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Guided by,
Prof. P.S. Pisal
Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Presented by,
Pratik S. Kapase
M.Pharm 1st year
(Pharmaceutical Chemistry)
TGA DATA INTERPRETATION
PUNE DISTRICT EDUCATIONASSOCIATION’S
Seth Govind Raghunath Sable Pharmacy College, Saswad, Pune
Subject: Advanced Spectral Analysis
CONTENT
INTRODUCTION TGA DATA INTERPRETATION IN
TGA
FACTOR AFFECTING ON
DATA INTERPRETAION
CONCLUSION REFERENCE
LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
To Know About
Factors Affecting
DATA
INTERPRETAON
To Know
About
TGA
To Know About
DATA
INTERPREATION
INTRODUCTION
 Definition: Thermogravimetric Analysis is a technique in which the mass
of a substance is monitored as a function of temperature or time as the
sample specimen is subjected to a controlled temperature program in a
controlled atmosphere.
 Definition: TGA is a technique in which, upon heating a material, its
weight increases or decreases. A Simple TGA Concept to remember:
TGA measures a sample’s weight as it is heated or cooled in a furnace
 A TGA consists of a sample pan that is supported by a precision balance.
That pan resides in a furnace and is heated or cooled during the
experiment. The mass of the sample is monitored during the experiment.
A sample purge gas controls the sample environment. This gas may be
inert or a reactive gas that flows over the sample and exits through an
exhaust.
TGA
Thermal
Curve
A TGA thermal curve is displayed from left to right. The descending TGA
thermal curve indicates a weight loss occurred. A 15.013 mg sample of calcium
carbonate was analyzed. Temperature Program = Heat from 100 °C to 900 °C
@ 10 °C/minute in Nitrogen atmosphere with a purge rate of 20 mL/minute
SAMPLE HANDLING
 We must first list all pertinent information we know about the sample before we can analyze the data.
 In this case of calcium carbonate we know: • CaCO3 is an irritant!; so be careful handling the sample
 wear eye protection and It is hygroscopic (it absorbs or attracts moisture from the air).
 Upon heating calcium carbonate it undergoes a reaction where bound CO2 is released from the material
and only calcium oxide remains after the experiment.
 CaCO3 CaO + CO2
Now we can fully investigate this material. The first calculation that could be done, just to ensure the sample is
pure, is to calculate the formula weight by substituting the atomic mass in the formula.
The measured values are almost exactly equal to the calculated values. The delta Y software calculation was used
to measure the “as-run” sample. So the first characteristic that we learn about this sample is that it is very pure.
Reproducibility
Reproducibility is the ability to create the same experiment over and over.
Reproducibility is very important when comparing one set of data to another. If
the experiment is reproduced the same each time then any variation within the
data is due to a change in the sample; not operator error! There six (6) TGA
operating variables that contribute to reproducibility:
• Calibration
• Furnace Cleanliness
• Sample Preparation
• Temperature Range
• Temperature Scanning Rate
• Sample Atmosphere
 Most TGA experiments use an inert sample purge gas. This is done so the sample only reacts to temperature during decomposition.
 When the sample is heated in an inert atmosphere this is called pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of organic
materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents.
 There are times when you may want to use a reactive sample purge gas, such as oxygen.
 When using oxygen as a purge gas you may want to switch gases from nitrogen to oxygen during the experiment. This is a common
technique to identify the percent carbon in a material.
TGAApplication curves
TGA be used to compare two (2) similar products
Here two (2) types of coffees are compared, Zimbabwe in blue and Columbian in red, using the same
method conditions. The solid lines are the weight loss curves and the dashed lines are their respective
derivatives. The differences are easily displayed, but it will take a coffee scientist to interpret the
significance of the difference
TGA be used as a QA/QC tool to ensure products meet their material specifications
Above is a fiberglass reinforced printed circuit board. This analysis determines the amount of resin and
the amount of fiberglass used in this material. The delta Y calculation was used to determine the
component percentages. Resin = 44.144%; Glass = 56.854%. The resin decomposes in two steps, first
rapidly, then slows as the last remaining resin decomposes
TGA be used to ensure product safety
Above is a three (3) component material, ABS – Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. This ABS has a high butadiene
concentration. The red weight loss curve shows three distinct weight losses representing each component. The
blue derivative curve has 3 peaks.
This confirms that there are three (3) distinct thermal events taking place in this experiment. The percent of each
component must be consistent for this product to provide useful and safe functionality. An alternate TGA
application is using TGAAuto Stepwise analysis to examine ABS.
TGA be used to determine carbon content
Here is an ethyl cellulose sample; the experiment utilized gas switching. This was done on a TGA
4000. The sample gas purge rate was 30 mL/minute for nitrogen and air. The gas-switch from
nitrogen to oxygen was triggered by a simple software command from within the sample method. The
delta Y percentage after the gas switch is the carbon content of this material.
TGA be used to identify a counterfeit product
Above is a sample of commercial grade gypsum run in static air from 50 °C to 1400 °C in the Pyris 1
TGA equipped with the High Temperature Furnace. The scanning rate was 10 °C/minute. The red
curve is the weight loss curve and its 1st derivative is the blue curve. The water loss of 18.5% begins at
the initial 50 °C mark and continues evolving up to 150 °C. The values were calculated using the onset
calculation and the delta Y calculation
TGA be used to identify safe operating temperatures
in various gases
Above is an example of a weight gain experiment. A manganese sample was run in a nitrogen atmosphere
on a Pyris 1 TGA with High Temperature Furnace. The sample purge rate was 30 mL/minute. The delta Y
calculation with calculation limits were arbitrarily set at 115 °C and 1190 °C. In this experiment the
weight gain is due to the formation of manganese nitride. When manganese is run in argon, there is no
weight change.
TGA be used to enhance product formulation processes
Above talc sample was run in static air from 50 °C to 1500 °C in the Pyris 1 TGA equipped with the High
Temperature Furnace. Scanning rate was 10 °C/ minute. The red curve is the weight loss curve and its 1st
derivative is the blue curve. Static air was used as a purge gas because talc is processed into a personal
healthcare product in that environment. A better understanding of when thermal events occur enables a
process to be optimized.
Conclusion
TGA analysis is widely used to characterize and verify materials. TGA
is applicable to most industries. Environmental, food science,
pharmaceutical, and petrochemical applications are the mainstay of
Thermogravimetric Analysis and Evolved Gas Analysis.
References
1.PerkinElmer Instrument Training
http://las.perkinelmer.com/Trainings/Courses.htm
2. PerkinElmer CorporateWebsite
http://www.perkinelmer.com/ PerkinElmer Nanomaterials Reference Library
http://www.perkinelmer.com/nano

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TGA.pptx

  • 1. Guided by, Prof. P.S. Pisal Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Presented by, Pratik S. Kapase M.Pharm 1st year (Pharmaceutical Chemistry) TGA DATA INTERPRETATION PUNE DISTRICT EDUCATIONASSOCIATION’S Seth Govind Raghunath Sable Pharmacy College, Saswad, Pune Subject: Advanced Spectral Analysis
  • 2. CONTENT INTRODUCTION TGA DATA INTERPRETATION IN TGA FACTOR AFFECTING ON DATA INTERPRETAION CONCLUSION REFERENCE
  • 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES To Know About Factors Affecting DATA INTERPRETAON To Know About TGA To Know About DATA INTERPREATION
  • 4. INTRODUCTION  Definition: Thermogravimetric Analysis is a technique in which the mass of a substance is monitored as a function of temperature or time as the sample specimen is subjected to a controlled temperature program in a controlled atmosphere.  Definition: TGA is a technique in which, upon heating a material, its weight increases or decreases. A Simple TGA Concept to remember: TGA measures a sample’s weight as it is heated or cooled in a furnace  A TGA consists of a sample pan that is supported by a precision balance. That pan resides in a furnace and is heated or cooled during the experiment. The mass of the sample is monitored during the experiment. A sample purge gas controls the sample environment. This gas may be inert or a reactive gas that flows over the sample and exits through an exhaust.
  • 5. TGA Thermal Curve A TGA thermal curve is displayed from left to right. The descending TGA thermal curve indicates a weight loss occurred. A 15.013 mg sample of calcium carbonate was analyzed. Temperature Program = Heat from 100 °C to 900 °C @ 10 °C/minute in Nitrogen atmosphere with a purge rate of 20 mL/minute
  • 6. SAMPLE HANDLING  We must first list all pertinent information we know about the sample before we can analyze the data.  In this case of calcium carbonate we know: • CaCO3 is an irritant!; so be careful handling the sample  wear eye protection and It is hygroscopic (it absorbs or attracts moisture from the air).  Upon heating calcium carbonate it undergoes a reaction where bound CO2 is released from the material and only calcium oxide remains after the experiment.  CaCO3 CaO + CO2
  • 7. Now we can fully investigate this material. The first calculation that could be done, just to ensure the sample is pure, is to calculate the formula weight by substituting the atomic mass in the formula. The measured values are almost exactly equal to the calculated values. The delta Y software calculation was used to measure the “as-run” sample. So the first characteristic that we learn about this sample is that it is very pure.
  • 8. Reproducibility Reproducibility is the ability to create the same experiment over and over. Reproducibility is very important when comparing one set of data to another. If the experiment is reproduced the same each time then any variation within the data is due to a change in the sample; not operator error! There six (6) TGA operating variables that contribute to reproducibility: • Calibration • Furnace Cleanliness • Sample Preparation • Temperature Range • Temperature Scanning Rate • Sample Atmosphere
  • 9.  Most TGA experiments use an inert sample purge gas. This is done so the sample only reacts to temperature during decomposition.  When the sample is heated in an inert atmosphere this is called pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents.  There are times when you may want to use a reactive sample purge gas, such as oxygen.  When using oxygen as a purge gas you may want to switch gases from nitrogen to oxygen during the experiment. This is a common technique to identify the percent carbon in a material. TGAApplication curves
  • 10. TGA be used to compare two (2) similar products Here two (2) types of coffees are compared, Zimbabwe in blue and Columbian in red, using the same method conditions. The solid lines are the weight loss curves and the dashed lines are their respective derivatives. The differences are easily displayed, but it will take a coffee scientist to interpret the significance of the difference
  • 11. TGA be used as a QA/QC tool to ensure products meet their material specifications Above is a fiberglass reinforced printed circuit board. This analysis determines the amount of resin and the amount of fiberglass used in this material. The delta Y calculation was used to determine the component percentages. Resin = 44.144%; Glass = 56.854%. The resin decomposes in two steps, first rapidly, then slows as the last remaining resin decomposes
  • 12. TGA be used to ensure product safety Above is a three (3) component material, ABS – Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. This ABS has a high butadiene concentration. The red weight loss curve shows three distinct weight losses representing each component. The blue derivative curve has 3 peaks. This confirms that there are three (3) distinct thermal events taking place in this experiment. The percent of each component must be consistent for this product to provide useful and safe functionality. An alternate TGA application is using TGAAuto Stepwise analysis to examine ABS.
  • 13. TGA be used to determine carbon content Here is an ethyl cellulose sample; the experiment utilized gas switching. This was done on a TGA 4000. The sample gas purge rate was 30 mL/minute for nitrogen and air. The gas-switch from nitrogen to oxygen was triggered by a simple software command from within the sample method. The delta Y percentage after the gas switch is the carbon content of this material.
  • 14. TGA be used to identify a counterfeit product Above is a sample of commercial grade gypsum run in static air from 50 °C to 1400 °C in the Pyris 1 TGA equipped with the High Temperature Furnace. The scanning rate was 10 °C/minute. The red curve is the weight loss curve and its 1st derivative is the blue curve. The water loss of 18.5% begins at the initial 50 °C mark and continues evolving up to 150 °C. The values were calculated using the onset calculation and the delta Y calculation
  • 15. TGA be used to identify safe operating temperatures in various gases Above is an example of a weight gain experiment. A manganese sample was run in a nitrogen atmosphere on a Pyris 1 TGA with High Temperature Furnace. The sample purge rate was 30 mL/minute. The delta Y calculation with calculation limits were arbitrarily set at 115 °C and 1190 °C. In this experiment the weight gain is due to the formation of manganese nitride. When manganese is run in argon, there is no weight change.
  • 16. TGA be used to enhance product formulation processes Above talc sample was run in static air from 50 °C to 1500 °C in the Pyris 1 TGA equipped with the High Temperature Furnace. Scanning rate was 10 °C/ minute. The red curve is the weight loss curve and its 1st derivative is the blue curve. Static air was used as a purge gas because talc is processed into a personal healthcare product in that environment. A better understanding of when thermal events occur enables a process to be optimized.
  • 17. Conclusion TGA analysis is widely used to characterize and verify materials. TGA is applicable to most industries. Environmental, food science, pharmaceutical, and petrochemical applications are the mainstay of Thermogravimetric Analysis and Evolved Gas Analysis.
  • 18. References 1.PerkinElmer Instrument Training http://las.perkinelmer.com/Trainings/Courses.htm 2. PerkinElmer CorporateWebsite http://www.perkinelmer.com/ PerkinElmer Nanomaterials Reference Library http://www.perkinelmer.com/nano