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SEASONAL
CHANGES
OF FOOD
DR. SHRUTI BAID
MD. NUTRITION AND
DIETETICS
JR1
Season is a division of the
year based on changes in
weather, ecology and the
number of daylight hours in a
given region.
Seasons are a result of the
axial parallelism of Earth’s
tilted orbit around the sun.
The tilt of 23.5 degree affects
the distribution of the sun’s
energy across the surface of
the planet
Seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature
affect soil, moisture, evaporation rates, river flow,
lake levels and snow cover.
These changes in vegetation affect the type and
amount of food available for humans and other
organism.
There are two definitions of
SEASONAL FOOD
GLOBAL SEASONALITY
Food that is outdoor grown or
produced during the natural
growing / production period for
the country or region where it is
produced. It need not necessarily
be consumed locally to where it is
produced.
LOCAL SEASONALITY
Food that is produced and
consumed in the same climatic
zone without high energy use
for climatic modification or
storage
• Spring, summer, monsoon, autumn,
late autumn and winter are the six
seasons of the year. Seasons are created
by the changing amount of sunlight as
the earth orbits the sun.
• Weather conditions in a country are
known as the climate. The climate
determines which foods can grow and
when.
• Seasonal foods are fruits and vegetables
that are ripe and ready in a particular
season. They will no longer grow when
the weather changes.
PERCEPTION OF SEASONAL FOOD
• Seasonal food is often associated with locally produced food, better
quality food or limited food choice and for some it is food associated
with annual cultural events
• Local and seasonal fruit and vegetables are often described as tastier,
fresher and better quality than the equivalent imported produce or
those produced out of season
• It is also often viewed as more expensive, less convenient, more time
consuming to source and limits the variety of food in the diet, which
would inhibit the purchase of only seasonal food
• Seasonal foods are sometimes associated with food items eaten at
specific times of the year linked to cultural events rather than the
natural growing or production seasons. Foods such as chocolate eggs
at Easter or turkey at Christmas that are abundant in shops only at
certain times of the year can give the perception of being seasonal
food.
As adaptations according to the changes is the key for survival, the knowledge of
regimen (RITUCHARYA) for various seasons is thus important.
People do not know or ignore the suitable types of food, dressing and other regimen to
be followed in particular season which leads to derangement of homeostasis and causes
various disease such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension etc.
Lifestyle disorder are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their
environment.
The year according to Ayurveda is
divided into two periods Ayana
(solstice) depending on the direction of
movement of sun that is Uttarayana
(northern solstice) and Dakshinayana
(southern solstice).
It is the form in which the nature expresses itself in a sequence in particular and
specific in present forms in short, the seasons. Each is formed of three Ritu
UTTARAYANA
Sun and wind are powerful
Sun takes away the strength of
the people and the cooling
quality of the Earth.
Increase in TIKTA(bitter),
KASHAYA(astringent),
KATU(pungent) rasa which
brings about dryness in the body
and reduces the bala(strength).
In modern science, it is seen on
21st June every year
DAKSHINAYANA
Moon is more powerful.
Unctuousness is set in the
atmosphere.
Increase in AMLA(sour),
LAVANA(salty),
MADHURA(sweet) rasa are
predominant.
Strength of the people enhances.
Winter solstice is seen on
21st December every year.
It has been said that the tridosha
theory in Ayurveda originated from
the theory of the three elements of the
universe. The names of these three
doshas, which are roughly equivalent
to humour, are
• vata (wind),
• pitta (bile), and
• Kapha (phlegm),
corresponding to the three elements
of the universe: air, fire, and water.
GENERAL CONDITION
 Mid-January to mid-March (approximately) is considered as
Shishira Ritu (winter).
 During this season, the environment remains cold, along with
cold wind.
 The predominant Rasa and Mahabhuta during this season are
Tikta (bitter) and Akasha, respectively.
LIFESTYLE
 Massage with oil/powder/paste
 Bathing with lukewarm water
 Exposure to sunlight
 Wearing warm clothes
 Vata aggrevating lifestyle like exposure to cold wind, excessive
walking, sleep at late night are to be avoided
DIET REGIMEN
 Food having Amla (sour) as the predominant taste are
preferred.
 Cereals and pulses, wheat/gram flour products, new rice, corn
are advised.
 Ginger, garlic, haritaki, pippali, sugarcane products, milk and
milk products are encouraged to be consumed.
 Food having katu(pungent), tikta(bitter), Kashaya(astringent)
predominant rasa to be avoided.
 Laghu(light) and shita(cold) food are advised to be prohibited.
VEGETABLES
• Artichokes
• Arugula
• Avocados
• Beets
• Broccoli
• Brussel sprouts
• Butternut squash
• Cabbage
• Carrots
• Cauliflower
• Kale
• Leek
• Lettuce
• Parsnip
• Potatoes
• Radishes
• Spinach
• Wild mushrooms
FRUITS
• Apples
• Cranberries
• Grapefruit
• Kiwi
• Kumquats
• Mandarins
• Oranges
• Pears
• Pomegranate
• Tangerines
• Chestnuts
CEREALS, GRAINS
AND PULSES
• Wheat
• Barley
• Oats
• Chickpea
• Rye
• Sunflower
• Lentils
DAIRY
•Butter
•Cottage Cheese
•Ghee
•Milk (not cold)
•Soy milk
NUTS &
SEEDS
•Cashews
•Macadamia
•Peanuts
•Pumpkin seeds
•Pistachios
•Sunflower
•Walnuts
HERBS
• Green onion
• Lavender
• Celery
Cold
Influenza
Chronic bronchitis
Pneumonia
Acute bronchitis
Functional constituents of plant-based foods boost
immunity against acute and chronic disorders.
Waseem Khalid
Open Life Sciences
2022
Bronchitis – spinach and pumpkin seeds (1)
Cold and cough - Raw almonds, hazelnuts, seeds, and cruciferous vegetables
(such as broccoli and kale). (2)
Pneumonia - nuts, seeds, beans, kale, lettuce, spinach, oranges, berries, and
kiwis. (3)
1. Beausoleil JL, Fiedler J, Spergel JM. Food intolerance and childhood asthma. Pediatr Drugs. 2007;9(3):157–63.
10.2165/00148581-200709030-00004. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
2. Sumayya S, Parveen S, Hussain MA, Nayak SS. Role of diet in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. World J
Biol Pharm Heal Sci. 2021;5(3):53–63. 10.30574/wjbphs.2021.5.3.0026. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
3. Kieliszek M, Lipinski B. Selenium supplementation in the prevention of coronavirus infections (COVID-19. Med
Hypotheses. 2020;143:109878. 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109878. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
GENERAL CONDITION
Approximate time is from mid – march to mid – may
Season of flowering and origin of new leaves.
Pre dominant rasa – Kashaya(astringent)
Predominant Mahabhuta – prithvi and vayu.
Strength of person remains in medium state.
LIFESTYLE
 Use warm water for bathing.
 May do exercise
 Udvartana (massage) with Chandan powder, kesara, agaru etc.
 Kavala(gargle), dhooma(smoking), anjana(collyrium) and
evacuative measure such as vamana and nasya are advised.
 Day sleep is strictly prohibited
DIET REGIMEN
 Easily digestible foods
 Food item tasting tikta(bitter), katu(pungent), and
Kashaya(astringent) are to be taken.
 Honey to be included in diet
 Food that are hard to digest to be avoided.
 Those which are cold, viscous, heavy, sour, and sweet are not
preferred
 New grains, curd, cold drinks are prohibited.
VEGETABLES
• Artichokes
• Arugula
• Asparagus
• Beans
• Broccoli
• Brussel sprouts
• Carrots
• Cauliflower
• Scallions
• Radishes
• Spinach
• Wild mushrooms
• Rhubarb
• Radishes
FRUITS
• Apricots
• Blueberries
• Grapefruit
• Kiwi
• Cherries
• Grapefruit
• Oranges
• Pears
• Pineapple
• Melons
• Limes
• Watermelon
• Banana
CEREALS, GRAINS
AND PULSES
• Old barley
• Wheat
• Rice
• Lentils
• Mugda
DAIRY
•Butter
•Buttermilk
•Cheese
•Cottage Cheese
•Ghee
•Milk (not cold)
•Soy milk
NUTS &
SEEDS
•Cashews
•Macadamia
•Peanuts
HERBS
• Mint
• Sage
• Oregano
• Chives
• Thyme
• parsley
Asthma
Gastroenteritis
Flu
Eczema
Conjunctivitis
Asthma - carrots and leafy green vegetables like spinach, pumpkin seeds,
Raw almonds, hazelnuts, seeds, and cruciferous vegetables (such as
broccoli and kale) (1,2)
Gastroenteritis – ginger(3), BRAT diet( Banana, Rice, Applesauce,
Toast)(4), watermelon
Eczema - bell peppers, Oranges, strawberries, Broccoli, tomatoes(5)
Conjunctivitis - apples, oranges, pears, grapes, pineapples and
grapefruits, Bananas, carrots and spinach, whole milk, curds, butter,
carrots, pumpkins, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, mangoes and
papayas.(6)
1. Beausoleil JL, Fiedler J, Spergel JM. Food intolerance and childhood asthma. Pediatr Drugs. 2007;9(3):157–63. 10.2165/00148581-200709030-00004. [PubMed]
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
2. Sumayya S, Parveen S, Hussain MA, Nayak SS. Role of diet in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. World J Biol Pharm Heal Sci. 2021;5(3):53–63.
10.30574/wjbphs.2021.5.3.0026. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
3. Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J. Ginger: history and use. Adv Ther. 1998 Jan-Feb;15(1):25-44. PMID: 10178636.
4. Churgay CA, Aftab Z. Gastroenteritis in children: Part II. Prevention and management. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Jun 1;85(11):1066-70. PMID: 22962878.
5. Schwingshackl L, Morze J, Hoffmann G. Mediterranean diet and health status: Active ingredients and pharmacological mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol. 2020 Mar;177(6):1241-1257. doi:
10.1111/bph.14778. Epub 2019 Jul 25. PMID: 31243760; PMCID: PMC7056467.
6. https://www.healthlibrary.com/reading-room.php?action=view&id=16&cid=441
GENERAL CONDITION
Mid – may to mid – July
Environment is prevalent with intense heat and
unhealthy winds.
Predominant rasa – katu(pungent)
Predominant Mahabhuta – Agni and vayu
Strength is very less
Deposition of Vata Dosha occurs
LIFESTYLE
Staying in cool places.
Applying sandalwood and other aromatic paste over
the body.
Wearing light dress.
Day time sleeping are helpful.
Excessive exercise or hard work is to be avoided.
Alcoholic preparations are prohibited.
DIET REGIMEN
Food light to digest
Those having madhura, snigdha(unctuous), sheeta
and drava(liquid) are to be taken.
Lavana and food with katu(pungent), amla(sour),
and ushna(warm) food are to be avoided.
VEGETABLES
• Beets
• Bell peppers
• Chillies
• Corn
• Cauliflower
• Eggplant
• Garlic
• Green beans
• Jalapeno
• Lettuce
• Okra
• Onions
• Peas
• Potatoes
• Radishes
• Onion
• Spinach
• Soy beans
• Tomatoes
FRUITS
• Apples
• Apricots
• Watermelons
• Coconut
• Peaches
• Melons
• Loquat
• Limes
• Mango
• Banana
• Lychee
• Guava
CEREALS, GRAINS
AND PULSES
• Greengram,
• Blackgram
• Cowpea
• Rice
• Barley
• Matki
DAIRY
•Buttermilk
•Lassi
•Curd
•Milk
•Cheese
NUTS &
SEEDS
• Walnut
• Fig
• Cashews
• Almonds
• Raisins
HERBS
• Mint
• Sage
• Oregano
• Chives
• Thyme
• parsley
Asthma
Chickenpox
Food poisoning
Dehydration
Sun stroke
• Chickenpox – sweet potatoes, avocado, beans and
lentils, rice, toast, broccoli, Kale, Cucumbers,
spinach(1)
• Food Poisoning – bananas, Cereal, Honey,
Oatmeal, plain potatoes, including mashed potatoes,
rice, Toast, applesauce(2)
• Dehydration – coconut water(3), watermelon(4),
milk(5)
1. Kampe, J., Tschöp, M., Horvath, T., & Widmer, P. (1970, January 1). Neuroendocrine integration of body weight regulation. Semantic
Scholar. Retrieved May 1, 2023, from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Neuroendocrine-Integration-of-Body-Weight-Kampe-
Tsch%C3%B6p/a3fe28b567969215be02803336f96674d766a768
2. Krans, B. (2022, January 23). What to eat and drink after food poisoning to treat symptoms. Healthline. Retrieved May 4, 2023, from
https://www.healthline.com/health/food-nutrition/what-to-eat-after-food-poisoning#what-to-do-after
3. Kalman DS, Feldman S, Krieger DR, Bloomer RJ. Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration
and physical performance in exercise-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Jan 18;9(1):1. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-1. PMID: 22257640; PMCID:
PMC3293068.
4. https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/167765/nutrients
5. Maughan RJ, Watson P, Cordery PA, Walsh NP, Oliver SJ, Dolci A, Rodriguez-Sanchez N, Galloway SD. A randomized trial
to assess the potential of different beverages to affect hydration status: development of a beverage hydration index. Am J
Clin Nutr. 2016 Mar;103(3):717-23. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.114769. Epub 2015 Dec 23. PMID: 26702122.
GENERAL CONDITION
 Mid-July to mid-September
 Sky is covered by clouds and rain occur without
thunderstorm.
 Predominant rasa – Amla(sour)
 Predominant Mahabhuta – Prithvi and Agni
 Strength of the person again decreases.
LIFESTYLE
 Use of boiled water for bath
 Rubbing the body with oil after bath.
 Medicated basti(enema) to be taken.
 Getting wet in rain, day-sleep, exercise, hard work
etc. are prohibited
DIET REGIMEN
 Food having Amla(sour), Lavanya(salty) and
Sneha(unctuous) qualities to be taken
 Soups to be included
 Medicated water or boiled water to be consumed
 Heavy and hard to digest food to be avoided.
VEGETABLES
• Cucumber
• Tomato
• Radish
• Beans
• Green chillies
• Brinjal
• Lady finger
• Bottle gourd
• Bitter gourd
• Potato
• Sweet potato
• Corn
FRUITS
• Mosambi
• Pear
• Apple
• Jamun
• Pomegranate
• Cherries
• Avocados
CEREALS, GRAINS
AND PULSES
• Old barley
• Old rice
• Old wheat
• Muesli
• Oats
DAIRY
• Buttermilk
• Yoghurt
• Cheese kefir
• Soybean
NUTS &
SEEDS
• Walnut
• Dates
• Cashews
• Almonds
HERBS
• Mint
• Sage
• Oregano
• Chives
• Thyme
• parsley
Dengue
Malaria
Chikungunya
Typhoid
Dengue, Malaria, Chikungunya, Typhoid are the common
ailments in monsoon season which has some common
symptoms such as fever, weakness and body ache.
1. Garlic
2. Yoghurt
3. Avocados
4. Spinach
1. (Lissiman E, Bhasale AL, Cohen M. Garlic for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov
11;2014(11):CD006206. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006206.pub4. PMID: 25386977; PMCID: PMC6465033)
2. King S, Glanville J, Sanders ME, Fitzgerald A, Varley D. Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy
children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions: a systematic review and meta-
analysis. Br J Nutr. 2014 Jul 14;112(1):41-54. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514000075. Epub 2014 Apr 29. PMID:
24780623; PMCID: PMC4054664.
3. Sales-Campos H, Souza PR, Peghini BC, da Silva JS, Cardoso CR. An overview of the modulatory effects of oleic
acid in health and disease. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013 Feb;13(2):201-10. PMID: 23278117.
4. Sales-Campos H, Souza PR, Peghini BC, da Silva JS, Cardoso CR. An overview of the modulatory effects of oleic
They have antiviral, anti-inflammatory
properties.
Yoghurt helps to maintain the gut
microbes which help in easy digestion of
food.
GENERAL CONDITION
 Mid September – mid November
 Sun becomes bright, sky remains clear; sometimes
with white cloud.
 Earth is covered with wet mud.
 Predominant rasa – Lavanya (salty)
 Predominant Mahabhuta – apa and agani
 medium level of strength
LIFESTYLE
 Eat food when there is feeling of hunger
 Water purified by rays of sun and rays of moon in night
should be consumed for drinking and bathing purpose
 People are advised to wear flower garlands and apply
Chandana paste
 Medical procedure such as Virechna(purging), rakta
mokshana( blood letting)
 Should be done during this season
 Day sleep, excessive eating, excessive exposure to sunlight
etc are to be avoided
DIET REGIMEN
 Food having Madhura(sweet),
tikta(bitter), and of laghu(light to
digest) and cold properties are advised
 Hot, bitter, astringent, food to be
avoided.
 Food items such as fat, oil curd etc are
also to be not included in diet.
VEGETABLES
• Cucumber
• Tomato
• Radish
• Beans
• Green chillies
• Brinjal
• Lady finger
• Bottle gourd
• Bitter gourd
• Potato
• Sweet potato
• Corn
FRUITS
• Mosambi
• Pear
• Apple
• Jamun
• Pomegranate
• cherries
CEREALS, GRAINS
AND PULSES
• Old barley
• Old rice
• Old wheat
• Muesli
• Oats
NUTS &
SEEDS
• Walnut
• Dates
• Cashews
• Almonds
• Hazelnuts
HERBS
• Green onion
• Lavender
• Celery
Allergies
Common cold
Sore throat
Flu
Arthritis
Sinusitis
• Common cold - Raw almonds, hazelnuts, seeds, and
cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli and kale). (1)
• Arthritis – garlic(2), ginger(3), walnuts(4), spinach(5)
• Flu, sore throat, sinusitis - herbal tea can be included
such as tulsi, turmeric, consumption of warm food and
lukewarm water.
1. Sumayya S, Parveen S, Hussain MA, Nayak SS. Role of diet in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. World J Biol Pharm Heal Sci. 2021;5(3):53–63.
10.30574/wjbphs.2021.5.3.0026. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
2. Moosavian SP, Paknahad Z, Habibagahi Z, Maracy M. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers, fatigue, and clinical symptoms in patients
with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2020 Nov;34(11):2953-2962. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6723. Epub 2020 Jun 1. PMID:
32478922.
3. Anh NH, Kim SJ, Long NP, Min JE, Yoon YC, Lee EG, Kim M, Kim TJ, Yang YY, Son EY, Yoon SJ, Diem NC, Kim HM, Kwon SW. Ginger on Human Health: A Comprehensive Systematic Review of 109 Randomized
Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 6;12(1):157. doi: 10.3390/nu12010157. PMID: 31935866; PMCID: PMC7019938.
4. Mateș L, Popa DS, Rusu ME, Fizeșan I, Leucuța D. Walnut Intake Interventions Targeting Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of
Randomized Controlled Trials. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Jul 21;11(7):1412. doi: 10.3390/antiox11071412. PMID: 35883903; PMCID: PMC9312161.
5. Hosseini B, Berthon BS, Saedisomeolia A, Starkey MR, Collison A, Wark PAB, Wood LG. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on inflammatory biomarkers and immune cell
populations: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Jul 1;108(1):136-155. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy082. PMID: 29931038.
GENERAL CONDITION
Mid-November to mid-January is considered as
Hemanta (late autumn) Ritu.
Blow of cold winds starts and chillness is felt.
Predominant Rasa during this season is Madhura
predominant Mahabhutas are Prithivi and Apa.
The strength of a person remains on highest grade
Activity of Agni is increased.
LIFESTYLE
Exercise
body and head massage
use of warm water
Atapa-sevana (sunbath)
application of Agaru on body
heavy clothing
residing in warm places is recommended.
Exposure to strong and cold wind, habit of day sleep, etc., are
mentioned to be avoided
DIET REGIMEN
One should use unctuous, sweet, sour, and salty foods.
Vata aggravating foods, such as Laghu (light), cold, and
dry foods are to be avoided.
Intake of cold drinks is also contraindicated.
Various meats, fats, milk and milk products, sugarcane
products, Shidhu (fermented preparations)
Tila (sesame), and so on, are also to be included in the
diet.
VEGETABLES
• Artichokes
• Arugula
• Avocados
• Beets
• Broccoli
• Brussel sprouts
• Butternut squash
• Cabbage
• Carrots
• Cauliflower
• Kale
• Leek
• Lettuce
• Parsnip
• Potatoes
• Radishes
• Spinach
• Wild mushrooms
FRUITS
• Apples
• Cranberries
• Grapefruit
• Kiwi
• Kumquats
• Mandarins
• Oranges
• Pears
• Pomegranate
• Tangerines
• Chestnuts
CEREALS, GRAINS
AND PULSES
• Wheat
• Barley
• Oats
• Chickpea
• Rye
• Sunflower
• Lentils
DAIRY
•Butter
•Buttermilk
•Cheese
•Cottage Cheese
•Ghee
•Milk (not cold)
•Soy milk
NUTS &
SEEDS
•Cashews
•Macadamia
•Peanuts
•Pumpkin seeds
•Pistachios
•Sunflower
•Walnuts
HERBS
• Green onion
• Lavender
• Celery
Cold
Influenza
Chronic bronchitis
Pneumonia
Acute bronchitis
less convenient
more
expensive
more time
consuming
limits the
variety of food
in the diet
REFERENCE
• Thakkar J, Chaudhari S, Sarkar PK. Ritucharya: Answer to the lifestyle
disorders. Ayu. 2011 Oct;32(4):466-71. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.96117.
PMID: 22661838; PMCID: PMC3361919.
• Nilesh Ganeshrao, B., Dattatraya Somaji, L., & Aparna Shrikrishna, P. (2015).
RITU (SEASON), RITUCHARYA AND PRAKRITI- A CONCEPTUAL
STUDY. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research, 2(2).
Retrieved from https://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/264
• https://conscioushealthymama.com/2019/07/24/seasonal-eating-pros-and-cons/
• Wilkins J, Bowdish E & Sobal J (2002) Consumer perceptions of seasonal and local
foods: a study in a U.S. community. Ecol Food Nutr 41, 415–439.
• Brooks M, Foster C, Holmes M et al. (2011) Does consuming seasonal foods
benefit the environment? Insights from recent research. Nut Bull 36, 449–453
SEASONAL CHANGES OF FOOD.pptx

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SEASONAL CHANGES OF FOOD.pptx

  • 1. SEASONAL CHANGES OF FOOD DR. SHRUTI BAID MD. NUTRITION AND DIETETICS JR1
  • 2. Season is a division of the year based on changes in weather, ecology and the number of daylight hours in a given region.
  • 3. Seasons are a result of the axial parallelism of Earth’s tilted orbit around the sun. The tilt of 23.5 degree affects the distribution of the sun’s energy across the surface of the planet
  • 4.
  • 5. Seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature affect soil, moisture, evaporation rates, river flow, lake levels and snow cover. These changes in vegetation affect the type and amount of food available for humans and other organism.
  • 6. There are two definitions of SEASONAL FOOD GLOBAL SEASONALITY Food that is outdoor grown or produced during the natural growing / production period for the country or region where it is produced. It need not necessarily be consumed locally to where it is produced. LOCAL SEASONALITY Food that is produced and consumed in the same climatic zone without high energy use for climatic modification or storage
  • 7. • Spring, summer, monsoon, autumn, late autumn and winter are the six seasons of the year. Seasons are created by the changing amount of sunlight as the earth orbits the sun. • Weather conditions in a country are known as the climate. The climate determines which foods can grow and when. • Seasonal foods are fruits and vegetables that are ripe and ready in a particular season. They will no longer grow when the weather changes.
  • 8. PERCEPTION OF SEASONAL FOOD • Seasonal food is often associated with locally produced food, better quality food or limited food choice and for some it is food associated with annual cultural events • Local and seasonal fruit and vegetables are often described as tastier, fresher and better quality than the equivalent imported produce or those produced out of season • It is also often viewed as more expensive, less convenient, more time consuming to source and limits the variety of food in the diet, which would inhibit the purchase of only seasonal food • Seasonal foods are sometimes associated with food items eaten at specific times of the year linked to cultural events rather than the natural growing or production seasons. Foods such as chocolate eggs at Easter or turkey at Christmas that are abundant in shops only at certain times of the year can give the perception of being seasonal food.
  • 9. As adaptations according to the changes is the key for survival, the knowledge of regimen (RITUCHARYA) for various seasons is thus important. People do not know or ignore the suitable types of food, dressing and other regimen to be followed in particular season which leads to derangement of homeostasis and causes various disease such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension etc. Lifestyle disorder are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment.
  • 10.
  • 11. The year according to Ayurveda is divided into two periods Ayana (solstice) depending on the direction of movement of sun that is Uttarayana (northern solstice) and Dakshinayana (southern solstice). It is the form in which the nature expresses itself in a sequence in particular and specific in present forms in short, the seasons. Each is formed of three Ritu
  • 12. UTTARAYANA Sun and wind are powerful Sun takes away the strength of the people and the cooling quality of the Earth. Increase in TIKTA(bitter), KASHAYA(astringent), KATU(pungent) rasa which brings about dryness in the body and reduces the bala(strength). In modern science, it is seen on 21st June every year
  • 13. DAKSHINAYANA Moon is more powerful. Unctuousness is set in the atmosphere. Increase in AMLA(sour), LAVANA(salty), MADHURA(sweet) rasa are predominant. Strength of the people enhances. Winter solstice is seen on 21st December every year.
  • 14.
  • 15. It has been said that the tridosha theory in Ayurveda originated from the theory of the three elements of the universe. The names of these three doshas, which are roughly equivalent to humour, are • vata (wind), • pitta (bile), and • Kapha (phlegm), corresponding to the three elements of the universe: air, fire, and water.
  • 16.
  • 17. GENERAL CONDITION  Mid-January to mid-March (approximately) is considered as Shishira Ritu (winter).  During this season, the environment remains cold, along with cold wind.  The predominant Rasa and Mahabhuta during this season are Tikta (bitter) and Akasha, respectively.
  • 18. LIFESTYLE  Massage with oil/powder/paste  Bathing with lukewarm water  Exposure to sunlight  Wearing warm clothes  Vata aggrevating lifestyle like exposure to cold wind, excessive walking, sleep at late night are to be avoided
  • 19. DIET REGIMEN  Food having Amla (sour) as the predominant taste are preferred.  Cereals and pulses, wheat/gram flour products, new rice, corn are advised.  Ginger, garlic, haritaki, pippali, sugarcane products, milk and milk products are encouraged to be consumed.  Food having katu(pungent), tikta(bitter), Kashaya(astringent) predominant rasa to be avoided.  Laghu(light) and shita(cold) food are advised to be prohibited.
  • 20. VEGETABLES • Artichokes • Arugula • Avocados • Beets • Broccoli • Brussel sprouts • Butternut squash • Cabbage • Carrots • Cauliflower • Kale • Leek • Lettuce • Parsnip • Potatoes • Radishes • Spinach • Wild mushrooms FRUITS • Apples • Cranberries • Grapefruit • Kiwi • Kumquats • Mandarins • Oranges • Pears • Pomegranate • Tangerines • Chestnuts CEREALS, GRAINS AND PULSES • Wheat • Barley • Oats • Chickpea • Rye • Sunflower • Lentils DAIRY •Butter •Cottage Cheese •Ghee •Milk (not cold) •Soy milk NUTS & SEEDS •Cashews •Macadamia •Peanuts •Pumpkin seeds •Pistachios •Sunflower •Walnuts HERBS • Green onion • Lavender • Celery
  • 22. Functional constituents of plant-based foods boost immunity against acute and chronic disorders. Waseem Khalid Open Life Sciences 2022 Bronchitis – spinach and pumpkin seeds (1) Cold and cough - Raw almonds, hazelnuts, seeds, and cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli and kale). (2) Pneumonia - nuts, seeds, beans, kale, lettuce, spinach, oranges, berries, and kiwis. (3) 1. Beausoleil JL, Fiedler J, Spergel JM. Food intolerance and childhood asthma. Pediatr Drugs. 2007;9(3):157–63. 10.2165/00148581-200709030-00004. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list] 2. Sumayya S, Parveen S, Hussain MA, Nayak SS. Role of diet in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. World J Biol Pharm Heal Sci. 2021;5(3):53–63. 10.30574/wjbphs.2021.5.3.0026. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list] 3. Kieliszek M, Lipinski B. Selenium supplementation in the prevention of coronavirus infections (COVID-19. Med Hypotheses. 2020;143:109878. 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109878. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • 23. GENERAL CONDITION Approximate time is from mid – march to mid – may Season of flowering and origin of new leaves. Pre dominant rasa – Kashaya(astringent) Predominant Mahabhuta – prithvi and vayu. Strength of person remains in medium state.
  • 24. LIFESTYLE  Use warm water for bathing.  May do exercise  Udvartana (massage) with Chandan powder, kesara, agaru etc.  Kavala(gargle), dhooma(smoking), anjana(collyrium) and evacuative measure such as vamana and nasya are advised.  Day sleep is strictly prohibited
  • 25. DIET REGIMEN  Easily digestible foods  Food item tasting tikta(bitter), katu(pungent), and Kashaya(astringent) are to be taken.  Honey to be included in diet  Food that are hard to digest to be avoided.  Those which are cold, viscous, heavy, sour, and sweet are not preferred  New grains, curd, cold drinks are prohibited.
  • 26. VEGETABLES • Artichokes • Arugula • Asparagus • Beans • Broccoli • Brussel sprouts • Carrots • Cauliflower • Scallions • Radishes • Spinach • Wild mushrooms • Rhubarb • Radishes FRUITS • Apricots • Blueberries • Grapefruit • Kiwi • Cherries • Grapefruit • Oranges • Pears • Pineapple • Melons • Limes • Watermelon • Banana CEREALS, GRAINS AND PULSES • Old barley • Wheat • Rice • Lentils • Mugda DAIRY •Butter •Buttermilk •Cheese •Cottage Cheese •Ghee •Milk (not cold) •Soy milk NUTS & SEEDS •Cashews •Macadamia •Peanuts HERBS • Mint • Sage • Oregano • Chives • Thyme • parsley
  • 28. Asthma - carrots and leafy green vegetables like spinach, pumpkin seeds, Raw almonds, hazelnuts, seeds, and cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli and kale) (1,2) Gastroenteritis – ginger(3), BRAT diet( Banana, Rice, Applesauce, Toast)(4), watermelon Eczema - bell peppers, Oranges, strawberries, Broccoli, tomatoes(5) Conjunctivitis - apples, oranges, pears, grapes, pineapples and grapefruits, Bananas, carrots and spinach, whole milk, curds, butter, carrots, pumpkins, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, mangoes and papayas.(6) 1. Beausoleil JL, Fiedler J, Spergel JM. Food intolerance and childhood asthma. Pediatr Drugs. 2007;9(3):157–63. 10.2165/00148581-200709030-00004. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list] 2. Sumayya S, Parveen S, Hussain MA, Nayak SS. Role of diet in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. World J Biol Pharm Heal Sci. 2021;5(3):53–63. 10.30574/wjbphs.2021.5.3.0026. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list] 3. Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J. Ginger: history and use. Adv Ther. 1998 Jan-Feb;15(1):25-44. PMID: 10178636. 4. Churgay CA, Aftab Z. Gastroenteritis in children: Part II. Prevention and management. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Jun 1;85(11):1066-70. PMID: 22962878. 5. Schwingshackl L, Morze J, Hoffmann G. Mediterranean diet and health status: Active ingredients and pharmacological mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol. 2020 Mar;177(6):1241-1257. doi: 10.1111/bph.14778. Epub 2019 Jul 25. PMID: 31243760; PMCID: PMC7056467. 6. https://www.healthlibrary.com/reading-room.php?action=view&id=16&cid=441
  • 29. GENERAL CONDITION Mid – may to mid – July Environment is prevalent with intense heat and unhealthy winds. Predominant rasa – katu(pungent) Predominant Mahabhuta – Agni and vayu Strength is very less Deposition of Vata Dosha occurs
  • 30. LIFESTYLE Staying in cool places. Applying sandalwood and other aromatic paste over the body. Wearing light dress. Day time sleeping are helpful. Excessive exercise or hard work is to be avoided. Alcoholic preparations are prohibited.
  • 31. DIET REGIMEN Food light to digest Those having madhura, snigdha(unctuous), sheeta and drava(liquid) are to be taken. Lavana and food with katu(pungent), amla(sour), and ushna(warm) food are to be avoided.
  • 32. VEGETABLES • Beets • Bell peppers • Chillies • Corn • Cauliflower • Eggplant • Garlic • Green beans • Jalapeno • Lettuce • Okra • Onions • Peas • Potatoes • Radishes • Onion • Spinach • Soy beans • Tomatoes FRUITS • Apples • Apricots • Watermelons • Coconut • Peaches • Melons • Loquat • Limes • Mango • Banana • Lychee • Guava CEREALS, GRAINS AND PULSES • Greengram, • Blackgram • Cowpea • Rice • Barley • Matki DAIRY •Buttermilk •Lassi •Curd •Milk •Cheese NUTS & SEEDS • Walnut • Fig • Cashews • Almonds • Raisins HERBS • Mint • Sage • Oregano • Chives • Thyme • parsley
  • 34. • Chickenpox – sweet potatoes, avocado, beans and lentils, rice, toast, broccoli, Kale, Cucumbers, spinach(1) • Food Poisoning – bananas, Cereal, Honey, Oatmeal, plain potatoes, including mashed potatoes, rice, Toast, applesauce(2) • Dehydration – coconut water(3), watermelon(4), milk(5) 1. Kampe, J., Tschöp, M., Horvath, T., & Widmer, P. (1970, January 1). Neuroendocrine integration of body weight regulation. Semantic Scholar. Retrieved May 1, 2023, from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Neuroendocrine-Integration-of-Body-Weight-Kampe- Tsch%C3%B6p/a3fe28b567969215be02803336f96674d766a768 2. Krans, B. (2022, January 23). What to eat and drink after food poisoning to treat symptoms. Healthline. Retrieved May 4, 2023, from https://www.healthline.com/health/food-nutrition/what-to-eat-after-food-poisoning#what-to-do-after 3. Kalman DS, Feldman S, Krieger DR, Bloomer RJ. Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Jan 18;9(1):1. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-1. PMID: 22257640; PMCID: PMC3293068. 4. https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/167765/nutrients 5. Maughan RJ, Watson P, Cordery PA, Walsh NP, Oliver SJ, Dolci A, Rodriguez-Sanchez N, Galloway SD. A randomized trial to assess the potential of different beverages to affect hydration status: development of a beverage hydration index. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Mar;103(3):717-23. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.114769. Epub 2015 Dec 23. PMID: 26702122.
  • 35. GENERAL CONDITION  Mid-July to mid-September  Sky is covered by clouds and rain occur without thunderstorm.  Predominant rasa – Amla(sour)  Predominant Mahabhuta – Prithvi and Agni  Strength of the person again decreases.
  • 36. LIFESTYLE  Use of boiled water for bath  Rubbing the body with oil after bath.  Medicated basti(enema) to be taken.  Getting wet in rain, day-sleep, exercise, hard work etc. are prohibited
  • 37. DIET REGIMEN  Food having Amla(sour), Lavanya(salty) and Sneha(unctuous) qualities to be taken  Soups to be included  Medicated water or boiled water to be consumed  Heavy and hard to digest food to be avoided.
  • 38. VEGETABLES • Cucumber • Tomato • Radish • Beans • Green chillies • Brinjal • Lady finger • Bottle gourd • Bitter gourd • Potato • Sweet potato • Corn FRUITS • Mosambi • Pear • Apple • Jamun • Pomegranate • Cherries • Avocados CEREALS, GRAINS AND PULSES • Old barley • Old rice • Old wheat • Muesli • Oats DAIRY • Buttermilk • Yoghurt • Cheese kefir • Soybean NUTS & SEEDS • Walnut • Dates • Cashews • Almonds HERBS • Mint • Sage • Oregano • Chives • Thyme • parsley
  • 40. Dengue, Malaria, Chikungunya, Typhoid are the common ailments in monsoon season which has some common symptoms such as fever, weakness and body ache. 1. Garlic 2. Yoghurt 3. Avocados 4. Spinach 1. (Lissiman E, Bhasale AL, Cohen M. Garlic for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 11;2014(11):CD006206. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006206.pub4. PMID: 25386977; PMCID: PMC6465033) 2. King S, Glanville J, Sanders ME, Fitzgerald A, Varley D. Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions: a systematic review and meta- analysis. Br J Nutr. 2014 Jul 14;112(1):41-54. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514000075. Epub 2014 Apr 29. PMID: 24780623; PMCID: PMC4054664. 3. Sales-Campos H, Souza PR, Peghini BC, da Silva JS, Cardoso CR. An overview of the modulatory effects of oleic acid in health and disease. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013 Feb;13(2):201-10. PMID: 23278117. 4. Sales-Campos H, Souza PR, Peghini BC, da Silva JS, Cardoso CR. An overview of the modulatory effects of oleic They have antiviral, anti-inflammatory properties. Yoghurt helps to maintain the gut microbes which help in easy digestion of food.
  • 41. GENERAL CONDITION  Mid September – mid November  Sun becomes bright, sky remains clear; sometimes with white cloud.  Earth is covered with wet mud.  Predominant rasa – Lavanya (salty)  Predominant Mahabhuta – apa and agani  medium level of strength
  • 42. LIFESTYLE  Eat food when there is feeling of hunger  Water purified by rays of sun and rays of moon in night should be consumed for drinking and bathing purpose  People are advised to wear flower garlands and apply Chandana paste  Medical procedure such as Virechna(purging), rakta mokshana( blood letting)  Should be done during this season  Day sleep, excessive eating, excessive exposure to sunlight etc are to be avoided
  • 43. DIET REGIMEN  Food having Madhura(sweet), tikta(bitter), and of laghu(light to digest) and cold properties are advised  Hot, bitter, astringent, food to be avoided.  Food items such as fat, oil curd etc are also to be not included in diet.
  • 44. VEGETABLES • Cucumber • Tomato • Radish • Beans • Green chillies • Brinjal • Lady finger • Bottle gourd • Bitter gourd • Potato • Sweet potato • Corn FRUITS • Mosambi • Pear • Apple • Jamun • Pomegranate • cherries CEREALS, GRAINS AND PULSES • Old barley • Old rice • Old wheat • Muesli • Oats NUTS & SEEDS • Walnut • Dates • Cashews • Almonds • Hazelnuts HERBS • Green onion • Lavender • Celery
  • 46. • Common cold - Raw almonds, hazelnuts, seeds, and cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli and kale). (1) • Arthritis – garlic(2), ginger(3), walnuts(4), spinach(5) • Flu, sore throat, sinusitis - herbal tea can be included such as tulsi, turmeric, consumption of warm food and lukewarm water. 1. Sumayya S, Parveen S, Hussain MA, Nayak SS. Role of diet in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. World J Biol Pharm Heal Sci. 2021;5(3):53–63. 10.30574/wjbphs.2021.5.3.0026. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list] 2. Moosavian SP, Paknahad Z, Habibagahi Z, Maracy M. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers, fatigue, and clinical symptoms in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2020 Nov;34(11):2953-2962. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6723. Epub 2020 Jun 1. PMID: 32478922. 3. Anh NH, Kim SJ, Long NP, Min JE, Yoon YC, Lee EG, Kim M, Kim TJ, Yang YY, Son EY, Yoon SJ, Diem NC, Kim HM, Kwon SW. Ginger on Human Health: A Comprehensive Systematic Review of 109 Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 6;12(1):157. doi: 10.3390/nu12010157. PMID: 31935866; PMCID: PMC7019938. 4. Mateș L, Popa DS, Rusu ME, Fizeșan I, Leucuța D. Walnut Intake Interventions Targeting Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Jul 21;11(7):1412. doi: 10.3390/antiox11071412. PMID: 35883903; PMCID: PMC9312161. 5. Hosseini B, Berthon BS, Saedisomeolia A, Starkey MR, Collison A, Wark PAB, Wood LG. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on inflammatory biomarkers and immune cell populations: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Jul 1;108(1):136-155. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy082. PMID: 29931038.
  • 47. GENERAL CONDITION Mid-November to mid-January is considered as Hemanta (late autumn) Ritu. Blow of cold winds starts and chillness is felt. Predominant Rasa during this season is Madhura predominant Mahabhutas are Prithivi and Apa. The strength of a person remains on highest grade Activity of Agni is increased.
  • 48. LIFESTYLE Exercise body and head massage use of warm water Atapa-sevana (sunbath) application of Agaru on body heavy clothing residing in warm places is recommended. Exposure to strong and cold wind, habit of day sleep, etc., are mentioned to be avoided
  • 49. DIET REGIMEN One should use unctuous, sweet, sour, and salty foods. Vata aggravating foods, such as Laghu (light), cold, and dry foods are to be avoided. Intake of cold drinks is also contraindicated. Various meats, fats, milk and milk products, sugarcane products, Shidhu (fermented preparations) Tila (sesame), and so on, are also to be included in the diet.
  • 50. VEGETABLES • Artichokes • Arugula • Avocados • Beets • Broccoli • Brussel sprouts • Butternut squash • Cabbage • Carrots • Cauliflower • Kale • Leek • Lettuce • Parsnip • Potatoes • Radishes • Spinach • Wild mushrooms FRUITS • Apples • Cranberries • Grapefruit • Kiwi • Kumquats • Mandarins • Oranges • Pears • Pomegranate • Tangerines • Chestnuts CEREALS, GRAINS AND PULSES • Wheat • Barley • Oats • Chickpea • Rye • Sunflower • Lentils DAIRY •Butter •Buttermilk •Cheese •Cottage Cheese •Ghee •Milk (not cold) •Soy milk NUTS & SEEDS •Cashews •Macadamia •Peanuts •Pumpkin seeds •Pistachios •Sunflower •Walnuts HERBS • Green onion • Lavender • Celery
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 55. REFERENCE • Thakkar J, Chaudhari S, Sarkar PK. Ritucharya: Answer to the lifestyle disorders. Ayu. 2011 Oct;32(4):466-71. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.96117. PMID: 22661838; PMCID: PMC3361919. • Nilesh Ganeshrao, B., Dattatraya Somaji, L., & Aparna Shrikrishna, P. (2015). RITU (SEASON), RITUCHARYA AND PRAKRITI- A CONCEPTUAL STUDY. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research, 2(2). Retrieved from https://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/264 • https://conscioushealthymama.com/2019/07/24/seasonal-eating-pros-and-cons/ • Wilkins J, Bowdish E & Sobal J (2002) Consumer perceptions of seasonal and local foods: a study in a U.S. community. Ecol Food Nutr 41, 415–439. • Brooks M, Foster C, Holmes M et al. (2011) Does consuming seasonal foods benefit the environment? Insights from recent research. Nut Bull 36, 449–453