Paper translation & translating by i wayan suryasa
TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETINGDefinition According to Brislin (1976: 1) translation is a general term referring to the transfer ofthoughts and ideas from one language to another, whether the language is in written or oral form,whether the languages have established orthographies or not; or whether one or both languages isbased on signs, as with signs of the deaf. Translation takes place in writing and interpreting is itsoral counterpart. Written translation covers wide range of fields: sacred text (Bible&Vedas),scientific text, legal, economic, medical and literary. Based on Catford (1965), translation is thereplacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in anotherlanguage (TL) and Newmark (1988: 5) defines translation is rendering the meaning of a text intoanother language in the way that the author intended the text. On the other hand, interpreting deals with oral translation in which the rendering of themessage is conducted immediately after the utterances delivered by the speaker, in specialcommunication, to bridge participants „gap in language between the addresser and the addresseeand the rendering is delivered by the help of an interpreting as a mediator. According toPohhacker (2004), interpreting is a form translation in which a first and the final rendition inanother language are produced on the basis of one time presentation of an utterance in a sourcelanguage. In addition to Setton (1999) notes that interpreting is a process by which spokenlanguage or utterances take place in one language which is intended or presumed to convey thesame meaning as previously existing utterances in another language.The Differences between Translation and Interpreting Interpreting and translation are two closely related linguistic disciplines. Both writtentranslation and interpreting are belonged to the field of translation studies but the focus of theattention is different one another. Written translation covers the fields on the written text rangingfrom scientific documents, legal, economic, sacred text, literary text and manual. Writtentranslation is not delivered directly but in certain time according to the need of the client and canuse the aid of dictionaries, team work and prove readers as well as the help of expert in whichtype of the text is going to be translated. In term of time duration, written translation may acquiremore time before it is considered as a final work.
Interpreting (oral translation) focuses on the time of the rendering immediately after thedelivery of the utterances from the speaker, the interpreter renders the message of the speaker tothe hearer. Interpreting as an oral translation is delivered in communication situation, where theneed attention is focused on the message of the utterances of the SL and the transfer of themessage to the TL.TypesThere are several types of interpreting: simultaneous, consecutive, liaisonSimultaneous interpreting: The interpreter starts to translate before the speaker has finished his/her utterance. Mostoften used at large events such as conferences and carried out by panels of at least twointerpreters using special equipment. As this type of work is particularly tiring and stressful, therule of thumb is that an interpreter should be able to take a break after 45 minutes of continuouswork.Liaison interpreting:A generic name for business interpreting; also just interpreting for trade conventions and othergeneral business situations. Usually refers to the activities of a single interpreter whoaccompanies an individual or delegation around.Consecutive interpreting:The interpreter starts to translate only after the speaker has finished his/her utterance. Often usedat smaller conferences etc., generally used in courtroom settings, speeches. Just one interpreter isoften enough.Interpreting Process In other to be able to interpret a text (presented orally), the interpreter must be able toreceive and understand the incoming message then express its meaning in the target language. To
accomplish this task, the interpreter must go though the overlapping series of cognitiveprocessing activity, i.e. a. Attending the message b. Concentrating on the task at hand c. Remembering the message d. Comprehending the meaning of the message e. Analyzing the meaning for the message f. Visualizing the message non verbally, and g. Finally reformulating the message in the target language. Selescovtch (1978) compresses these tasks into “the immediate and deliberate discardingof the wording and retention of the mental representation of the message,” and interpreters oftenrefer to this as “dropping form”. By discarding the form (words, structure,etc) of the source textthe interpreter is free to concentrate on extracting and analyzing the meaning of the text, andconceiving the strategies for formulating the message in the target language. She also points outthere is a practical reason for interpreter to discard the form of the source language text, as thereis only so much that a person can hold in their short term memory. If the interpreter receives thesource text the information passes initially through his/her short term memory. If the interpreterdoes not do anything with this information it will soon disappear. Smith (1985) notes that short term memory has a very short duration. We can remembersix or seven items only as long as we give all our attention to them. If an interpreter will bequickly filled with an individual lexical item, which may not even compose a full sentence. Asthe limitation of short term memory that interpreter is required to drop form and concentrate ofmeaning. Bothe Smith and Selescovitch propose that meaningful segment of a great size can beplaced into a long term memory and retrieved after. Of course, a chunk of information must beunderstood in order to be meaningful.
Translation processes The translation processes implies an entire process of how a translator producesequivalences between a text and portions of a text into another language. The translation processcan be described as: Decoding the meaning of the source text, and Re-encoding or translating this meaning in the target language. Behind this simple process lies various activities like checking grammar, syntax, idioms,semantics, and the like of the source language and also the culture of its speakers. The translatorneeds in depth knowledge in decoding and then re-encoding the meaning in the target language.In many cases, it is necessary that the translators knowledge of the target language is moreimportant than his knowledge of the source language.The following is the process that is usually followed by all to ensure a well written, accuratetranslation: a) Original text (source language) b) Analyzing c) Drafting d) Revising e) Finalizing f) Translation text (target language)