosanova V.I. (2004), including such scales as Goal planning, of certain stages thereof.Actions programming, Conditions modelling, Result assessment, as well as such reg-ulatory and personality features as Flexibility and Autonomy, was used; High level of conscious self-regulation and related subject personality features of Agreeableness, Rationality, Openness to new experience – conditions the- To study personality decision making features a technique “Personality Factors probability that decisions that such specialist would make in emergency situa-Of Decision Making” by Kornilova T.V. (2003), allowing to detect Rationality andRisk readiness, was used; tions will be efficient.- To study particular personality qualities of subjects a questionnaire NEO PI-R (Rus-sian version adapted by Oryol G., Senin I., 2003) was used;- To study specificity of decision making a questionnaire “Decision Making in Emer- FINDINGS & CONCLUSIONSgency Situations” and an authorial experimental model “Decision Making in Emer- 1)    The carried out research of regulatory and personality features of extreme pro-gency Situations”, containing real decision making situations from professional ex- file specialists allowed to identify and describe parameters important for assessmentperience of rescuers, were developed. According to the obtained research results, overall efficiency of a decision is of decision making efficiency in ES– information acquisition, situation evaluation, based on developed Modelling of significant conditions (r=0.67; p<0.01), Assess- formation of subjective task representation, construction and choice of alternative,Development of an experimental model for assessment of efficiency of decision decision implementation.making in emergency situations ment of decision result (r=0.52; p<0.01) and General level of self-regulation system (r=0.52; p<0.01). (See Picture 2) 2)    There were determined significant interrelations between each of decisionPreliminary work for development of an experimental model for assessment of de- making parameters and regulatory and personality features of subjects. Generalcision making extreme profile specialists included: According to the results of the research of interrelations between decision mak- ing and personality features on the basis of NEO PI-R questionnaire, it was es- decision making efficiency positively correlates with development of a general lev-- information acquisition by means of observation of professional activities of offi- tablished that Information acquisition in decision making significantly positively el of conscious self-regulation system, regulatory features of Modelling and Resultcers of the EMERCOM search-and-rescue detachments (SRD), correlates with a personality feature of Openness to new experience (r=0.33; assessment, as well as personality features of Openness to new experience, Agree- ableness and Rationality. p<0.01). A decision index of Situation evaluation (r=0.45;p<0.01) significantly- questioning with the use of the developed authorial questionnaire “Decision making relates to a personality feature of Openness to experience. Readiness to per-in emergency situations”, 3)    Specialists with the highest decision making efficiency are characterized with ceive and consider new information ensures a more adequate and impartial as- pronounced regulatory features of result assessment, modelling of significant oper-- analysis of official documents (rescuers training standards, qualifying require- sessment of an emergency situation during decision making. The parameters ational conditions, decision programming. Personality particularities of specialistsments, professional rescuer textbook), of Construction of alternatives (r=0.19; p<0.05) and Decision implementation who are highly efficient in decision making include such pronounced features as (r=0.27; p<0.05) turn out to be positively correlated with a personality feature Openness to new experience, Rationality, Agreeableness. Specialists with low deci-- analysis of video-materials of professional activities and drills of members of of Agreeableness – readiness of specialists to work in team and take concerted sion making efficiency are characterized with low level of development of the basicsearch-and-rescue detachments, actions for liquidation of ES consequences. regulatory features and high level of neuroticism and readiness to risk.- carrying out of expert interviews (with head of detachment, shift supervisors, duty Choice of alternative in decision making negatively correlates with a personal 4)    Self-regulation processes enable organization of a decision making process, pro-officers, rescuers), feature of Neuroticism (r=0.32; p<0.05) and positively correlates with a person- vide conscious control thereof on the part of consciousness, determine involvement ality feature of Conscientiousness (r=0.21; p<0.05), which is understood in this of necessary personality resources in decision making process. Conscious self-regu-- carrying out of a focus-group with EMERCOM rescuers, lation system development plays a key role in providing decision making efficiency case as scrupulousness, punctuality and reliability in performing professional- modelling of decision making situations by means of practical tasks with the help tasks. According to the obtained results, general efficiency of decision making of extreme profile specialists in emergency situations.of experts. of extreme profile specialists in ES is related to intensity of such personality features as Openness to new experience (r=33, p<0,01) Agreeableness (t=0,35,The carried out research enabled description of basic stages of decision making inthe professional activities of extreme profile specialists. It was stated that decisionmaking in the conditions of ES includes the following stages: p<0,05) and Rationality (r=0,27, p<0,05). REFERENCES The obtained results show that there is a specificity of interrelation between 1. Indina T. “Self-regulation determinants of decision making in emergency situa--acquisition of information on ES; decision making efficiency and intensity of personality and regulatory features tions”, WASET (World Academy of science, engineering and technology) Paris, of a subject. 2009-    situation evaluation (analysis of ES conditions and necessary response tech- 2. Indina T. “Personality and regulation determinants of decision making in emer-niques); gency situations”, Abstracts of 14 biennial conference of International society Regulatory and personality profiles of specialists with high and low decision for the study of individual differences, Evanston, Illinois 18-22 July 2009-    formation of subjective task representation; making efficiency. 3. T.Indina and V. Morosanova. Regulation and personality mechanisms of decision making of decision making in emergency situations, abstracts of ARP Confer--    construction of decision alternatives; Obtained data on interrelation of personality and regulation factors providing ence, Evanston, Illinois 18-22 July 2009. decision making efficiency led us to assume that regulatory and personality pro- 4. Indina, T. Self-regulation and personality as key factors of decision making in-    choice of alternative; files of efficient and inefficient decision making specialists will be different. To extreme professions /Indina, T// Abstracts of ECP 15, Brno, Czech republic-    decision implementation; prove this assumption we used a method of comparison of marginal (extreme) 20-24 July 2010, Р. 164. groups. 5. Indina, T., Morosanova V. Self-regulation and personality factors in decision-    general efficiency of a decision to be made. making effectiveness of extreme professions’ specialists’ activity /Indina, Separation of extreme groups with high and low decision making efficiency out T, Morosanova, V //, ICAP -2010, Melbourne, Australia 11-16 July 2010, Р.In the model “Decision making in emergency situations” specialists were offered of the total sample allowed us to build typical profiles taking into account in- analyze a series of practical situations requiring decision making; these implied tensity of regulatory and personality features of the tested. In extreme groups 6. Indina T.A., Morosanova V.I. Personality types and individual differences in de-both choice of one of the given alternatives, and a possibility to suggest one’s own were included the tested persons whose decision making efficiency indices were cision making // 13th European conference on personality (July 22-26, Athens,decision algorithm. +/- 1 of the standard deviation from mean. As a result we obtained a group of Greece): Conference program and abstracts book. Athens, 2006. Р.236.      37 specialists with high decision making efficiency and a group of 29 specialists 7. Kornilova T.V. Psychology of risk and decision making. – Мoscow.: Aspekt-Press,An expert assessment served as the basic method of assessment of decision making with low decision making efficiency. In order to determine regulatory specificityefficiency of specialists. 2003. P:240. (in Russian) of marginal groups, they were compared using the Student’s t-criterion. 8. Konopkin O.A. Psychic self-regulation of human voluntary activity (structureOverall efficiency of decision making of each person tested was assessed as a sum and functional aspects)// Questions of psychology -1995,1. P 5-12. (in Russian)of marks for each of the decision parameters. 9. Oryol V.E., Rukavishnikov A.A., Senin I.G. NEO PI-R Russian version adaptation, Yaroslavl, 2003. (License № 52220 9.10.97.) (in Russian) 10.Morossanova V.I. (1991) Style peculiarities of personality self-regulation. Ques- tions of Psychology (in Russian), 1, 121-127RESULTS & DISCUSSION 11.Morossanova V.I. (1998) The individual style of self-regulation in human volun- tary activity) Moscow: Science. (in Russian)Interrelation between decision making efficiency, personality features and 12.Morosanova V.I. Self-regulation profile questionnaire// Moscow- 2004. (in Rus-self-regulation sian)On the initial stage of identification of interrelations between indices of deci-sion making efficiency and personal features, conscious self-regulation process-es there was carried out a correlation analysis (Pearson corr) of indices on thebasis of the total sample of the tested. The obtained results prove that there is