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Role of Bureaucracy
in formulation of
foreign policy
Introduction
• Decision making in foreign policy analysis tends to explain
the approach to the study of international poli...
Interpretation of terms
• Foreign policy is a strategy or
combination of strategies carefully
formulated by one state for ...
Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy is any large-scale organization of appointed
officials whose primary function is to implement the
...
Models of foreign policy making
The Rational model
Bureaucratic/organizational model
Pluralist model
Psychological/Psychoa...
Bureaucracies and foreign policy
• Historical background
 In the early 1960s Huntington, Crozier, Schilling and his
colle...
Allison Theory of Bureaucratic politics
In 1970 Allison and his followers developed the empirical insights in to
theory.
...
He proposed two alternative models Viz.
Organizational process model or Model II
Model II is claiming that governmental ag...
 The explanatory power of model II proved to be limited, particularly
in relation to foreign policy change and innovation...
Role of Bureaucracy in formulation of
Foreign policy
According to Bureaucratic Politics Model Bureaucracy’s role is given ...
Role of Bureaucracy in formulation of
Foreign policy
2. Bureaucracies tend to develop common attitudes and shared
images. ...
Role of Bureaucracy in formulation of
Foreign policy
3. Bureaucracies also derive influence over foreign policy from
their...
CASE STUDY : CUBAN MISSILE
CRISIS
• Bureaucratic politics was first applied to the Cuban missile crisis.
• Allison explain...
CASE STUDY : CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
• Model III focuses attention on the politics inside a government (Allison, 1999).
• Pol...
Initial critiques
• By Stephen Krasner
• The BPM is misleading as it obscures the president’s power in making and
implemen...
Conclusion
To conclude it is to say that bureaucracy is an important institution of the state
whose functions have been pr...
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Role of bureaucracy in formulation of foreign policy.

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role of bureaucracy in formulation of foreign policy according to Allison.

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Role of bureaucracy in formulation of foreign policy.

  1. 1. Role of Bureaucracy in formulation of foreign policy
  2. 2. Introduction • Decision making in foreign policy analysis tends to explain the approach to the study of international politics and explains why and how states behave the way they behave in the international arena. However, in the quest for decision making, there are actors involved in which one of the actors is the state bureaucracy. • “National bureaucracies have been at the heart of foreign policy analysis” (Steve Smith, 2008).
  3. 3. Interpretation of terms • Foreign policy is a strategy or combination of strategies carefully formulated by one state for maintaining relationship with other states and non state actors for protection and promotion of national interests. Foreign policy
  4. 4. Bureaucracy Bureaucracy is any large-scale organization of appointed officials whose primary function is to implement the policies of the decision makers. It is a rational system or organized structure designed to permit the efficient and effective execution of public policy. (Tasie, 1997).
  5. 5. Models of foreign policy making The Rational model Bureaucratic/organizational model Pluralist model Psychological/Psychoanalytical model
  6. 6. Bureaucracies and foreign policy • Historical background  In the early 1960s Huntington, Crozier, Schilling and his colleagues became interested in the impact of bureaucracies on foreign policy.  This developing of bureaucratic politics theory provides empirical insights into how the administrative structures of government affect foreign policy.
  7. 7. Allison Theory of Bureaucratic politics In 1970 Allison and his followers developed the empirical insights in to theory. Allison challenges what he calls the “Rational policy model” which attempts to understand happenings as the more or less purposive acts of unified national government. Allison and his followers argue that although in many instances the rational policy model may be useful, but it neglects the role of bureaucracy in determining foreign policy.
  8. 8. He proposed two alternative models Viz. Organizational process model or Model II Model II is claiming that governmental agencies with semi- autonomous power having a interest in the process of decision making. Bureaucratic Politics model or Model III Model III focuses attention on the politics inside a government (Allison, 1999). Policies are characterized neither by a unitary actor nor as an organizational output but rather a result of serious bargaining games among the players in the national government.
  9. 9.  The explanatory power of model II proved to be limited, particularly in relation to foreign policy change and innovation.  The critics claimed that it was not clear whether the model III was separate from or merely an extension of Model II.  Eventually the organizational model was collapsed into BPM
  10. 10. Role of Bureaucracy in formulation of Foreign policy According to Bureaucratic Politics Model Bureaucracy’s role is given hereunder. 1. Bureaucrats generate outputs that structure the situation in policy makers take decisions. what outputs include?  The information bureaucracies provide to government.  The foreign policy alternatives presented for government to choose for.  And standard operating procedures (SOPs) which shape how foreign policy decisions ultimately are implemented.
  11. 11. Role of Bureaucracy in formulation of Foreign policy 2. Bureaucracies tend to develop common attitudes and shared images. These attitudes and shared play a role in framing how a particular foreign policy issue or event is perceived by foreign policy makers. For example, when considering a security issue the treasury tends to focus on the budgetary implications, the department of defense on repercussions for national security.
  12. 12. Role of Bureaucracy in formulation of Foreign policy 3. Bureaucracies also derive influence over foreign policy from their positions in the power-sharing structure comprising state and government in which these large organizations and political actors have individual interests.
  13. 13. CASE STUDY : CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS • Bureaucratic politics was first applied to the Cuban missile crisis. • Allison explained the Cuba Missile Crises of October 1962 between United State of America and the Soviet Union in three models. • Model I explains governmental action as a result of a monolithic and unified decision of the state as the sole foreign policy decision maker and taker for the state. • Model II explains the decision of the state as an organizational output. It explores the nature of organizations based on their Standard Operational Procedures.
  14. 14. CASE STUDY : CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS • Model III focuses attention on the politics inside a government (Allison, 1999). • Policies are characterized neither by a unitary actor nor as an organizational output but rather a result of serious bargaining games among the players in the national government. • Allison’s argument is that there can’t be a governmental decision without some debates or consultations. • In the Model III, the reality of the crisis, the American Blockade of Cuba and the withdrawal of Soviet missiles from Cuba summarizes it all. It was a long process of debate and arguments before President Kennedy could push up a decision as to how to deal with the missiles planted in Cuba by the Soviet forces which is a danger in view for America.
  15. 15. Initial critiques • By Stephen Krasner • The BPM is misleading as it obscures the president’s power in making and implementing the foreign policy. • The US president can make choices and control the bureaucracies at their disposal particularly in the foreign policy matters. • The BPM does not account accurately for how and to what extent bureaucracies during the process of implementation of will subvert the government’s foreign policy intent. • The BPM methodology is also criticized for its over reliance on the ‘game’ metaphor.
  16. 16. Conclusion To conclude it is to say that bureaucracy is an important institution of the state whose functions have been primarily policy execution, however, the influence of bureaucracy had gone beyond the execution of policies alone, and it has pervaded through the policy formulation process and the policy itself. Therefore, the role of bureaucracy is far more than just the implementation of foreign policy but rather it remains one of the key actors involved in the making of the policy through dialogue, debate, conflict and compromise.

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