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MODULE 2: TARGET SETTING
LESSON 1: STANDARDS-BASED ASSESSMENTS
PARATO, ARVIN B.
BSED SCIENCE 3
• Constructive alignment is an outcomes-based approach to teaching in which
the learning outcomes that students are intended to achieve are defined
before teaching takes place. Teaching and assessment methods are then
designed to best achieve those outcomes and to assess the standard at which
they have been achieved (Biggs, 2014).
• Outcomes based teaching and learning is based on meeting set standards of
teaching and learning to ensure students meet the requirements for a degree.
Assessment is marked against criteria referenced to the outcomes (Spady,
1994).
CONSTRUCTIVE ALIGNMENT
• The focus in constructive alignment is on what and how students learn,
rather than on the topic the teacher teaches. The action verb in a
learning outcome describes to students what they should perform to
achieve the intended learning outcome (for example, “apply procedures”
or “compare theories”).
• Constructive alignment is relevant for individual subjects as well as at the
course level. Analysis of learning outcomes and levels of thinking for a
subject informs the rationale for assessment and the design of structured
learning opportunities to develop skills and knowledge throughout a
subject. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy can be used in the development of
learning activities.
CONSTRUCTIVE ALIGNMENT
• The goal of Constructive Alignment then, is to support students in developing as
much meaning and learning as possible from a well-designed, coherent, and
aligned course.
• As developed and defined by John Biggs (2014), Constructive Alignment
involves:
1. Thoughtfully determining intentions for what students should learn and how they
will demonstrate their achievement of these intended learning outcomes, and
clearly communicating these to students;
2. Designing teaching and learning activities so that students are optimally
engaged in achieving these learning outcomes; and
3. Creating assessments that will allow students to demonstrate their attainment of
CONSTRUCTIVE ALIGNMENT
A BASIC MODEL OF AN ALIGNED CURRICULUM
A Basic Model of an
Aligned Curriculum
EXAMPLE OF ALIGNMENT IN DIFFERENT MODULE
POLICY GUIDELINES ON CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT
FOR THE K TO 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM(BEP)
VALENCIADO, KAREN B.
BSED SCIENCE 3
THEORETICAL BASIS
 Classroom Assessment is a joint process that involves both teachers and
learners. It isan integral part of teaching and learning. Teachers provide
appropriate assessment whenthey aim to holistically measure learners' current
and developing abilities while enablingthem to take responsibility in the
process.
 This view recognizes the diversity of learners inside the classroom, the need for
multipleways of measuring their varying abilities and learning potentials, and
the role of learnersas co-participants in the assessment process.
 At the heart of this assessment framework is the recognition and deliberate
consideration of the learners zone of proximal development (Vygotsky 1978).
THEORETICAL BASIS
 Appropriate assessment is committed to ensure learners' success in moving
from guidedto independent display of knowledge, understanding, and skills,
and to enable them totransfer this successfully in future situations.
 From this point of view, assessment facilitates the development of learners'
higher-orderthinking and 21st-century skills.
 This view of assessment, therefore, acknowledges the unity of instruction and
assessment. Assessment is part of day-to-day lessons and extends the day-to-
dayclassroom activities that are already in place in the K to 12 curriculum.
WHAT IS CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT?
 Assessment is a process that is used to keep track of learners' progress in
relation tolearning standards and in the development of 21st-century skills; to
promote self reflection and personal accountability among students about
their own learning; and toprovide bases for the profiling of student
performance on the learning competencies and standards of the curriculum.
 Various kinds of assessments shall be used appropriately for different learners
who come from diverse contexts, such as cultural background and life
experiences.
 Classroom Assessment is an ongoing process of identifying, gathering,
organizing, and interpreting quantitative and qualitative information about
what learners know and can do.
WHAT IS CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT?
 Teachers should employ classroom assessment methods that are consistent with
curriculum standards. It is important for teachers to always inform learners about
the objectives of the lesson so that the latter will aim to meet or even exceed the
standards.
 The teacher provides immediate feedback to students about their learning
progress. Classroom assessment also measures the achievement of competencies
by the learners.
 Assessment in the classroom is aimed at helping students perform well in relation
to the learning standards. Learning standards comprise content standards,
performance standards, and learning competencies that are outlined in the
curriculum
WHAT IS ASSESSED IN THE CLASSROOM?
 A. Content Standards identify and set the essential knowledge and
understanding that should be leamed. They cover a specified scope of
sequential topics within each leaming strand, domain, theme, or component
Content standards answer the question, "What should the learners know?
 B. Performance Standards describe the abilities and skills that leamers are
expected to demonstrate in relation to the content standards and integration
of 21st-century skills. The integration of knowledge, understanding, and skills
is expressed through creation, innovation, and adding value to products/
performance during independent work or in collaboration with others.
WHAT IS ASSESSED IN THE CLASSROOM?
 C. Learning Competencies refer to the knowledge, understanding, skills, and
attitudes that students need to demonstrate in every lesson and/or learning
activity.
 D. Concept Development the learning standards in the curriculum reflect
progressionsof concept development. The Cognitive Process Dimensions
adapted from Anderson & Krathwohl (2001) may be a good way to
operationalize these progressions. It provides a scheme for classifying
educational goals, objectives, and standards. It also defines a broad range of
cognitive processes from basic to complex, as follows: Remembering,
Understanding. Applying, Analyzing. Evaluating, and Creating. Each dimension
is described in the given table.
TWO TYPES OF CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT
RAMIREZ, MARY JOY A. &
ARGA, HAZEL C.
BSED SCIENCE 3
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
 Summative assessment, on the other hand, may be seen as assessment of
learning,which occurs at the end of a particular unit.
 This form of assessment usually occurs toward the end of a period of learning
in order todescribe the standard reached by the learner.
 Often, this takes place in order for appropriate decisions about future learning
or jobsuitability to be made.
 Judgments derived from summative assessment are usually for the benefit of
peopleother than the learner (UNESCO-TLSF).
 Summative assessment measures whether learners have met the
content andperformance standards.
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
 Teachers must use methods to measure student learning that have been
deliberatelydesigned to assess how well students have learned and are able to
apply their learning indifferent contexts.
 The results of summative assessments are recorded and used to report on the
learners’achievement.
 Primarily, the results of summative assessment are reported to the learners
and theirparents/guardians. In addition, these are reported to
principals/school heads, teacherswho will receive the child in the next grade
level, and guidance teachers who should helpstudents cope with challenges
they experience
COMPONENTS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
A. Written Work
The Written Work component ensures that students are able to express
skills andconcepts in written form. Written Work, which may include long
quizzes, and unit or long tests, help strengthen test-taking skills among the
learners. It is strongly recommended that items inlong quizzes/tests be
distributed across the Cognitive Process Dimensions so that all areadequately
covered. Through these, learners are able to practice and prepare for
quarterlyassessment and other standardized assessments. Other written work
may include essays, writtenreports, and other written output
COMPONENTS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
B. Performance Task
The Performance Task component allows learners to show what they
know and are ableto do in diverse ways. They may create or innovate products
or do performance-based tasks. Performance-based tasks may include skills
demonstration, group presentations, oral work, multimedia presentations, and
research projects. It is important to note that written output mayalso be
considered as performance tasks.
C. Quarterly Assessment
Quarterly Assessment measures student learning at the end of the
quarter. These may bein the form of objective tests, performance-based
assessment, or a combination thereof.
COMPONENTS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Components Purpose When Given
Written Work
(WW)
-Assess learners’ understanding of concepts
and application of skills in written form
- Prepare learners for quarterly assessments
–At end of the topic or unit
Performance
Tasks (PT)
- Involve students in the learning process
individually or in collaboration with
teammates over a period of time
-Give students opportunities to demonstrate
and integrate their knowledge, understanding,
and skills about topics or lessons
- Give students the freedom to express their
learning in appropriate and diverse ways
–At end of a lesson
focusing on a topic/skill
lesson
–Several times during the
quarter
Quarterly
Assessment (QT)
-Synthesize all the learning skills, concepts,
and values learned in an entire quarter
- Once, at end of the
quarter
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
 According to the UNESCO Program on Teaching and Learning for a
Sustainable Future (UNESCO-TLSF), formative assessment refers to the
ongoing forms of assessment that are closely linked to the learning process.
 It is characteristically informal and is intended to help students identify
strengths and weaknesses in order to learn from the assessment experience.
 may be given at any time during the teaching and learning process
 way to check the effectiveness of instruction.
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
–results will help teachers make good instructional decisions so that their
lessons are better suited to the learners’ abilitie, however, are not included in the
computation of summative assessment.
– provide students with immediate feedback on how well they are learning
throughout the teaching-learning process
–enables students to take responsibility for their own learning, and identify
areas where they do well and where they need help, students will appreciate and
make their own decisions about their progress.
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
A. Before the Lesson
–informs the teacher about the students’ understanding of a lesson/topic before
direct instruction
–teachers understand where the students stand in terms of conceptual
understanding and application
–provides bases for making instructional decisions, such as moving on to a new
lesson or clarifying prerequisite understanding
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
B. During the Lesson Proper
– informs teachers of the progress of the students in relation to the
development of the learning competencies
–helps the teacher determine whether instructional strategies are effective
–compared with the results of formative assessment given before the lesson to
establish if conceptual understanding and application have improved
–the teacher can make decisions on whether to review, re-teach, remediate, or
enrich lessons and, subsequently, when to move on to the next lesson.
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
C. After the Lesson
Formative assessment conducted after the lesson assesses whether learning
objectives were achieved. It also allows the teacher to evaluate the effectiveness
of instruction. Students who require remediation and/or enrichment should be
helped by the teacher using appropriate teaching strategies.
PURPOSE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Purpose of
the lesson
For the learner For the teacher Examples of Assessment
Methods
Before lesson -Know what s/he knows
about the topic/lesson
–Understand the purpose
of the lesson and how to
do well in the lesson
–Identify ideas or
concepts s/he
misunderstands –Identify
barriers to learning
–Get information about
what the learner already
knows and can do about
the new lesson
–achieve objectives
–Determine
misconceptions
–Agree/disagree activities
–Games
–Interviews
–KWL activities (what I
know, what I want to
know, what learned)
–Practice exercises
PURPOSE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Purpose of
The Lesson
For the learner For the teacher Examples of Assessment
Method
Lesson Proper –Identify factors that
help him/her learn
–Know what s/he
knows and does not
know
–Monitor his/her own
progress
–Identify what
hinders learning
–Identify learning
gaps
–Track learner
progress in
comparison to
formative assessment
result
– decisions on whether to
proceed with the next
lesson, reteach, or
–Multimedia
presentations
–Observations
–Quizzes (recorded
but not graded)
–Recitations
–Simulation activities
PURPOSE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Purpose of the
Lesson
For the learner For the teacher Examples of Assessment
Method
After the lesson -Tell and recognize
whether s/he met
learning objectives
and success criteria
–Seek support
through
remediation,
enrichment, or other
strategies
-Assess whether learning
objectives have been
met for a specified
duration
–Remediate and/ or
enrich with appropriate
strategies as needed
-Evaluate whether
learning intentions and
success criteria have
been met
–Short quizzes
–Written work
THANK YOU !!!

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ProfEd7reportf.pptx

  • 1. MODULE 2: TARGET SETTING LESSON 1: STANDARDS-BASED ASSESSMENTS PARATO, ARVIN B. BSED SCIENCE 3
  • 2. • Constructive alignment is an outcomes-based approach to teaching in which the learning outcomes that students are intended to achieve are defined before teaching takes place. Teaching and assessment methods are then designed to best achieve those outcomes and to assess the standard at which they have been achieved (Biggs, 2014). • Outcomes based teaching and learning is based on meeting set standards of teaching and learning to ensure students meet the requirements for a degree. Assessment is marked against criteria referenced to the outcomes (Spady, 1994). CONSTRUCTIVE ALIGNMENT
  • 3. • The focus in constructive alignment is on what and how students learn, rather than on the topic the teacher teaches. The action verb in a learning outcome describes to students what they should perform to achieve the intended learning outcome (for example, “apply procedures” or “compare theories”). • Constructive alignment is relevant for individual subjects as well as at the course level. Analysis of learning outcomes and levels of thinking for a subject informs the rationale for assessment and the design of structured learning opportunities to develop skills and knowledge throughout a subject. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy can be used in the development of learning activities. CONSTRUCTIVE ALIGNMENT
  • 4. • The goal of Constructive Alignment then, is to support students in developing as much meaning and learning as possible from a well-designed, coherent, and aligned course. • As developed and defined by John Biggs (2014), Constructive Alignment involves: 1. Thoughtfully determining intentions for what students should learn and how they will demonstrate their achievement of these intended learning outcomes, and clearly communicating these to students; 2. Designing teaching and learning activities so that students are optimally engaged in achieving these learning outcomes; and 3. Creating assessments that will allow students to demonstrate their attainment of CONSTRUCTIVE ALIGNMENT
  • 5. A BASIC MODEL OF AN ALIGNED CURRICULUM A Basic Model of an Aligned Curriculum
  • 6. EXAMPLE OF ALIGNMENT IN DIFFERENT MODULE
  • 7. POLICY GUIDELINES ON CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT FOR THE K TO 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM(BEP) VALENCIADO, KAREN B. BSED SCIENCE 3
  • 8. THEORETICAL BASIS  Classroom Assessment is a joint process that involves both teachers and learners. It isan integral part of teaching and learning. Teachers provide appropriate assessment whenthey aim to holistically measure learners' current and developing abilities while enablingthem to take responsibility in the process.  This view recognizes the diversity of learners inside the classroom, the need for multipleways of measuring their varying abilities and learning potentials, and the role of learnersas co-participants in the assessment process.  At the heart of this assessment framework is the recognition and deliberate consideration of the learners zone of proximal development (Vygotsky 1978).
  • 9. THEORETICAL BASIS  Appropriate assessment is committed to ensure learners' success in moving from guidedto independent display of knowledge, understanding, and skills, and to enable them totransfer this successfully in future situations.  From this point of view, assessment facilitates the development of learners' higher-orderthinking and 21st-century skills.  This view of assessment, therefore, acknowledges the unity of instruction and assessment. Assessment is part of day-to-day lessons and extends the day-to- dayclassroom activities that are already in place in the K to 12 curriculum.
  • 10. WHAT IS CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT?  Assessment is a process that is used to keep track of learners' progress in relation tolearning standards and in the development of 21st-century skills; to promote self reflection and personal accountability among students about their own learning; and toprovide bases for the profiling of student performance on the learning competencies and standards of the curriculum.  Various kinds of assessments shall be used appropriately for different learners who come from diverse contexts, such as cultural background and life experiences.  Classroom Assessment is an ongoing process of identifying, gathering, organizing, and interpreting quantitative and qualitative information about what learners know and can do.
  • 11. WHAT IS CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT?  Teachers should employ classroom assessment methods that are consistent with curriculum standards. It is important for teachers to always inform learners about the objectives of the lesson so that the latter will aim to meet or even exceed the standards.  The teacher provides immediate feedback to students about their learning progress. Classroom assessment also measures the achievement of competencies by the learners.  Assessment in the classroom is aimed at helping students perform well in relation to the learning standards. Learning standards comprise content standards, performance standards, and learning competencies that are outlined in the curriculum
  • 12. WHAT IS ASSESSED IN THE CLASSROOM?  A. Content Standards identify and set the essential knowledge and understanding that should be leamed. They cover a specified scope of sequential topics within each leaming strand, domain, theme, or component Content standards answer the question, "What should the learners know?  B. Performance Standards describe the abilities and skills that leamers are expected to demonstrate in relation to the content standards and integration of 21st-century skills. The integration of knowledge, understanding, and skills is expressed through creation, innovation, and adding value to products/ performance during independent work or in collaboration with others.
  • 13. WHAT IS ASSESSED IN THE CLASSROOM?  C. Learning Competencies refer to the knowledge, understanding, skills, and attitudes that students need to demonstrate in every lesson and/or learning activity.  D. Concept Development the learning standards in the curriculum reflect progressionsof concept development. The Cognitive Process Dimensions adapted from Anderson & Krathwohl (2001) may be a good way to operationalize these progressions. It provides a scheme for classifying educational goals, objectives, and standards. It also defines a broad range of cognitive processes from basic to complex, as follows: Remembering, Understanding. Applying, Analyzing. Evaluating, and Creating. Each dimension is described in the given table.
  • 14.
  • 15. TWO TYPES OF CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT RAMIREZ, MARY JOY A. & ARGA, HAZEL C. BSED SCIENCE 3
  • 16. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT  Summative assessment, on the other hand, may be seen as assessment of learning,which occurs at the end of a particular unit.  This form of assessment usually occurs toward the end of a period of learning in order todescribe the standard reached by the learner.  Often, this takes place in order for appropriate decisions about future learning or jobsuitability to be made.  Judgments derived from summative assessment are usually for the benefit of peopleother than the learner (UNESCO-TLSF).  Summative assessment measures whether learners have met the content andperformance standards.
  • 17. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT  Teachers must use methods to measure student learning that have been deliberatelydesigned to assess how well students have learned and are able to apply their learning indifferent contexts.  The results of summative assessments are recorded and used to report on the learners’achievement.  Primarily, the results of summative assessment are reported to the learners and theirparents/guardians. In addition, these are reported to principals/school heads, teacherswho will receive the child in the next grade level, and guidance teachers who should helpstudents cope with challenges they experience
  • 18. COMPONENTS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT A. Written Work The Written Work component ensures that students are able to express skills andconcepts in written form. Written Work, which may include long quizzes, and unit or long tests, help strengthen test-taking skills among the learners. It is strongly recommended that items inlong quizzes/tests be distributed across the Cognitive Process Dimensions so that all areadequately covered. Through these, learners are able to practice and prepare for quarterlyassessment and other standardized assessments. Other written work may include essays, writtenreports, and other written output
  • 19. COMPONENTS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT B. Performance Task The Performance Task component allows learners to show what they know and are ableto do in diverse ways. They may create or innovate products or do performance-based tasks. Performance-based tasks may include skills demonstration, group presentations, oral work, multimedia presentations, and research projects. It is important to note that written output mayalso be considered as performance tasks. C. Quarterly Assessment Quarterly Assessment measures student learning at the end of the quarter. These may bein the form of objective tests, performance-based assessment, or a combination thereof.
  • 20. COMPONENTS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT Components Purpose When Given Written Work (WW) -Assess learners’ understanding of concepts and application of skills in written form - Prepare learners for quarterly assessments –At end of the topic or unit Performance Tasks (PT) - Involve students in the learning process individually or in collaboration with teammates over a period of time -Give students opportunities to demonstrate and integrate their knowledge, understanding, and skills about topics or lessons - Give students the freedom to express their learning in appropriate and diverse ways –At end of a lesson focusing on a topic/skill lesson –Several times during the quarter Quarterly Assessment (QT) -Synthesize all the learning skills, concepts, and values learned in an entire quarter - Once, at end of the quarter
  • 21. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT  According to the UNESCO Program on Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future (UNESCO-TLSF), formative assessment refers to the ongoing forms of assessment that are closely linked to the learning process.  It is characteristically informal and is intended to help students identify strengths and weaknesses in order to learn from the assessment experience.  may be given at any time during the teaching and learning process  way to check the effectiveness of instruction.
  • 22. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT –results will help teachers make good instructional decisions so that their lessons are better suited to the learners’ abilitie, however, are not included in the computation of summative assessment. – provide students with immediate feedback on how well they are learning throughout the teaching-learning process –enables students to take responsibility for their own learning, and identify areas where they do well and where they need help, students will appreciate and make their own decisions about their progress.
  • 23. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT A. Before the Lesson –informs the teacher about the students’ understanding of a lesson/topic before direct instruction –teachers understand where the students stand in terms of conceptual understanding and application –provides bases for making instructional decisions, such as moving on to a new lesson or clarifying prerequisite understanding
  • 24. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT B. During the Lesson Proper – informs teachers of the progress of the students in relation to the development of the learning competencies –helps the teacher determine whether instructional strategies are effective –compared with the results of formative assessment given before the lesson to establish if conceptual understanding and application have improved –the teacher can make decisions on whether to review, re-teach, remediate, or enrich lessons and, subsequently, when to move on to the next lesson.
  • 25. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT C. After the Lesson Formative assessment conducted after the lesson assesses whether learning objectives were achieved. It also allows the teacher to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Students who require remediation and/or enrichment should be helped by the teacher using appropriate teaching strategies.
  • 26. PURPOSE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Purpose of the lesson For the learner For the teacher Examples of Assessment Methods Before lesson -Know what s/he knows about the topic/lesson –Understand the purpose of the lesson and how to do well in the lesson –Identify ideas or concepts s/he misunderstands –Identify barriers to learning –Get information about what the learner already knows and can do about the new lesson –achieve objectives –Determine misconceptions –Agree/disagree activities –Games –Interviews –KWL activities (what I know, what I want to know, what learned) –Practice exercises
  • 27. PURPOSE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Purpose of The Lesson For the learner For the teacher Examples of Assessment Method Lesson Proper –Identify factors that help him/her learn –Know what s/he knows and does not know –Monitor his/her own progress –Identify what hinders learning –Identify learning gaps –Track learner progress in comparison to formative assessment result – decisions on whether to proceed with the next lesson, reteach, or –Multimedia presentations –Observations –Quizzes (recorded but not graded) –Recitations –Simulation activities
  • 28. PURPOSE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Purpose of the Lesson For the learner For the teacher Examples of Assessment Method After the lesson -Tell and recognize whether s/he met learning objectives and success criteria –Seek support through remediation, enrichment, or other strategies -Assess whether learning objectives have been met for a specified duration –Remediate and/ or enrich with appropriate strategies as needed -Evaluate whether learning intentions and success criteria have been met –Short quizzes –Written work