Identifiers: Their Care and Feeding - Best Practices and New Developments for Scholarly Publishers Institutional Identifiers Helen Henderson Ringgold
Purpose of Institutional Identifiero Identify institutions of all types. Each identifier will be globally unique and will represent sufficient metadata to differentiate institutions unambiguously.o Identify institutions engaged in the selection, purchase, licensing, storage, description, management and delivery of information (“information supply chain”).
What is the need?o Marketingo Licensingo Delivery and entitlementso Access rightso Hierarchy
Organizationso D-U-N-S …. and many tax related o OCLC Symbol identifiers o Library identifier o Related to corporate entities o Maintained by OCLCo ISIL (International Standard o ISNI (International Standard Identifier for Libraries - ISO Name Identifier – ISO 27729) 15511) o Recently adopted o Libraries only o Emphasis on individuals o National agencies o Central registry o Registration agencieso MARC Org Code o Library identifier o Maintained by LC
More organizationso OCLC WorldCat Registry ID o Library identifier o Voluntary registration and maintenanceo NISO I2 o International Institutional Identifier o Hierarchical structure with relationships o Identifies “licensing units”o Ringgold Identifier o 220,000 institutions or institutional entities o Worldwide, all categories o Used by over 50 publishers and agents
Peopleo ISNI (International Standard Name Identifier) o “Names” include people and organizations o Initial emphasis rights holders o Maintained by International ISNI Agency (consortium of national libraries and bibliographic utilities)o Virtual International Authority File o Jointly run by LC, BnF, DNB and OCLC o Implemented and hosted by OCLC o ~20 files from around the world o 13 million name records o 10 million clusters o Plan to include other names • Corporations, works, geographics, families, imaginary characters, etc.
More Peopleo Proprietary Author Identifiers o Scopus (Elsevier) o Scholar Universe (COS) o Researcher ID (Thomson Reuters) o RePEc (Research Paper in Economics)o ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) o Open version of Thomson Reuter’s Researcher ID o Most ‘social’ • Claiming IDs; Interactive verification of associated works; Pulling together several current initiatives o Driven by STM, university communities o Primarily interested in researchers; Large number of participants o Mostly concerned with present and future names
Pain Points – Information Chain Workflowo Missing issues – subscription not startingo Lost access to electronic journalso Confusion over renewalso Problems with titles that moved to a new publisher.o Resolve issues with identifiero Accurate (and quick) entry of ordero Change in agentso Change in publisherso Change in online hostso Update in IP ranges
NISO I2o Working Group of stakeholders o Libraries o Archives o Consortia o Subscription agents o Distributors o Publishers o Hosting Services o Bibliographic utilities
Existing Identifiers Investigated for use with I2Identifier Name Current StatusISIL (ISO 15511) International StandardOCLC symbol OCLC specificOCLC WorldCat Registry ID OCLC specificMARC organization code MARC standardISNI (ISO 27729) ISO 27729SAN Standard address number NISO standard Z39.43-1993GLN Global location number GS1 (formerly EAN international)DUNS Data Universal Numbering Dun and BradstreetInternational Standard for Describing Institutions with New standard 2008 – International Council on ArchivesArchival Holdings Information (ISDIAH)
Metadata RequirementsData Element Sub-Element or Attribute Definition Functioninstitution Identifier attribute: typeOrSource String of characters serving to uniquely identify an institution Identify, Obtain Alternative or supplementary identifier that identifies analternate Identifier attribute: typeOrSource Find, Identify, Obtain institution Primary or preferred name under which an institutionalname language Find, Identify, Select entity or organization operatestype Primary type of institution Find, Identify Other names (legal, common, etc.) by which an institution isVariant Name usageDate: from, language Find known country, state or region, city, Group of data elements that give a geographic location orlocation Identify, Select language place associated with an institutionURL Uniform resource locator to the website of the institution Identify, Selectdomain Domain(s) registered to the institutional entity Identify, Select Complex element for any related organization that is important for either differentiating the organization beingRelated organization identifier Find, Identify, Select registered from other organizations or to uniquely identify the organization being registered. Uniform resource locator to contact information for theContact information Find institution Free text field for addition of information considerednote Select necessary for further clarificationtype type of institution Find, Identify
Features and Attributeso Can identify all organizations in the information supply chaino Be opaqueo Support the creation a core metadata set that describes an institutiono Support registration of institutions in a decentralized mannero Address community-specific registry needso Allow URI(s) from 3rd-party registries to be submitted and stored
Central registryo Assign identifiers to new institution recordso Store core metadata about those institutionso Provide look-up services to allow participating member registries to see if an institution has already been identifiedo Provide one or more web-based Application Programming Interfaces (APIs)
ISNIo Comparing metadatao Canvassing for Registration Agencieso www.isni.orgo www.niso.org/workrooms/i2