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20.11.2018
Roman Pickl
Wait a moment? How high
workload kills efficiency!
2© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
• Technical Project Manager @ Elektrobit
• Former CTO @ Fluidtime (now a Kapsch company)
• Loves CI/CD/DevOps
• Here to learn
Roman Pickl (@rompic)
How did I end up here?
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
3© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
https://youtu.be/BeNdum6u6eg?t=2081
Andrew Shafer, DevOpsDays Cairo 2018
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
4© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Tom DeMarco, 2001, Slack: Getting Past Burnout, Busywork, and the Myth of Total Efficiency
Efficiency vs. Effectiveness
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
Efficiency vs. Effectiveness
By Xwizard35 - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=58355021
5© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Symptoms of overload
• Decreased team morale
• Working long hours / when sick
• More frequent illness
• Unhealthy tasks queue
• Imbalanced metrics
• …
How the team currently looks like
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
100 90130
6© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
It hurts …
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
… again and again
7© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Source unknown
No thanks, too busy
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
8© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
What your manager thinks should be done
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
100 100 100 20 20
From another
team with a
project on
hold
9© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingman%27s_formula
https://less.works/less/principles/queueing_theory.html
• Different types of queues (e.g. G/G/1)
• Waiting Time:
– Service time
– Utilization
– Variation in process and arrival
• Kingman Equation / approximation
• Little’s Law:
– Avg. Lead Time = Avg. WiP / Avg. Throughput
 Focus on throughput rather than utilization
Queuing theory
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95%
Waittime
Wait Time = (%Busy)/(% Idle)
10© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Source: https://www.eaglecreek.com/blog/how-escape-quicksand
Feels like quicksand
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
The more you fight it, the more it pulls you in.
11© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
“slack is the missing ingredient required for all change”
Invest roughly a day per week to
- Spur innovation
- Rethink
- Practice new ways
- Master new skills
- Improve efficiency.
Scrum: sustainable pace
3Ms 15% time
Google’s 20% time
Hard limit on toil at Google SRE: 50%
#2 SRE principle: SREs must have time to make tomorrow
better than today
What you think should be done: hire more people
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
80 80 80 80
12© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
What actually happens
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
YOU
„People under time pressure don‘t think faster“ - Tim Lister
13© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
KC Green
It sometimes takes a crisis
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
14© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
2018 Accelerate State of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
Quantify the work: Activity Accounting
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
15© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Hydrargyrum
Flow time
– Lead time
– Cycle time
Frequency of deployment
Mean time to restore services
WiP is the biggest deterrent to flow
What is the biggest bottleneck?
Can we fix the bottleneck?
Ask why (5 times),
Measure
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
16© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
https://xkcd.com/303/
XKCD - Compiling
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
17© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
A Practical Approach to Large-Scale Agile Development – Gruver, Young, Fulghum
Principles of Lean Product Managment by Jez Humble - https://youtu.be/cH6bnQzJojo?t=1083
"A Practical Approach to Large Scale Agile Development" - Gary Gruver at Spark 2013
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QGYEwghRSM
• Tendency to do more planning / estimation and more control
• Accept uncertainty and appreciate flexibility
• Decreasing marginal utility of each hour spend planning
• Every hour spent planning is an hour not delivering (as
resources often overlap)
• Lightweight capacity planning
• Just-in-time approach
• Prioritize e.g. by cost of delay
Lightweight Capacity Management
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
18© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
• Reduce WiP
• Reduce batch size
• Reduce variability / increase predictability
• Do less
• Self service platform
• Eliminate before you try to automate
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
Do less (at the same time)
- = +
Less is More
19© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Picture: https://moduscreate.com/blog/automation-what-why-when/
• Make time to create automation
• Documenting the process and making it repeatable is the first
step
• Automate, eliminate or engineer out the drivers that are not
key to the value proposition
– New work – hard to automate
– Triage work – automate for consistency
– Repetitive work – automate
• Fix the biggest bottleneck first
Automate
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
20© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
The Practice of Cloud System Administration
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
Left-Over Principle
DifficultEasy
Frequent
Rare
Acquire
Document
Manual
Automate
Hire
Create Tools
Eliminate
21© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Demarco T, Slack: Getting Past Burnout, Busywork and the Myth of Total Efficiency, page 108ff
Forsgren N., Humble J., Gene K. Accelerate p. 12 ff
Accelerate State of DevOps Report 2018 p. 28ff
A word of caution
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
The paradox of automation
22© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
“Improving your software delivery effectiveness will improve your ability to work in small
batches and incorporate customer feedback along the way”
“Lean product management practices positively impact software delivery performance,
stimulate a generative culture, and decrease burnout”
“[…] software delivery performance drives Lean product management practices”
“[…] it becomes a reciprocal model or, colloquially, a virtuous cycle” – Accelerate
Virtuous circle
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
23© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mrother/Homepage.html
Improvement Kata
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
24© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
The Practice of Cloud System Administration
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
Prioritization of Improvement
High ImpactLow Impact
Easy
Hard
Priority
1
Priority
2
Priority
4
Priority
3
25© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 25
Based on Virtuous Circle of CI/CD The Site Reliability Workbook
Virtuous Circle
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
More release / test
automation /
improvements
Faster releases / more
time for new work
More frequent releases /
smaller batches / less WiP
Fewer changes per
release / lower lead time
Fewer bugs per release /
faster feedback/ higher
confidence / lower
variability and rework
More time to automate /
test / lower utilization /
decreased burnout /
higher job satisfaction
26© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Spent 1 day a week to improve “something”
Created self service pipelines
Used Information radiators
Clear priorities and weekly goals
How it ended up working:
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
80 80 80
27© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Crisis situations are opportunities for change
Often it takes fresh eyes or at least courage to see the problems
Get out of the quicksand, the sky is the limit
Quantify the work and set goals
Measure
Less is more
Automate the right things
Establish a continuous improvement process
Start a virtuous circle
Conclusion
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
28© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
Read these if you want to know more
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
29© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
We don‘t let our servers get to 100%
capacity utilization, so let‘s not do that
to ourselves
Dominica DeGrandis – Making work visible
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
30© Elektrobit (EB) 2018
• Daniel Vacanti: Little‘s (F)law: https://vimeo.com/52683659
• Håkan Forss, Queueing theory in software development - ALEBathtub 2011-06-30, https://de.slideshare.net/HkanForss/queueing-theory-in-
software-development-ale-bathtub-2011-0630
• GOTO 2015 • Why Scaling Agile Doesn't Work • Jez Humble - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zYxWEZ0gYg&feature=youtu.be&t=3003 (it
often takes a disaster for lasting change)
• John Cutler – Too Busy to Improve https://anchor.fm/john-cutler/episodes/Too-Busy-To-Improve-for-Roman-e2ap3i
• 2018 Accelerate State of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html
• Dominica DeGrandis - Making Work Visible: How to Unmask Capacity Killing WIP - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KR7Y8IUgyyA
• Keynote: Continuous Delivery Sounds Great By Jez Humble @ Agile India 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SjVV3xuYKJs
• A Practical Approach to Large Scale Agile Development"- Gary Gruver at Spark 2013 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QGYEwghRSM
• High-Performance Team, Management, and Leadership Behaviors and practices https://devops-
research.com/assets/transformation_practices.pdf
• John Cutler - This feels like going faster vs. this actually makes us faster https://twitter.com/johncutlefish/status/1029757026895720449
• John Cutler – Slack vs. Blocked https://medium.com/@johnpcutler/slack-vs-blocked-16c294938b1
• Mike Rother - http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mrother/Homepage.html
Further references & information
Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
Roman Pickl (@rompic)
roman.pickl@elektrobit.com
www.elektrobit.com
Don’t wait and get in touch

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Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! @DevOpsDays Warsaw 2018

  • 1. 20.11.2018 Roman Pickl Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 2. 2© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 • Technical Project Manager @ Elektrobit • Former CTO @ Fluidtime (now a Kapsch company) • Loves CI/CD/DevOps • Here to learn Roman Pickl (@rompic) How did I end up here? Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 3. 3© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 https://youtu.be/BeNdum6u6eg?t=2081 Andrew Shafer, DevOpsDays Cairo 2018 Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 4. 4© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Tom DeMarco, 2001, Slack: Getting Past Burnout, Busywork, and the Myth of Total Efficiency Efficiency vs. Effectiveness Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! Efficiency vs. Effectiveness By Xwizard35 - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=58355021
  • 5. 5© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Symptoms of overload • Decreased team morale • Working long hours / when sick • More frequent illness • Unhealthy tasks queue • Imbalanced metrics • … How the team currently looks like Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! 100 90130
  • 6. 6© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 It hurts … Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! … again and again
  • 7. 7© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Source unknown No thanks, too busy Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 8. 8© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 What your manager thinks should be done Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! 100 100 100 20 20 From another team with a project on hold
  • 9. 9© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingman%27s_formula https://less.works/less/principles/queueing_theory.html • Different types of queues (e.g. G/G/1) • Waiting Time: – Service time – Utilization – Variation in process and arrival • Kingman Equation / approximation • Little’s Law: – Avg. Lead Time = Avg. WiP / Avg. Throughput  Focus on throughput rather than utilization Queuing theory Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% Waittime Wait Time = (%Busy)/(% Idle)
  • 10. 10© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Source: https://www.eaglecreek.com/blog/how-escape-quicksand Feels like quicksand Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! The more you fight it, the more it pulls you in.
  • 11. 11© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 “slack is the missing ingredient required for all change” Invest roughly a day per week to - Spur innovation - Rethink - Practice new ways - Master new skills - Improve efficiency. Scrum: sustainable pace 3Ms 15% time Google’s 20% time Hard limit on toil at Google SRE: 50% #2 SRE principle: SREs must have time to make tomorrow better than today What you think should be done: hire more people Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! 80 80 80 80
  • 12. 12© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 What actually happens Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! YOU „People under time pressure don‘t think faster“ - Tim Lister
  • 13. 13© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 KC Green It sometimes takes a crisis Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 14. 14© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 2018 Accelerate State of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html Quantify the work: Activity Accounting Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 15. 15© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Hydrargyrum Flow time – Lead time – Cycle time Frequency of deployment Mean time to restore services WiP is the biggest deterrent to flow What is the biggest bottleneck? Can we fix the bottleneck? Ask why (5 times), Measure Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 16. 16© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 https://xkcd.com/303/ XKCD - Compiling Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 17. 17© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 A Practical Approach to Large-Scale Agile Development – Gruver, Young, Fulghum Principles of Lean Product Managment by Jez Humble - https://youtu.be/cH6bnQzJojo?t=1083 "A Practical Approach to Large Scale Agile Development" - Gary Gruver at Spark 2013 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QGYEwghRSM • Tendency to do more planning / estimation and more control • Accept uncertainty and appreciate flexibility • Decreasing marginal utility of each hour spend planning • Every hour spent planning is an hour not delivering (as resources often overlap) • Lightweight capacity planning • Just-in-time approach • Prioritize e.g. by cost of delay Lightweight Capacity Management Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 18. 18© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 • Reduce WiP • Reduce batch size • Reduce variability / increase predictability • Do less • Self service platform • Eliminate before you try to automate Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! Do less (at the same time) - = + Less is More
  • 19. 19© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Picture: https://moduscreate.com/blog/automation-what-why-when/ • Make time to create automation • Documenting the process and making it repeatable is the first step • Automate, eliminate or engineer out the drivers that are not key to the value proposition – New work – hard to automate – Triage work – automate for consistency – Repetitive work – automate • Fix the biggest bottleneck first Automate Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 20. 20© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 The Practice of Cloud System Administration Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! Left-Over Principle DifficultEasy Frequent Rare Acquire Document Manual Automate Hire Create Tools Eliminate
  • 21. 21© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Demarco T, Slack: Getting Past Burnout, Busywork and the Myth of Total Efficiency, page 108ff Forsgren N., Humble J., Gene K. Accelerate p. 12 ff Accelerate State of DevOps Report 2018 p. 28ff A word of caution Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! The paradox of automation
  • 22. 22© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 “Improving your software delivery effectiveness will improve your ability to work in small batches and incorporate customer feedback along the way” “Lean product management practices positively impact software delivery performance, stimulate a generative culture, and decrease burnout” “[…] software delivery performance drives Lean product management practices” “[…] it becomes a reciprocal model or, colloquially, a virtuous cycle” – Accelerate Virtuous circle Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 23. 23© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mrother/Homepage.html Improvement Kata Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 24. 24© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 The Practice of Cloud System Administration Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! Prioritization of Improvement High ImpactLow Impact Easy Hard Priority 1 Priority 2 Priority 4 Priority 3
  • 25. 25© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 25 Based on Virtuous Circle of CI/CD The Site Reliability Workbook Virtuous Circle Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! More release / test automation / improvements Faster releases / more time for new work More frequent releases / smaller batches / less WiP Fewer changes per release / lower lead time Fewer bugs per release / faster feedback/ higher confidence / lower variability and rework More time to automate / test / lower utilization / decreased burnout / higher job satisfaction
  • 26. 26© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Spent 1 day a week to improve “something” Created self service pipelines Used Information radiators Clear priorities and weekly goals How it ended up working: Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency! 80 80 80
  • 27. 27© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Crisis situations are opportunities for change Often it takes fresh eyes or at least courage to see the problems Get out of the quicksand, the sky is the limit Quantify the work and set goals Measure Less is more Automate the right things Establish a continuous improvement process Start a virtuous circle Conclusion Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 28. 28© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 Read these if you want to know more Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 29. 29© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 We don‘t let our servers get to 100% capacity utilization, so let‘s not do that to ourselves Dominica DeGrandis – Making work visible Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!
  • 30. 30© Elektrobit (EB) 2018 • Daniel Vacanti: Little‘s (F)law: https://vimeo.com/52683659 • Håkan Forss, Queueing theory in software development - ALEBathtub 2011-06-30, https://de.slideshare.net/HkanForss/queueing-theory-in- software-development-ale-bathtub-2011-0630 • GOTO 2015 • Why Scaling Agile Doesn't Work • Jez Humble - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zYxWEZ0gYg&feature=youtu.be&t=3003 (it often takes a disaster for lasting change) • John Cutler – Too Busy to Improve https://anchor.fm/john-cutler/episodes/Too-Busy-To-Improve-for-Roman-e2ap3i • 2018 Accelerate State of DevOps Report: https://cloudplatformonline.com/2018-state-of-devops.html • Dominica DeGrandis - Making Work Visible: How to Unmask Capacity Killing WIP - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KR7Y8IUgyyA • Keynote: Continuous Delivery Sounds Great By Jez Humble @ Agile India 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SjVV3xuYKJs • A Practical Approach to Large Scale Agile Development"- Gary Gruver at Spark 2013 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QGYEwghRSM • High-Performance Team, Management, and Leadership Behaviors and practices https://devops- research.com/assets/transformation_practices.pdf • John Cutler - This feels like going faster vs. this actually makes us faster https://twitter.com/johncutlefish/status/1029757026895720449 • John Cutler – Slack vs. Blocked https://medium.com/@johnpcutler/slack-vs-blocked-16c294938b1 • Mike Rother - http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mrother/Homepage.html Further references & information Wait a moment? How high workload kills efficiency!