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Presentation1
The Vardar or Axios ( Macedonian:      Вардар ; Greek
: Αξιός Axiós or Βαρδάρης Vardárīs ) is the longest and major  river
 in the Republic of Macedonia  and also a major river of  Greece. It
is 388 km (241 mi) long, and drains an area of around
25,000 km 2  (9,653 sq mi). The maximum depth of river is 4 m
(13 ft).                       
Map of northwestern Macedonia showing the Vardar
The river rises at Vrutok, a few kilometers north of  Gostivar in the
Republic of Macedonia. It passes through  Gostivar, Skopje and
into Veles, crosses the Greek border near Gevgelija, Polykastro
 andAxioupoli ("town on the Axiós"), before emptying into the 
Aegean Sea in Central Macedonia west ofThessaloniki in northern
Greece.
The Vardar basin includes two-thirds of the territory of the
Republic of Macedonia. The area is sometimes called "Vardar
Macedonia" after the river, to distinguish it from "Aegean
Macedonia" (in Greece) and "Pirin Macedonia" (in Bulgaria).
The valley comprises fertile lands in Polog, and The saloniki
prefectures and Gevgelija and other parts. The river is surrounded
by mountains elsewhere. The superhighways Greek National Road
1 in Greece and M1 and E75 run within the valley along the river's
entire length to near Skopje.
The river is depicted on the coat of arms of Skopje, which in turn
is incorporated in the city's flag.
Presentation1
The Boshava is Macedonian river, right tributary
 The Boshava is Macedonian river, right tributary
of the Vardar. Springs at the foot of MountKozuf at aa
 of the Vardar. Springs at the foot of MountKozuf at
 height of 1.070 m, and flows into the
height of 1.070 m, and flows into the
Vardar before Demir gorge at aa
 Vardar before Demir gorge at
 heightof 95 m. Long is 51,5 km, has a total drop of
heightof 95 m. Long is 51,5 km, has a total drop of
 979 m and an average 19.0%  decline.Basin covers an
                                 decline.Basin
979 m and an average 19.0%  decline.Basin covers an
                                decline.Basin
 area of 467,7 km
area of 467,7 km
 ². Its major tributaries are Doshnica and BoulskaRiver. An
². Its major tributaries are Doshnica and BoulskaRiver. An
 important part of the basin is overflowing nature
important part of the basin is overflowing nature
       The Lepenac is aariver in southern Kosovo[a] and northern
        The Lepenac is river in southern Kosovo[a] and northern
     Macedonia, aa75 km (47 mi) long left tributary to the Vardar river.
     Macedonia, 75 km (47 mi) long left tributary to the Vardar river.




       Treska is aariver in the western part of Republic of
        Treska is river in the western part of Republic of
    Macedonia, aaright tributary to Vardar. ItItis 132 km (82 mi)
    Macedonia, right tributary to Vardar. is 132 km (82 mi)
                 long, and its basin is 2350 km².
                long, and its basin is 2350 km².
The Pčinja is aa128 km long river in Serbia and
                   The Pčinja is 128 km long river in Serbia and
                  Macedonia, aaleft tributary of the Vardar river.
                   Macedonia, left tributary of the Vardar river.


 Bregalnica is the second largest river in the Republic of Macedonia. ItItstarts as
  Bregalnica is the second largest river in the Republic of Macedonia. starts as
    aaspring near the mountain city of Berovo and ititpasses near the cities of
         spring near the mountain city of Berovo and passes near the cities of
 Makedonska Kamenica, Kočani, Vinica and Štip, before joining the river Vardar
Makedonska Kamenica, Kočani, Vinica and Štip, before joining the river Vardar
   on its way to the Aegean Sea. Recent issues have concentrated around the
  on its way to the Aegean Sea. Recent issues have concentrated around the
 pollution of the river, as many of the factories located in the cities through which
pollution of the river, as many of the factories located in the cities through which
    ititpasses used ititas aadumping ground for waste waters, which is further
         passes used as dumping ground for waste waters, which is further
 aggravated with the pesticide-treated waters of the extensive rice fields near the
aggravated with the pesticide-treated waters of the extensive rice fields near the
                                    city of Kočani.
                                   city of Kočani.
The origin of the river name is quite obscure and aafew
      The origin of the river name is quite obscure and few
                      theories are in existence:
                     theories are in existence:
      **The hydronym Vardar probably derives from the old
         The hydronym Vardar probably derives from the old
 Germanic word "Vordol", which could have been introduced
Germanic word "Vordol", which could have been introduced
       to the region by Gothic settlers in the 5th century AD.
     to the region by Gothic settlers in the 5th century AD.
     **Another etymology derives Vardar from the Thracian
         Another etymology derives Vardar from the Thracian
         language, from PIE *sword(o)-wori-, "black water".
        language, from PIE *sword(o)-wori-, "black water".
**A more plausible version for the origin of the river name is
    A more plausible version for the origin of the river name is
  linked to the Bulgars led by Kuber who settled in the region
linked to the Bulgars led by Kuber who settled in the region
    during the 7th century AD. The first part of the name Var-
  during the 7th century AD. The first part of the name Var-
 may be linked to the Vedic god Varuna who from the lord of
may be linked to the Vedic god Varuna who from the lord of
 the underworld became the supreme god of the water, rain,
the underworld became the supreme god of the water, rain,
       rivers and oceans. The name Kuber also quite closely
     rivers and oceans. The name Kuber also quite closely
resembles Kubera, another Vedic god. The Bulgars were aa
  resembles Kubera, another Vedic god. The Bulgars were
   tribe of obscure ethnicity but certainly originated in Central
 tribe of obscure ethnicity but certainly originated in Central
    Asia, where some main rivers bear similar names - -Syr
      Asia, where some main rivers bear similar names Syr
     Darya, Amu Darya and some minor ones as Chebdar in
    Darya, Amu Darya and some minor ones as Chebdar in
       Russia,Shakhdara and Kudara in Tajikistan. The word
     Russia,Shakhdara and Kudara in Tajikistan. The word
    darya is of Persian origin and means river, sea or ocean.
  darya is of Persian origin and means river, sea or ocean.
    The meaning of the second part of name -dar is therefore
  The meaning of the second part of name -dar is therefore
                        very clear and logical.
                       very clear and logical.
Presentation1
Presentation1

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Presentation1

  • 2. The Vardar or Axios ( Macedonian:      Вардар ; Greek : Αξιός Axiós or Βαρδάρης Vardárīs ) is the longest and major  river  in the Republic of Macedonia  and also a major river of  Greece. It is 388 km (241 mi) long, and drains an area of around 25,000 km 2  (9,653 sq mi). The maximum depth of river is 4 m (13 ft).                        Map of northwestern Macedonia showing the Vardar The river rises at Vrutok, a few kilometers north of  Gostivar in the Republic of Macedonia. It passes through  Gostivar, Skopje and into Veles, crosses the Greek border near Gevgelija, Polykastro  andAxioupoli ("town on the Axiós"), before emptying into the  Aegean Sea in Central Macedonia west ofThessaloniki in northern Greece. The Vardar basin includes two-thirds of the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The area is sometimes called "Vardar Macedonia" after the river, to distinguish it from "Aegean Macedonia" (in Greece) and "Pirin Macedonia" (in Bulgaria). The valley comprises fertile lands in Polog, and The saloniki prefectures and Gevgelija and other parts. The river is surrounded by mountains elsewhere. The superhighways Greek National Road 1 in Greece and M1 and E75 run within the valley along the river's entire length to near Skopje. The river is depicted on the coat of arms of Skopje, which in turn is incorporated in the city's flag.
  • 4. The Boshava is Macedonian river, right tributary The Boshava is Macedonian river, right tributary of the Vardar. Springs at the foot of MountKozuf at aa of the Vardar. Springs at the foot of MountKozuf at height of 1.070 m, and flows into the height of 1.070 m, and flows into the Vardar before Demir gorge at aa Vardar before Demir gorge at heightof 95 m. Long is 51,5 km, has a total drop of heightof 95 m. Long is 51,5 km, has a total drop of 979 m and an average 19.0%  decline.Basin covers an decline.Basin 979 m and an average 19.0%  decline.Basin covers an decline.Basin area of 467,7 km area of 467,7 km ². Its major tributaries are Doshnica and BoulskaRiver. An ². Its major tributaries are Doshnica and BoulskaRiver. An important part of the basin is overflowing nature important part of the basin is overflowing nature The Lepenac is aariver in southern Kosovo[a] and northern The Lepenac is river in southern Kosovo[a] and northern Macedonia, aa75 km (47 mi) long left tributary to the Vardar river. Macedonia, 75 km (47 mi) long left tributary to the Vardar river. Treska is aariver in the western part of Republic of Treska is river in the western part of Republic of Macedonia, aaright tributary to Vardar. ItItis 132 km (82 mi) Macedonia, right tributary to Vardar. is 132 km (82 mi) long, and its basin is 2350 km². long, and its basin is 2350 km².
  • 5. The Pčinja is aa128 km long river in Serbia and The Pčinja is 128 km long river in Serbia and Macedonia, aaleft tributary of the Vardar river. Macedonia, left tributary of the Vardar river. Bregalnica is the second largest river in the Republic of Macedonia. ItItstarts as Bregalnica is the second largest river in the Republic of Macedonia. starts as aaspring near the mountain city of Berovo and ititpasses near the cities of spring near the mountain city of Berovo and passes near the cities of Makedonska Kamenica, Kočani, Vinica and Štip, before joining the river Vardar Makedonska Kamenica, Kočani, Vinica and Štip, before joining the river Vardar on its way to the Aegean Sea. Recent issues have concentrated around the on its way to the Aegean Sea. Recent issues have concentrated around the pollution of the river, as many of the factories located in the cities through which pollution of the river, as many of the factories located in the cities through which ititpasses used ititas aadumping ground for waste waters, which is further passes used as dumping ground for waste waters, which is further aggravated with the pesticide-treated waters of the extensive rice fields near the aggravated with the pesticide-treated waters of the extensive rice fields near the city of Kočani. city of Kočani.
  • 6. The origin of the river name is quite obscure and aafew The origin of the river name is quite obscure and few theories are in existence: theories are in existence: **The hydronym Vardar probably derives from the old The hydronym Vardar probably derives from the old Germanic word "Vordol", which could have been introduced Germanic word "Vordol", which could have been introduced to the region by Gothic settlers in the 5th century AD. to the region by Gothic settlers in the 5th century AD. **Another etymology derives Vardar from the Thracian Another etymology derives Vardar from the Thracian language, from PIE *sword(o)-wori-, "black water". language, from PIE *sword(o)-wori-, "black water". **A more plausible version for the origin of the river name is A more plausible version for the origin of the river name is linked to the Bulgars led by Kuber who settled in the region linked to the Bulgars led by Kuber who settled in the region during the 7th century AD. The first part of the name Var- during the 7th century AD. The first part of the name Var- may be linked to the Vedic god Varuna who from the lord of may be linked to the Vedic god Varuna who from the lord of the underworld became the supreme god of the water, rain, the underworld became the supreme god of the water, rain, rivers and oceans. The name Kuber also quite closely rivers and oceans. The name Kuber also quite closely resembles Kubera, another Vedic god. The Bulgars were aa resembles Kubera, another Vedic god. The Bulgars were tribe of obscure ethnicity but certainly originated in Central tribe of obscure ethnicity but certainly originated in Central Asia, where some main rivers bear similar names - -Syr Asia, where some main rivers bear similar names Syr Darya, Amu Darya and some minor ones as Chebdar in Darya, Amu Darya and some minor ones as Chebdar in Russia,Shakhdara and Kudara in Tajikistan. The word Russia,Shakhdara and Kudara in Tajikistan. The word darya is of Persian origin and means river, sea or ocean. darya is of Persian origin and means river, sea or ocean. The meaning of the second part of name -dar is therefore The meaning of the second part of name -dar is therefore very clear and logical. very clear and logical.