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Paterson JOB EVALUATION MANUAL
MARCH 11, 2022
PROSERVE CONSULTING GROUP
PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 1
CONTENTS
ITEM PAGE
1. Understanding Job Evaluation 2
2. Benefits of Job Evaluation 2
3. Important Stages of the Job Evaluation Process 3
4. Principles of Job Evaluation 3
5. The Paterson Job Evaluation System 4
6. The Job Grading Committee 7
7. Paterson Job Grading Procedure 8
8. Protecting and Maintaining the System 10
Appendices
Appendix I Grading Record Form
Appendix II Banding Guidelines
Appendix III Additional Sub-grading Techniques
Appendix IV Request for Review of Grading Form
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1. UNDERSTANDING JOB EVALUATION
1.1 Job Evaluation is a systematic, consistent and objective process of analyzing and
comparing jobs within an organization to arrive at different job levels or a “pecking
order”. It is a process of determining the relative worth of various jobs within an
organization.
1.2 Job evaluation does not consider individual characteristics, personality or
performance of employees but only focuses on job content and the contribution of
the job to the organization.
1.3 It is therefore important that the job content is captured properly and
comprehensively in a job description. The approved job descriptions are the basis
of any job grading process in an organization.
Job grading isn’t concerned about individual characteristics, volumes of work,
personality, performance or determining salary levels – Job evaluation analyzes
& grades jobs on the basis of job content only!
2. BENEFITS OF JOB EVALUATION
2.1 The organization can derive a number of benefits from a properly implemented job
evaluation system, viz:
❖ Accounting for organizational changes and their impact on jobs
❖ Determining the relative importance of jobs in an organization
❖ Establishing a sound and logical hierarchy of jobs which will form the basis of a
number of other organizational processes
❖ Providing a basis for equitable and consistent remuneration structures
❖ Outlining job relationships and job limits
❖ Instilling discipline in the design of jobs
❖ Knowing all jobs and job holders
❖ Comprehensive understanding of the organization structure with regards to:
▪ Keys areas of responsibility
▪ Levels of authority and accountability
▪ Lines of communication
▪ Spans of control
▪ Job design
▪ Manning levels
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❖ Providing critical input in the following HR processes:
▪ Recruitment and selection
▪ Training needs analysis
▪ Performance management
▪ Career development
▪ Manpower planning
3. IMPORTANT STAGES OF THE JOB EVALUATION PROCESS
3.1 The job evaluation process consists of the following key stages:
❖ Selection of a job evaluation system
❖ Review of strategy and organization structures
❖ Designing a job description template aligned to the chosen system
❖ Deciding on project implementation structures
❖ Selection and training of Job Analysts
❖ Job description writing process
❖ Selection and training of Job Grading Committee
❖ Selection and training of Job Evaluation Appeals Committee
❖ Grading of all jobs in the organization
❖ Appeals process
4. PRINCIPLES OF JOB EVALUATION
4.1 Job evaluation is conducted using the following core guiding principles:
❖ Always examine the job itself, NOT the jobholder
❖ Competence and proper performance, in accordance with normal standards for the
job, must be assumed on the part of the job incumbent
❖ The job should be evaluated “as is”, not with regard to ideals or future projections
that may never be attained
❖ Evaluation must be based on consensus of opinion – team based approach
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5. THE PATERSON JOB EVALUATION SYSTEM
5.1 The Paterson system was developed by Professor Thomas Thompson Paterson
(1909 – 1994) while studying Job Evaluation systems at the University of
Strathcylde, Glasgow
5.2 Paterson believed that the number of factors used in various job evaluation systems
(as many as 25) rendered the job evaluation process cumbersome
5.3 He consequently investigated the degree of correlation between factors using factor
analysis, and came to the conclusion that the one factor, ‘Decision Making’ had
such a high predictive validity over other factors that it alone could be used to
measure job levels
5.4 Based on this philosophy, Paterson developed a system, which measures jobs in
terms of the “Decision Making” required of the job
5.5 The system defines 6 Bands of Decision-Making common to all jobs (irrespective
of industry)
5.6 The level of complexity/difficulty of decisions increases from completely Defined
decisions at the “A Band” (primary skilled workers) to Policy-making decisions at
“F Band” (top management)
Decision
Band
Organizational Level Type of Decision
F Top Management ▪ Policy Decisions
▪ Strategic Business Direction
E Executive Management ▪ Programming Decisions
▪ Strategic Execution/Long term Planning
D Senior/Middle Management ▪ Interpretive Decisions
▪ Tactical Management
C Advanced Operational ▪ Routine Decisions
▪ Processes/Systems
B Operational ▪ Automatic Decisions
▪ Operative/Sub-system
A Basic ▪ Defined Decisions
▪ Primary Skills
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5.7 The Decision Bands are explained below as follows:
Band F – Policy Making Decisions (Top Management)
Overall policy decisions are regarded as being superior to any other decisions. They
are associated with Top Management and give the overall direction to the organization.
The limits are very wide and in many cases are only specified by the laws of the land.
Top management decides on policy in all major areas of the business.
Band E – Programming Decisions (Executive Management)
The executive policy is broadly planned or programmed within the limits of discretion set
by top management. Executive management decides on organization structures, the
overall programme for major functions, the relationship between major functions and the
operational objectives.
Band D – Interpretive Decisions (Senior/Middle Management)
The limits of discretion for interpretive decisions are set by executive management’s
programme, plan or budget. The interpretive aspect comes from the choice of a best
decision out of a spectrum of possible decisions within their limits of discretion.
These decisions often involve determining the best use of available manpower and
equipment to achieve the targets agreed in the programme. Middle management
decides on systems and procedures, rules and regulations, plant manuals, localization
plans/programmes and interpretations not covered by existing rules, that is ‘what to do’.
.
Band C – Routine Decisions (Skilled/Advanced Staff)
Once the rules have been set by the interpretive decisions, execution begins. What is
to be done has already been decided and the next level of decision making is the choice
of the way in which it is to be carried out from established processes, practice, systems,
trade knowledge and rules and regulations. People taking these decisions can decide
which processes to use – they know the operations. They must decide ‘how’, ‘where’
and ‘when’.
Band B – Automatic Decisions (Semi-skilled/Operational Staff)
This involves work in which the processes are defined and freedom of choice is
restricted to the operations. Within the routines and procedures of the job – the how –
the employee decides ‘where’ and ‘when’ he carries out the operations that constitute
the process.
Band A – Defined Decisions (Basic/Primary-Skilled Staff)
The decisions made by the employees are defined and the employee is left with little
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choice other than speed of (when) and variations in control of the elements of an
operation.
5.8 Taking this a step further, each Band, except A Band, is then divided into two
Grades, the Upper Grade supervising or coordinating the work of the lower grade.
This produces the 11 classic grades (see the schedule below). These are known
as the ‘spine’ of the Paterson System, and placing jobs into these grades is easy
and relatively objective.
5.9 These Grades are further divided into Sub-grades. The Grades are sub-dived into
three Sub-grades in each Lower Grade and two in each Upper Grade (irrespective
of the size of the organization). Experience has proved this to be correct, and there
is no need to increase the number of sub-grades.
5.10 Paterson also provides further grading rules, and additional ‘techniques’ for sub-
grading.
Band Decision Grade Organizational Level
F Policy
Coordinating
Non Coordinating
11
10
Top Management
E Programming
Coordinating
Non Coordinating
9
8
Executive Management
D Interpretive
Coordinating
Non Coordinating
7
6
Senior/Middle
Management
C Routine
Coordinating
Non Coordinating
5
4
Advanced Operational/
Skilled Staff
B Automatic
Coordinating
Non Coordinating
3
2
Operational/Semi-
Skilled Staff
A Defined 1 Basic/Primary-skilled
Staff
Advantages of the Paterson Job Evaluation System
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The Paterson System is used extensively in Southern Africa and more particularly in
Zambia, South Africa, Botswana and Zimbabwe in all sectors of the economy.
The system is also extensively used in other developing countries such as India and
first world countries such as Canada, Holland and Britain.
The primary reasons for the extensive use of the Paterson System are as follows:
❖ It is an international system, which is recognized by the International Labour
Organization (ILO).
❖ It provides a fair base for establishing the relative worth of jobs.
❖ It is easily understood and explained at all levels in the organization
❖ All jobs across the organization are treated the same
❖ It is versatile and flexible. Since it is based on a common factor it is appropriate
in situations where a wide variety of job types and categories have to be
evaluated within different functions and different locations
❖ It is one of the quickest methods of Job Evaluation both from the point of view of
writing the job description and in the grading process.
❖ Because of its relatively simple style and easy understanding, it is relatively cost
effective to implement
6. THE JOB GRADING COMMITTEE
The task of the Grading Committee is to discuss, approve and maintain the overall
organization’s hierarchy of jobs according to the grading rules.
6.1 Composition of the Grading Committee
The Grading Committee normally comprises the following:
Chairperson: A Senior Manager/HR Official/Consultant
Committee Members: Management & Employee Representatives
Committee Secretary: Appointed Secretary
All members of the Grading Committee must be adequately trained and must have the
confidence to competently grade jobs in the organization.
A Grading Committee should consist of the following trained members:
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‘Core’ Members
At least ten (10) members should be present at all Job Grading Committee meetings.
Core members must be thoroughly experienced in the evaluation system. One core
member will usually be the permanent Chairperson of the Committee. The core
members’ main function will be to ensure that the evaluation system is properly applied
and administered.
‘Specialist’ Members
Specialist members can be called in when required to give expert input regarding the
particular job that is being evaluated.
Other Members
The rest of the Committee can be made up from suitably certificated members from all
levels and disciplines within the organization.
7. PATERSON JOB GRADING PROCEDURE
All the job descriptions for jobs subject of grading must be readily available to the
Grading Committee.
Grading should be done in three stages – Banding, Grading and Sub-Grading as
outlined below:
7.1 Banding
Initially, each job is read out for the entire Grading Committee to gain an overall
assessment of the job, its Job Responsibilities, Job Dimensions and Job Requirements.
Only when the Grading Committee has expressed full appreciation of the job can it be
banded. Banding refers to placement of a job in an appropriate Decision Band
depending with the types of decisions made.
7.2 Grading
The next step is to place the job in the Coordinating (Upper) or Non-coordinating
(Lower) part of the Decision Band. The term “coordinating” applies to those jobs which
have the responsibility allocate work, ensure that the work is done correctly and reward
or discipline the team.
7.3 Sub grading
Sub grading involves placing a job in a specific sub-grade within a Decision Band. All
sub-grades are assessed in terms of the Grading Rules. Additional grading techniques
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are attached. At this stage it is beneficial to have reference to the matrix chart showing
where all the previous jobs have been graded in order that the essential cross
comparisons can be made.
7.4 Continuum of Skills
The grading of “staff positions” and exceptions dealt with in the light of the ‘Continuum
of Skills’ are always a matter of precedent. If the Grading Committee is to be consistent
in its future grading, it is necessary to record the reasons for all such decisions.
7.5 The Grading Record Form
The grading result of every job is entered on the Grading Record Form by the
Committee Secretary, and a permanent copy of the form is attached to each job. (See
Appendix I).
7.6 Consensus during Grading
Ideally the Grading Committee should reach a consensus on every job. In the event of a
divided panel, after full discussion, the Chairman has the right to cast the final vote.
7.8 Validation of the Grading Results
Following the completion of the grading, the Grading Committee will prepare a job
grading matrix. This is to provide a comparative overview of the final grades, and must
be fully discussed, amended if necessary, and agreed by the Committee prior to
bringing closure to the grading process.
7.9 Final Ratification of Grading Results
The grading results will then be submitted to the Executive Management of the
Organization for final ratification. In the event that the Top Management has concerns
regarding these results, they are not empowered to change the grades. They will
channel their concerns to the Grading Committee for consideration.
7.10 Confidentiality of Grading
The Grading Committee will observe total confidentiality of all activities and
discussions at all times during grading. This confidentiality shall not be broken at any
time in the future for any reason whatsoever.
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8. PROTECTING AND MAINTAINING THE SYSTEM
8.1 Once the Paterson system has been installed, it is vital that it is maintained thus
ensuring that it remains relevant to the organization’s needs
8.2 Never re-grade a job unless there is an appropriate change in job content
8.3 No one individual is allowed to change job grades – only the Job Grading or
Appeals Committee can effect changes to the job grading structure
8.4 Always grade the job itself, not the person in the job. Job Evaluation is impersonal
and takes no account of the quality, competence or effort that a person brings into
the job.
8.5 Never grade jobs with people or salaries in mind.
8.6 The Grading Committee should meet at least once a year to evaluate jobs and/or
validate job grading matrix (or sooner if required).
8.7 The organization should adopt a Job Evaluation Policy which defines the job
evaluation parameters. Through this policy all Managers, Supervisors and
employees should understand the following procedures, which are detailed below:
8.7.1 Requests for Re-evaluation
Any dissatisfaction with a job grade must be conveyed by the employee to his/her
immediate supervisor, who will then liaise with the HR Department. A Request for
Review of Grading Form (Appendix II) will be completed by the employee and
submitted to the HR Department. The HR will check the job description in conjunction
with the employee and his/her Supervisor.
If there are any major changes in the job, the job description will be re-written and
submitted to the Appeals Committee. The decision of the Appeals Committee is final.
8.7.2 New Jobs
Where a new job is created, the HR will be responsible for having the job description
written and submitted to the Grading Committee. To the extent that this is possible, this
must always be done prior to the post being filled. However if this is not possible, a
provisional job grade is allocated by the HR department. Thereafter the job has to be
brought before the Grading Committee within a year and a substantive grade allocated
by the Committee.
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8.8.3 Routine Checking Procedure
To ensure that the job description for each job is checked at least once every year, the
HR will draw up a schedule indicating which jobs are to be reviewed at what time. The
relevant line Supervisor will be responsible for ensuring that all job descriptions within
his/her area are checked according to the schedule, which will be predetermined in a
strictly routine order.
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APPENDIX I
GRADING RECORD FORM
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SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES
GRADING RECORD FORM
JOB NUMBER JOB TITLE
SBU
DIVISION DEPARTMENT
LOCATION DATE OF
GRADING
STAGE OF GRADING COMMENTS / REASONS IF NECESSARY
BAND
GRADE
SUB GRADE
------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
COMMITTEE SECRETARY (NAME) SIGNATURE
------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSON (NAME) SIGNATURE
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APPENDIX II
BANDING GUIDELINES
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Additional Guidelines for Banding
1. Is this job at the top of the organization?
2. Does it involve making long term policy decisions with wide
limits of discretion, which establish criteria for internal
planning?
3. For example, do such decisions involve answering some or all
of the following questions:
a. What business are we in?
b. What markets are we in?
c. What production process should we use?
d. What finance should we use?
NO
1. Does this job involve decision on long term programmes,
plans or budgets for major function/group of functions
where co-ordination across other major functions is a
critical activity?
2. Do such programmes, plans or budgets stem from
statements of policy and decisions made in F Band?
3. Does the job require the incumbent to set objectives for the
functional area(s) and to allocate resources to meet such
objectives?
NO
1. Does the job involve taking decisions to interpret the overall
programme and develop plans to make the programme work
within that functional area?
2. Do such plans detail the specific organization, systems and
processes which will be followed as routine procedures in the
future to meet the objectives of the programme?
3. Does the job involve the co-ordination of workers from
disciplines outside of the incumbent’s own skills area to ensure
optimum performance?
NO
YES F BAND
YES E BAND
YES D BAND
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1. Does the job involve deciding which process to use from those
established either within the organization or in trade or in
occupational theory?
2. Does this job require that an incumbent have a thorough
understanding for the theory and/or systems behind the
processes used in the job before the job can be done
successfully?
NO
1. Are there aspects to this job which involve occurrences or
situations which cannot be foreseen which means that the job
cannot be completely ‘procedurised’ and that the incumbent
must have some experience in the job before it can be done
successfully?
2. Does the job entail deciding how best to carry out the
operations, within the process which has been selected, i.e.
regarding tools, sequence, timing, etc
NO
1. Is the job completely defined, involving only simple decisions
on how the elements of an operation are carried out, e.g. how
fast or slow to work?
2. Is the job defined by the very nature of the tool/implement to
be and the process of procedures in the work place?
3. Can the job be completely ‘procedurised’ with all possible
occurrences foreseen and catered for e.g. ‘if this happens, do
that’ – ‘if that happens, do this’
‘And if the other thing happens call the supervisor!’
YES C BAND
YES B BAND
YES A BAND
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GENERAL FACTORS REGARDING D-BAND JOBS (Interpretive Level)
❖ Interpretive aspect based on choice of best decision out of a spectrum of
possible decisions.
❖ Implications must be carefully considered as the impact could rebound.
❖ The Manager knows WHY people have to do certain things.
❖ Concerned with structures, systems, processes and procedures, rules and
regulations to support strategy
❖ Solutions must be carefully considered in the light of possible implications.
❖ Solutions are developed through active investigation and testing of possible
conclusions.
❖ Extensive knowledge and co-ordination of complex systems.
❖ Decisions are within general guidelines of :
▪ Company policies
▪ Translated company plans into working decision
❖ Must have authority to change relevant rules and regulations, and procedures.
❖ Retains right to interpret and decide on unique situations not covered.
❖ Must consider whole series of possibilities before making decisions.
❖ Tactical decisions – allocation of resources.
❖ Generally holds responsibility for department’s/ section‘s overall functioning and
procedural approach.
❖ Reviews, recommends on, department/sectional organization structures and is
held responsible for:
▪ Performance levels/measurements
▪ Departmental discipline/motivation of staff
▪ Appointment of staff
▪ Remuneration of staff
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GENERAL FACTORS REGARDING C-BAND JOBS (Routine Level)
❖ Concerned with execution processes a process is an integrated combination of
tasks, which requires an understanding by the employee of the way in which
tasks have been combined before s/he can carry out the process at an
acceptable level of competency
❖ Qualifications and experience required.
❖ Has to understand the:
▪ Theoretical components
▪ Systematic components to operate successfully.
❖ Knowledge of procedures, systems and theory required to ensure the employee
is in a position to choose or take decision regarding which technique or routine
he will follow once the alternatives have been studied.
❖ The employee is matching:
▪ Routines
▪ Techniques
▪ Procedures to changing circumstances.
❖ Does not establish the rules
❖ Works within established processes, rules and regulations
❖ May devise new operations to suit situation
❖ Chooses which process to use
❖ Ability to determine the correct solutions to straightforward problems therefore
needs background knowledge
❖ Problems do not have a set pattern – can be solved by relating to past
happenings
❖ Supervision in terms of end results
❖ Allowed discretion in the way the job undertaken
❖ Clear rules do exist to govern general pattern of behaviour – general instructions
given
❖ Understanding of communication based on the full discipline
❖ Limited number of written documentation
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▪ Technical data
▪ Works procedures
▪ Manuals
GENERAL FACTORS REGARDING B-BAND JOBS (Automatic Level)
❖ Basic skill can be taught
❖ Acceptable standard obtained by further experience
❖ Not all possible situations can be defined/envisaged
❖ The trainee cannot experience all skills and judgment in situations
❖ Once relevant experience gained, decisions become semi-repetitive
❖ A certain amount of discretion necessary to arrive at solutions
❖ Minimal degree of freedom allowed - supervision always available
❖ Actions subject to close control
❖ Scope of variation is limited
❖ Some choice required to select alternatives
❖ Preset courses of action
❖ Actions to be taken have been defined
❖ Knowledge of standardized routines
▪ Activities are essentially alike
▪ Limited number of routines
❖ Understanding of simple but varied communication
GENERAL FACTORS REGARDING A-BAND JOBS (Defined Level)
❖ Taught exactly what to do
❖ Once taught very little further experience needed
❖ Decision are so simple – they do not materially affect the acceptable standard of
performance
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❖ Reacts on direct instructions, no independent decisions
❖ Responds to a single or very limited number of clues/information; these are clear
and alternative choices are obvious
❖ Errors have little impact and can usually be remedied by supervision
❖ Knowledge of basic requirements needed to perform job
❖ Responds to simple routine situations
❖ Strict supervision over actions
❖ No formal training required
❖ Maybe low level read/write
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APPENDIX III
ADDITIONAL SUB-GRADING TECHNIQUES
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ADDITIONAL SUB-GRADING TECHNIQUES
As stated, when jobs are being evaluated, generally the Grading Committee will
proceed as follows:
Band the job (into A to F)
Grade the Job (into Lower or Upper)
Sub-grade the job (into sub-grades 1 to 5)
Though the grading rules are detailed in Appendix III, the under mentioned are
additional techniques which should be followed to assist in placing the jobs more
accurately.
The Grading of Supervisory or Coordinative Jobs
A supervisory job can only be graded as such if the jobs being supervised are in the
same ‘decision band’. However, this does not prevent that job being graded at higher
level in the non-supervisory part of the next decision band, provided the job includes
tasks at that level.
It may become necessary to increase the number of grades for the supervisory/
coordinative part of a decision band in order to differentiate between the amount of
supervision required in comparable jobs. However, there should not be more than two
sub-grades for each supervisory portion of a band.
When it becomes necessary to compare supervisory jobs, the first criterion will be the
number of people from the same decision band who are being supervised (span of
control). Theoretically the larger the span of control, the more difficult the job becomes.
The second will be that a person who supervises several different types of work has a
more difficult job than a person supervising only one or two types of activities.
Geographical location and environment will also be taken to account at this time.
Grading of Staff Posts
The grading of staff (as opposed to line) posts is often difficult because the incumbent
often provides the analysis of alternatives and recommendations to their superiors for a
final decision. Thus the decision-making in these posts is often at a low level. To
overcome this it is necessary to relate the work done and the recommendations made
to the position and grading of the incumbent’s superior. Because this is a subjective
process such grading should only be done at the end of the grading session, so that
comparisons can be made, and care taken to ensure conscientious review.
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Grading Jobs Affected by the ‘Continuum of Skills’ Issue
Occasionally, there is a job, which requires a very high level of skill, but the incumbent
is not required to supervise others in the same Band. When this occurs, the Grading
Committee sometimes finds it very hard to accept that the job must be graded in the
lower half of the Band. The Chairman of the Grading Committee should always insist on
grading according to the rules, but be prepared to review such cases at the end of the
grading exercise. In such instances, one recognizes that there is a continuum of skills,
and the jobs are graded to meet the needs of the organization.
Additionally
It should be remembered that though the ‘decision making’ factor appears to stand
alone, the level of decision making in a job is in fact, impacted by a variety of other
factors. These should be taken account of when the job is assessed:
❖ Amount of planning in the job
❖ Time elapsed between making a decision and knowing if it is right
❖ Reporting authorities
❖ Supervisory input
❖ The short/ medium/long term planning
❖ Stress (pressure)
❖ Tolerance (degree of accuracy)
❖ Variety (number of different elements)
❖ Sequence (length of cycle or process required in a job)
❖ Complexity
❖ Education/ training/ qualifications required
❖ Physical effort
There are many other additional guidelines in the sub-grading rules, which, for the lower
grades, revolve principally around the education and experience required for the job.
For example, a Band A1 job would only require ‘training’ for approximately an hour, with
no experience. A Band B1 job would require training for approximately 1 month to 1.5
years and approximately 1 year’s experience, and a Band C has to have a minimum of
3 plus years training/experience.
The assessment of the higher Bands D, E and F is more subjective, as the guidelines
are not so exact. However, based on the job descriptions, and on the Committee’s
knowledge of the organization, its existing structure, corporate/divisional objectives,
strategy, long term planning and so on, the Bands and Grades can be set fairly easily.
Additional, cognizance has to be taken of all the points listed above, and of the guide
lines provided in the grading rules.
If the jobs are written up and analyzed fully, there is no doubt that the resultant grades
will meet the needs of the organization, and are as accurate as they will be under any
other Jon Evaluation system.
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In Bands A, B and C consideration should be given to the following degrees of
frequency:
❖ Few decisions: taken at leisure with no great pressure although occasional peaks
may bring in an element of urgency.
❖ Frequent decision: under normal pressure. On some occasions immediate
decisions are taken.
❖ Frequent decisions: under variable but definite pressure. Peaks in work load may
create time stress or the continuous pressure allows for only occasional breaks.
In Bands D and E consideration should be given to these degrees of frequency:
❖ Frequent decisions: under normal pressure but variable with peaks in work load
creating time stress.
❖ Frequent decisions: under continuous pressure allowing for only occasional
breaks.
❖ Numerous decisions: under great pressure with regular, even conflicting deadlines
which bring definite time stress throughout the working day. There will often be the
requirement to work overtime.
PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 25
APPENDIX IV
REQUEST FOR A REVIEW OF GRADING
FORM
PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 26
SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES
REQUEST FOR REVIEW OF FORM
JOB TITLE…………………………… JOB NUMBER…………………………...…
DATE OF REQUEST………………. CURRENT GRADE………………………...
DATE OF GRADING………………… DIVISION…………………………………...
DEPARTMENT……………………….. LOCATION…………………………………
REASONS FOR ASKING FOR A REVIEW (Please tick appropriate box)
NEW JOB
JOB CONTENT HAS CHANGED
JOB DESCRIPTION IS INACCURATE
GRADING APPEARS WRONG WHEN COMPARED TO SIMILAR JOBS
COMMENTS (Please explain the problem in a few short sentences)
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
The New/Amended Job Description is attached (where there is NOT a
NEW Job Description please highlight the new elements of the
description)
SIGNED……………………………….
INCUMBENT………………………………... DATE………………………………
SUPERVISOR……………………………….. DATE………………………………
LINE MANAGER………..…………………… DATE……………………………
GUIDELINES FOR GRADING JOBS
Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades
Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines
BAND F: POLICY DECISIONS
At the top of the organisation,making
decisions framing the policy affecting the Coordinating M anaging Laws of the country, Policy in all major areas Normally Coordinators of F Lower employees who make
entire enterprise. These decisions are Policy Director economic conditions, of operation. F2 'Policy' Decisions
regarde as being superior to any other broad market conditions, For example:
decisions. They are associated w ith broad Political climate, M anufacturing
level management and give overall direction availability of finance and Production
to the organisation. The limits are w ide and Policy Executive demographic Financial The employees make 'Policy' Decisions
in many cases only specified by the law s Directors considerations M arketing F1
of the land. Ususally decisions made at Personnel
Board level.
BAND E: PROGAMMING DECISIONS
Within the limits set by the policy, the Coordinating General
execution is broadly planned or programming M anager Policy direction in major The organisation E2 Normally coordinators of E Lower employees who make
programmed for the major functions such areas of the operation. structure of major Programming' Decisions.
as production, sales, marketing, personnel Assist G.M For example: functional areas; Overall
and finance. Includes establishing capital Programming M arketing Production programmes;
investments and budgets. Long term M anager Finance Relationships and interlink E1 The employee makes 'Programming' Decisions
planning done at this level affects jobs Production M arketing between major functions
graded at the same level or below . M anager Personnel to ensure coordination;
Financial Engineering M ajor operating
Controller objectives.
PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 29
Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades
Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines
BAND D: INTERPRETIVE DECISIONS
The limits of discretion for interpretive Departmental
decisions are set by the master plan, Coordinating M anager Programme Process, systems and D5 Normally Coordinators of grade 4 level employees
programme or budget. The interpretive Interpretive Senior Project M ajor Objectives procedures. Rules and
aspect comes from the choice of a best Engineer M ajor functions regulations. Localised D4 Normally Coordinators of grade D lower employees
decision out of a range of possible courses Personnel Broad Organisational plans/ programmes.
of action ( decisions). The limits of this M anager structure Interpretations not
range are set by the programme. These Interpretive Senior covered by exisiting rules. D3 Wide spectrum of 'interpretive' decisions are made. Generally
decisions often involve determining the Engineer Plant manuals. Details of has in-depth knowledge of the company policies, proceedures
best use of available manpow er, money Accountants organisation and allocation and authority to change rule and regulations within the limits of
and machines to achieve the targets M anagement of responsibility within area discretion. M ust have ability to consider the whole 'picture'
agreed in the programme. Outcomes at Accountants of influence. and all the possibilities/ choices arising within the relevent
this level are normally probabilistic Operations rules and regulations
M anager D2 A 'Spectrum' of several 'interpretive' decisions are made
Training Will generally know company rules and regulations well, and
M anager be able to make accurate decisions with this knowledge
Branch Should be able to asses most of the choices/ possibilities
M anager offered at the time and decide the best method to follow
Chief Industrial
Engineer D1 A few 'interpretive decisions are made. Generally has the same
Superintendant ability and knowledge, but not neccesarily the same
experience, as the next level within the D Band. Will be
expected to make decisions based on a 'probablistic' choice
within particular circumstances, but will only be expected to
accept the full accountability for choices made at his / her
own level (major decisions involving company rules/
regulations and similar should be referred upwards.
PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 30
Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades
Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines
BAND C: ROUTINE DECISIONS
The rules and proceedures have been set out by Service M anager
the interpretive decisions. What is to be done has Coordinating Workshop Process Operations ie how the rule C5 Normally Coordinators of Grade C4 employees
already been decided and the next level of decision Routine M anager Established practice will be applied to the
(routine) is the choice in which it is to be carried out Foreman Rules and Regulations particular problem in hand. C4 Normally Coordinators of C Band employees
The employee is concerned not only with Section Leader Systems For example, a chief clerk
operations but also with process. (A process is an Trade Knowledge will decide how the statistics
integrated combination of operations which Routine Draughtsman will be tabulated, or how a
requires an understanding by the employee of the Planner return will be collated in the C3 There should be a 'wide' range of 'Routine' Decisions made at
way in which operations have been combined Chief Clerk light of the needs of the this level. The employee, with the requisite knowledge/ skill s/
before he can carry out the process at an Inspectors accountant, or how a filing experience has a very large variety of process to choose from.
acceptable standard). It often means that the Technician system should be organised. He/ she is working to stricter requirements and the 'tolerances'
employee must acquire qualifications or Tradesman demand are very much finer than for the lower level of
considerable experience (3+years) which will decision bands.
ensure that he will understand the theoratical and/or
systematic components of the process. Since the C2 Several 'Routine' Decisions are made. The employee will have
process demands a knowledge of proceedures, the neccesary knowledge/ qualifications for the C band, but
systems or theory, the employee is in a position to will probably need additional experience within the organisation
choose or take decisions regarding which technique to cope with the extended routines/processes of the
or routine he will follow once he has summed up particular job. The employee will have a large variety of
what the requirements of the particular situation are. processes to choose from, and the 'cycle of activities' will
The end result of what is needed is decided for him. be longer than that at C1
.
for example, keeping a set of accounts to meet an
accounting system and producing financial
statements, or turning a metal object to C1 Few 'Routine' Decisions are made. The employee has to
specification or replacing the brakes of a car. understand the theoratical and systematic components to
He is matching routines, techniques, proceedures operate his/ her job successfully. The employee however,
to changing circumstances. is expected to work within a limited choice of processes,
Outcomes of this level are normally pre-determined and does not take accountability for jobs with extensive
and the decisions taken are routne. routines/processes. The choice of processes and the 'cycle
Requires more than three years continuous training, of activities' are limited.
and/ or experience after a basic level of education.
PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 31
Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades
Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines
BAND B: AUTOMATIC/ DISCRETIONARY DECISIONS
This involves work in which the processes are B5 Coordinates B4 employees. This is also an advanced training
defined and freedom of choice is restricted to the Supervisory/ Chargehand Operations. ( How do the Elements that make up the grade between semi skilled jobs.
operations. Coordinating Senior Typist operations work?) operation, for example, B4 The employee is normally a Grade B3 employee. Additionally
Some decisions have to be learnt in the job Automatic Senior Driver arithmetical calculations he has extensive experience with the department or in a
because decisions have to be made on how to do within given formulae, or similar job, and he normally supervises B Band employees.
the operations in the job. adjustment of machinery B3 The employee is not fully skilled. However he has developed,
Basic skills can be taught but before an acceptable Automatic Operators within prescribed limits. with experience, so that he can carry out departmental
standard of performance can be obtained, Clerks routines: neither is he left fully on his own in this type of work.
additional experience and practice is necessary. Typists is generally responsible for several 'cycle of activities' and
The why,what, where and when of the job is decided Receptiionist has more job related experience than the lower levels.
for him Drivers B2 The cycle of activities is longer than at B1Level and
The way in which his part of the job fits is also Security Guards presents a more varied array of cues for the employee to
decided for him. respond to.Once acceptable standards of performance have
He has to decide, in addition to the best been reached, jobs may still become semi- repetitive.
movements to do the operation, the best tools or Previous experince in a related Band B job may be
equipment to use from within a limited range. required and/or additional training is necessary.
He does not know immediately, but within a The job requires skill in a variety of operations performed
short time( one day to two months) whether the within a department. A knowledge of how these operations
job has been done correctly. fit together improves skill in performing these operations.
Not all possible situations in which the employee The employee can learn all these operations and how they fit
will find himself on this job can be envisaged. together and can be left on his own with:
Once the skill and experience have been acquired, formal training after 4-6 months
the incumbent can perform the tasks automatically, on-the-job experience in about 1year
for example, driving a motor vehicle or operating B1 The cycle of activities is limited and once acceptable
certain machinery. level of basic skill has been reached , the job becomes semi-
Continuous training required is more than one repetitive.
month and up to three years. can be taught familiarity with the basic equipment /forms/
operations and how to make decisions within 3-4 weeks.If
taught on the job, where the cycle of operations takes longer,
within three months
Supervisors of Band A employees
PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 32
Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades
Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines
BAND A: DEFINED DECISIONS
These are called defined decisions because with Defined Operator Elements of the job ( I.e. Speed of operation A3 The cycle of activities is greater and the cues may be more
very little training the employee knows exactly what Tabulating the very small parts of the complex. Tolerances demanded in the operation are finer.
to do and has few or no decisions to make with the Clerks job e.g. dusting the office) The variety of processes is larger.
exceptions of how fast or slow he works. Labourer
The Why, Where, How, What and When of the job to M essenger
be done is decided for him.
The equipment to be used in performing the job is A2 Some training before he/she can be left on his/her own and
clearly laid down (specified). expected to do the job properly
The movements used in the job are clearly laid down Greater skill and knowledge through experience
or self-evident. Very heavy physical effort
If there are different ways of doing the job, they make M ore than one cycle of 'activity.'
no real difference to the end result, for example,
from which corner to start sweeping the room.
The employee does not have to know how his job
fits in with any others to complete the job A1 Simple defined work
satisfactorily. Requiring little or no training
Whether or not the job has been succesfully done Cues to respond to are limited in number
is known immediately. Tasks are predominantly of a manual labouring nature,
Once taught, he can perform the job to an for example fetching, carrying, loading, sweeping:or if clerical
acceptable standard without any further experience simply involving transposition of information from one
in the job beyond what he obtained in the training document to another
period. Low to medium effort most of the time
Training period minimal (less than 1month-
normally a few hours to a few days).
N.B Supervisors of Grade A jobs are placed in B1

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Paterson Framework of Job Evaluation at Workplace

  • 1. Paterson JOB EVALUATION MANUAL MARCH 11, 2022 PROSERVE CONSULTING GROUP
  • 2. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 1 CONTENTS ITEM PAGE 1. Understanding Job Evaluation 2 2. Benefits of Job Evaluation 2 3. Important Stages of the Job Evaluation Process 3 4. Principles of Job Evaluation 3 5. The Paterson Job Evaluation System 4 6. The Job Grading Committee 7 7. Paterson Job Grading Procedure 8 8. Protecting and Maintaining the System 10 Appendices Appendix I Grading Record Form Appendix II Banding Guidelines Appendix III Additional Sub-grading Techniques Appendix IV Request for Review of Grading Form
  • 3. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 2 1. UNDERSTANDING JOB EVALUATION 1.1 Job Evaluation is a systematic, consistent and objective process of analyzing and comparing jobs within an organization to arrive at different job levels or a “pecking order”. It is a process of determining the relative worth of various jobs within an organization. 1.2 Job evaluation does not consider individual characteristics, personality or performance of employees but only focuses on job content and the contribution of the job to the organization. 1.3 It is therefore important that the job content is captured properly and comprehensively in a job description. The approved job descriptions are the basis of any job grading process in an organization. Job grading isn’t concerned about individual characteristics, volumes of work, personality, performance or determining salary levels – Job evaluation analyzes & grades jobs on the basis of job content only! 2. BENEFITS OF JOB EVALUATION 2.1 The organization can derive a number of benefits from a properly implemented job evaluation system, viz: ❖ Accounting for organizational changes and their impact on jobs ❖ Determining the relative importance of jobs in an organization ❖ Establishing a sound and logical hierarchy of jobs which will form the basis of a number of other organizational processes ❖ Providing a basis for equitable and consistent remuneration structures ❖ Outlining job relationships and job limits ❖ Instilling discipline in the design of jobs ❖ Knowing all jobs and job holders ❖ Comprehensive understanding of the organization structure with regards to: ▪ Keys areas of responsibility ▪ Levels of authority and accountability ▪ Lines of communication ▪ Spans of control ▪ Job design ▪ Manning levels
  • 4. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 3 ❖ Providing critical input in the following HR processes: ▪ Recruitment and selection ▪ Training needs analysis ▪ Performance management ▪ Career development ▪ Manpower planning 3. IMPORTANT STAGES OF THE JOB EVALUATION PROCESS 3.1 The job evaluation process consists of the following key stages: ❖ Selection of a job evaluation system ❖ Review of strategy and organization structures ❖ Designing a job description template aligned to the chosen system ❖ Deciding on project implementation structures ❖ Selection and training of Job Analysts ❖ Job description writing process ❖ Selection and training of Job Grading Committee ❖ Selection and training of Job Evaluation Appeals Committee ❖ Grading of all jobs in the organization ❖ Appeals process 4. PRINCIPLES OF JOB EVALUATION 4.1 Job evaluation is conducted using the following core guiding principles: ❖ Always examine the job itself, NOT the jobholder ❖ Competence and proper performance, in accordance with normal standards for the job, must be assumed on the part of the job incumbent ❖ The job should be evaluated “as is”, not with regard to ideals or future projections that may never be attained ❖ Evaluation must be based on consensus of opinion – team based approach
  • 5. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 4 5. THE PATERSON JOB EVALUATION SYSTEM 5.1 The Paterson system was developed by Professor Thomas Thompson Paterson (1909 – 1994) while studying Job Evaluation systems at the University of Strathcylde, Glasgow 5.2 Paterson believed that the number of factors used in various job evaluation systems (as many as 25) rendered the job evaluation process cumbersome 5.3 He consequently investigated the degree of correlation between factors using factor analysis, and came to the conclusion that the one factor, ‘Decision Making’ had such a high predictive validity over other factors that it alone could be used to measure job levels 5.4 Based on this philosophy, Paterson developed a system, which measures jobs in terms of the “Decision Making” required of the job 5.5 The system defines 6 Bands of Decision-Making common to all jobs (irrespective of industry) 5.6 The level of complexity/difficulty of decisions increases from completely Defined decisions at the “A Band” (primary skilled workers) to Policy-making decisions at “F Band” (top management) Decision Band Organizational Level Type of Decision F Top Management ▪ Policy Decisions ▪ Strategic Business Direction E Executive Management ▪ Programming Decisions ▪ Strategic Execution/Long term Planning D Senior/Middle Management ▪ Interpretive Decisions ▪ Tactical Management C Advanced Operational ▪ Routine Decisions ▪ Processes/Systems B Operational ▪ Automatic Decisions ▪ Operative/Sub-system A Basic ▪ Defined Decisions ▪ Primary Skills
  • 6. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 5 5.7 The Decision Bands are explained below as follows: Band F – Policy Making Decisions (Top Management) Overall policy decisions are regarded as being superior to any other decisions. They are associated with Top Management and give the overall direction to the organization. The limits are very wide and in many cases are only specified by the laws of the land. Top management decides on policy in all major areas of the business. Band E – Programming Decisions (Executive Management) The executive policy is broadly planned or programmed within the limits of discretion set by top management. Executive management decides on organization structures, the overall programme for major functions, the relationship between major functions and the operational objectives. Band D – Interpretive Decisions (Senior/Middle Management) The limits of discretion for interpretive decisions are set by executive management’s programme, plan or budget. The interpretive aspect comes from the choice of a best decision out of a spectrum of possible decisions within their limits of discretion. These decisions often involve determining the best use of available manpower and equipment to achieve the targets agreed in the programme. Middle management decides on systems and procedures, rules and regulations, plant manuals, localization plans/programmes and interpretations not covered by existing rules, that is ‘what to do’. . Band C – Routine Decisions (Skilled/Advanced Staff) Once the rules have been set by the interpretive decisions, execution begins. What is to be done has already been decided and the next level of decision making is the choice of the way in which it is to be carried out from established processes, practice, systems, trade knowledge and rules and regulations. People taking these decisions can decide which processes to use – they know the operations. They must decide ‘how’, ‘where’ and ‘when’. Band B – Automatic Decisions (Semi-skilled/Operational Staff) This involves work in which the processes are defined and freedom of choice is restricted to the operations. Within the routines and procedures of the job – the how – the employee decides ‘where’ and ‘when’ he carries out the operations that constitute the process. Band A – Defined Decisions (Basic/Primary-Skilled Staff) The decisions made by the employees are defined and the employee is left with little
  • 7. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 6 choice other than speed of (when) and variations in control of the elements of an operation. 5.8 Taking this a step further, each Band, except A Band, is then divided into two Grades, the Upper Grade supervising or coordinating the work of the lower grade. This produces the 11 classic grades (see the schedule below). These are known as the ‘spine’ of the Paterson System, and placing jobs into these grades is easy and relatively objective. 5.9 These Grades are further divided into Sub-grades. The Grades are sub-dived into three Sub-grades in each Lower Grade and two in each Upper Grade (irrespective of the size of the organization). Experience has proved this to be correct, and there is no need to increase the number of sub-grades. 5.10 Paterson also provides further grading rules, and additional ‘techniques’ for sub- grading. Band Decision Grade Organizational Level F Policy Coordinating Non Coordinating 11 10 Top Management E Programming Coordinating Non Coordinating 9 8 Executive Management D Interpretive Coordinating Non Coordinating 7 6 Senior/Middle Management C Routine Coordinating Non Coordinating 5 4 Advanced Operational/ Skilled Staff B Automatic Coordinating Non Coordinating 3 2 Operational/Semi- Skilled Staff A Defined 1 Basic/Primary-skilled Staff Advantages of the Paterson Job Evaluation System
  • 8. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 7 The Paterson System is used extensively in Southern Africa and more particularly in Zambia, South Africa, Botswana and Zimbabwe in all sectors of the economy. The system is also extensively used in other developing countries such as India and first world countries such as Canada, Holland and Britain. The primary reasons for the extensive use of the Paterson System are as follows: ❖ It is an international system, which is recognized by the International Labour Organization (ILO). ❖ It provides a fair base for establishing the relative worth of jobs. ❖ It is easily understood and explained at all levels in the organization ❖ All jobs across the organization are treated the same ❖ It is versatile and flexible. Since it is based on a common factor it is appropriate in situations where a wide variety of job types and categories have to be evaluated within different functions and different locations ❖ It is one of the quickest methods of Job Evaluation both from the point of view of writing the job description and in the grading process. ❖ Because of its relatively simple style and easy understanding, it is relatively cost effective to implement 6. THE JOB GRADING COMMITTEE The task of the Grading Committee is to discuss, approve and maintain the overall organization’s hierarchy of jobs according to the grading rules. 6.1 Composition of the Grading Committee The Grading Committee normally comprises the following: Chairperson: A Senior Manager/HR Official/Consultant Committee Members: Management & Employee Representatives Committee Secretary: Appointed Secretary All members of the Grading Committee must be adequately trained and must have the confidence to competently grade jobs in the organization. A Grading Committee should consist of the following trained members:
  • 9. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 8 ‘Core’ Members At least ten (10) members should be present at all Job Grading Committee meetings. Core members must be thoroughly experienced in the evaluation system. One core member will usually be the permanent Chairperson of the Committee. The core members’ main function will be to ensure that the evaluation system is properly applied and administered. ‘Specialist’ Members Specialist members can be called in when required to give expert input regarding the particular job that is being evaluated. Other Members The rest of the Committee can be made up from suitably certificated members from all levels and disciplines within the organization. 7. PATERSON JOB GRADING PROCEDURE All the job descriptions for jobs subject of grading must be readily available to the Grading Committee. Grading should be done in three stages – Banding, Grading and Sub-Grading as outlined below: 7.1 Banding Initially, each job is read out for the entire Grading Committee to gain an overall assessment of the job, its Job Responsibilities, Job Dimensions and Job Requirements. Only when the Grading Committee has expressed full appreciation of the job can it be banded. Banding refers to placement of a job in an appropriate Decision Band depending with the types of decisions made. 7.2 Grading The next step is to place the job in the Coordinating (Upper) or Non-coordinating (Lower) part of the Decision Band. The term “coordinating” applies to those jobs which have the responsibility allocate work, ensure that the work is done correctly and reward or discipline the team. 7.3 Sub grading Sub grading involves placing a job in a specific sub-grade within a Decision Band. All sub-grades are assessed in terms of the Grading Rules. Additional grading techniques
  • 10. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 9 are attached. At this stage it is beneficial to have reference to the matrix chart showing where all the previous jobs have been graded in order that the essential cross comparisons can be made. 7.4 Continuum of Skills The grading of “staff positions” and exceptions dealt with in the light of the ‘Continuum of Skills’ are always a matter of precedent. If the Grading Committee is to be consistent in its future grading, it is necessary to record the reasons for all such decisions. 7.5 The Grading Record Form The grading result of every job is entered on the Grading Record Form by the Committee Secretary, and a permanent copy of the form is attached to each job. (See Appendix I). 7.6 Consensus during Grading Ideally the Grading Committee should reach a consensus on every job. In the event of a divided panel, after full discussion, the Chairman has the right to cast the final vote. 7.8 Validation of the Grading Results Following the completion of the grading, the Grading Committee will prepare a job grading matrix. This is to provide a comparative overview of the final grades, and must be fully discussed, amended if necessary, and agreed by the Committee prior to bringing closure to the grading process. 7.9 Final Ratification of Grading Results The grading results will then be submitted to the Executive Management of the Organization for final ratification. In the event that the Top Management has concerns regarding these results, they are not empowered to change the grades. They will channel their concerns to the Grading Committee for consideration. 7.10 Confidentiality of Grading The Grading Committee will observe total confidentiality of all activities and discussions at all times during grading. This confidentiality shall not be broken at any time in the future for any reason whatsoever.
  • 11. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 10 8. PROTECTING AND MAINTAINING THE SYSTEM 8.1 Once the Paterson system has been installed, it is vital that it is maintained thus ensuring that it remains relevant to the organization’s needs 8.2 Never re-grade a job unless there is an appropriate change in job content 8.3 No one individual is allowed to change job grades – only the Job Grading or Appeals Committee can effect changes to the job grading structure 8.4 Always grade the job itself, not the person in the job. Job Evaluation is impersonal and takes no account of the quality, competence or effort that a person brings into the job. 8.5 Never grade jobs with people or salaries in mind. 8.6 The Grading Committee should meet at least once a year to evaluate jobs and/or validate job grading matrix (or sooner if required). 8.7 The organization should adopt a Job Evaluation Policy which defines the job evaluation parameters. Through this policy all Managers, Supervisors and employees should understand the following procedures, which are detailed below: 8.7.1 Requests for Re-evaluation Any dissatisfaction with a job grade must be conveyed by the employee to his/her immediate supervisor, who will then liaise with the HR Department. A Request for Review of Grading Form (Appendix II) will be completed by the employee and submitted to the HR Department. The HR will check the job description in conjunction with the employee and his/her Supervisor. If there are any major changes in the job, the job description will be re-written and submitted to the Appeals Committee. The decision of the Appeals Committee is final. 8.7.2 New Jobs Where a new job is created, the HR will be responsible for having the job description written and submitted to the Grading Committee. To the extent that this is possible, this must always be done prior to the post being filled. However if this is not possible, a provisional job grade is allocated by the HR department. Thereafter the job has to be brought before the Grading Committee within a year and a substantive grade allocated by the Committee.
  • 12. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 11 8.8.3 Routine Checking Procedure To ensure that the job description for each job is checked at least once every year, the HR will draw up a schedule indicating which jobs are to be reviewed at what time. The relevant line Supervisor will be responsible for ensuring that all job descriptions within his/her area are checked according to the schedule, which will be predetermined in a strictly routine order.
  • 13. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 12 APPENDIX I GRADING RECORD FORM
  • 14. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 13 SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES GRADING RECORD FORM JOB NUMBER JOB TITLE SBU DIVISION DEPARTMENT LOCATION DATE OF GRADING STAGE OF GRADING COMMENTS / REASONS IF NECESSARY BAND GRADE SUB GRADE ------------------------------------- ---------------------------------- COMMITTEE SECRETARY (NAME) SIGNATURE ------------------------------------- ---------------------------------- COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSON (NAME) SIGNATURE
  • 15. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 14 APPENDIX II BANDING GUIDELINES
  • 16. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 15 Additional Guidelines for Banding 1. Is this job at the top of the organization? 2. Does it involve making long term policy decisions with wide limits of discretion, which establish criteria for internal planning? 3. For example, do such decisions involve answering some or all of the following questions: a. What business are we in? b. What markets are we in? c. What production process should we use? d. What finance should we use? NO 1. Does this job involve decision on long term programmes, plans or budgets for major function/group of functions where co-ordination across other major functions is a critical activity? 2. Do such programmes, plans or budgets stem from statements of policy and decisions made in F Band? 3. Does the job require the incumbent to set objectives for the functional area(s) and to allocate resources to meet such objectives? NO 1. Does the job involve taking decisions to interpret the overall programme and develop plans to make the programme work within that functional area? 2. Do such plans detail the specific organization, systems and processes which will be followed as routine procedures in the future to meet the objectives of the programme? 3. Does the job involve the co-ordination of workers from disciplines outside of the incumbent’s own skills area to ensure optimum performance? NO YES F BAND YES E BAND YES D BAND
  • 17. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 16 1. Does the job involve deciding which process to use from those established either within the organization or in trade or in occupational theory? 2. Does this job require that an incumbent have a thorough understanding for the theory and/or systems behind the processes used in the job before the job can be done successfully? NO 1. Are there aspects to this job which involve occurrences or situations which cannot be foreseen which means that the job cannot be completely ‘procedurised’ and that the incumbent must have some experience in the job before it can be done successfully? 2. Does the job entail deciding how best to carry out the operations, within the process which has been selected, i.e. regarding tools, sequence, timing, etc NO 1. Is the job completely defined, involving only simple decisions on how the elements of an operation are carried out, e.g. how fast or slow to work? 2. Is the job defined by the very nature of the tool/implement to be and the process of procedures in the work place? 3. Can the job be completely ‘procedurised’ with all possible occurrences foreseen and catered for e.g. ‘if this happens, do that’ – ‘if that happens, do this’ ‘And if the other thing happens call the supervisor!’ YES C BAND YES B BAND YES A BAND
  • 18. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 17 GENERAL FACTORS REGARDING D-BAND JOBS (Interpretive Level) ❖ Interpretive aspect based on choice of best decision out of a spectrum of possible decisions. ❖ Implications must be carefully considered as the impact could rebound. ❖ The Manager knows WHY people have to do certain things. ❖ Concerned with structures, systems, processes and procedures, rules and regulations to support strategy ❖ Solutions must be carefully considered in the light of possible implications. ❖ Solutions are developed through active investigation and testing of possible conclusions. ❖ Extensive knowledge and co-ordination of complex systems. ❖ Decisions are within general guidelines of : ▪ Company policies ▪ Translated company plans into working decision ❖ Must have authority to change relevant rules and regulations, and procedures. ❖ Retains right to interpret and decide on unique situations not covered. ❖ Must consider whole series of possibilities before making decisions. ❖ Tactical decisions – allocation of resources. ❖ Generally holds responsibility for department’s/ section‘s overall functioning and procedural approach. ❖ Reviews, recommends on, department/sectional organization structures and is held responsible for: ▪ Performance levels/measurements ▪ Departmental discipline/motivation of staff ▪ Appointment of staff ▪ Remuneration of staff
  • 19. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 18 GENERAL FACTORS REGARDING C-BAND JOBS (Routine Level) ❖ Concerned with execution processes a process is an integrated combination of tasks, which requires an understanding by the employee of the way in which tasks have been combined before s/he can carry out the process at an acceptable level of competency ❖ Qualifications and experience required. ❖ Has to understand the: ▪ Theoretical components ▪ Systematic components to operate successfully. ❖ Knowledge of procedures, systems and theory required to ensure the employee is in a position to choose or take decision regarding which technique or routine he will follow once the alternatives have been studied. ❖ The employee is matching: ▪ Routines ▪ Techniques ▪ Procedures to changing circumstances. ❖ Does not establish the rules ❖ Works within established processes, rules and regulations ❖ May devise new operations to suit situation ❖ Chooses which process to use ❖ Ability to determine the correct solutions to straightforward problems therefore needs background knowledge ❖ Problems do not have a set pattern – can be solved by relating to past happenings ❖ Supervision in terms of end results ❖ Allowed discretion in the way the job undertaken ❖ Clear rules do exist to govern general pattern of behaviour – general instructions given ❖ Understanding of communication based on the full discipline ❖ Limited number of written documentation
  • 20. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 19 ▪ Technical data ▪ Works procedures ▪ Manuals GENERAL FACTORS REGARDING B-BAND JOBS (Automatic Level) ❖ Basic skill can be taught ❖ Acceptable standard obtained by further experience ❖ Not all possible situations can be defined/envisaged ❖ The trainee cannot experience all skills and judgment in situations ❖ Once relevant experience gained, decisions become semi-repetitive ❖ A certain amount of discretion necessary to arrive at solutions ❖ Minimal degree of freedom allowed - supervision always available ❖ Actions subject to close control ❖ Scope of variation is limited ❖ Some choice required to select alternatives ❖ Preset courses of action ❖ Actions to be taken have been defined ❖ Knowledge of standardized routines ▪ Activities are essentially alike ▪ Limited number of routines ❖ Understanding of simple but varied communication GENERAL FACTORS REGARDING A-BAND JOBS (Defined Level) ❖ Taught exactly what to do ❖ Once taught very little further experience needed ❖ Decision are so simple – they do not materially affect the acceptable standard of performance
  • 21. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 20 ❖ Reacts on direct instructions, no independent decisions ❖ Responds to a single or very limited number of clues/information; these are clear and alternative choices are obvious ❖ Errors have little impact and can usually be remedied by supervision ❖ Knowledge of basic requirements needed to perform job ❖ Responds to simple routine situations ❖ Strict supervision over actions ❖ No formal training required ❖ Maybe low level read/write
  • 22. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 21 APPENDIX III ADDITIONAL SUB-GRADING TECHNIQUES
  • 23. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 22 ADDITIONAL SUB-GRADING TECHNIQUES As stated, when jobs are being evaluated, generally the Grading Committee will proceed as follows: Band the job (into A to F) Grade the Job (into Lower or Upper) Sub-grade the job (into sub-grades 1 to 5) Though the grading rules are detailed in Appendix III, the under mentioned are additional techniques which should be followed to assist in placing the jobs more accurately. The Grading of Supervisory or Coordinative Jobs A supervisory job can only be graded as such if the jobs being supervised are in the same ‘decision band’. However, this does not prevent that job being graded at higher level in the non-supervisory part of the next decision band, provided the job includes tasks at that level. It may become necessary to increase the number of grades for the supervisory/ coordinative part of a decision band in order to differentiate between the amount of supervision required in comparable jobs. However, there should not be more than two sub-grades for each supervisory portion of a band. When it becomes necessary to compare supervisory jobs, the first criterion will be the number of people from the same decision band who are being supervised (span of control). Theoretically the larger the span of control, the more difficult the job becomes. The second will be that a person who supervises several different types of work has a more difficult job than a person supervising only one or two types of activities. Geographical location and environment will also be taken to account at this time. Grading of Staff Posts The grading of staff (as opposed to line) posts is often difficult because the incumbent often provides the analysis of alternatives and recommendations to their superiors for a final decision. Thus the decision-making in these posts is often at a low level. To overcome this it is necessary to relate the work done and the recommendations made to the position and grading of the incumbent’s superior. Because this is a subjective process such grading should only be done at the end of the grading session, so that comparisons can be made, and care taken to ensure conscientious review.
  • 24. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 23 Grading Jobs Affected by the ‘Continuum of Skills’ Issue Occasionally, there is a job, which requires a very high level of skill, but the incumbent is not required to supervise others in the same Band. When this occurs, the Grading Committee sometimes finds it very hard to accept that the job must be graded in the lower half of the Band. The Chairman of the Grading Committee should always insist on grading according to the rules, but be prepared to review such cases at the end of the grading exercise. In such instances, one recognizes that there is a continuum of skills, and the jobs are graded to meet the needs of the organization. Additionally It should be remembered that though the ‘decision making’ factor appears to stand alone, the level of decision making in a job is in fact, impacted by a variety of other factors. These should be taken account of when the job is assessed: ❖ Amount of planning in the job ❖ Time elapsed between making a decision and knowing if it is right ❖ Reporting authorities ❖ Supervisory input ❖ The short/ medium/long term planning ❖ Stress (pressure) ❖ Tolerance (degree of accuracy) ❖ Variety (number of different elements) ❖ Sequence (length of cycle or process required in a job) ❖ Complexity ❖ Education/ training/ qualifications required ❖ Physical effort There are many other additional guidelines in the sub-grading rules, which, for the lower grades, revolve principally around the education and experience required for the job. For example, a Band A1 job would only require ‘training’ for approximately an hour, with no experience. A Band B1 job would require training for approximately 1 month to 1.5 years and approximately 1 year’s experience, and a Band C has to have a minimum of 3 plus years training/experience. The assessment of the higher Bands D, E and F is more subjective, as the guidelines are not so exact. However, based on the job descriptions, and on the Committee’s knowledge of the organization, its existing structure, corporate/divisional objectives, strategy, long term planning and so on, the Bands and Grades can be set fairly easily. Additional, cognizance has to be taken of all the points listed above, and of the guide lines provided in the grading rules. If the jobs are written up and analyzed fully, there is no doubt that the resultant grades will meet the needs of the organization, and are as accurate as they will be under any other Jon Evaluation system.
  • 25. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 24 In Bands A, B and C consideration should be given to the following degrees of frequency: ❖ Few decisions: taken at leisure with no great pressure although occasional peaks may bring in an element of urgency. ❖ Frequent decision: under normal pressure. On some occasions immediate decisions are taken. ❖ Frequent decisions: under variable but definite pressure. Peaks in work load may create time stress or the continuous pressure allows for only occasional breaks. In Bands D and E consideration should be given to these degrees of frequency: ❖ Frequent decisions: under normal pressure but variable with peaks in work load creating time stress. ❖ Frequent decisions: under continuous pressure allowing for only occasional breaks. ❖ Numerous decisions: under great pressure with regular, even conflicting deadlines which bring definite time stress throughout the working day. There will often be the requirement to work overtime.
  • 26. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 25 APPENDIX IV REQUEST FOR A REVIEW OF GRADING FORM
  • 27. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 26 SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES REQUEST FOR REVIEW OF FORM JOB TITLE…………………………… JOB NUMBER…………………………...… DATE OF REQUEST………………. CURRENT GRADE………………………... DATE OF GRADING………………… DIVISION…………………………………... DEPARTMENT……………………….. LOCATION………………………………… REASONS FOR ASKING FOR A REVIEW (Please tick appropriate box) NEW JOB JOB CONTENT HAS CHANGED JOB DESCRIPTION IS INACCURATE GRADING APPEARS WRONG WHEN COMPARED TO SIMILAR JOBS COMMENTS (Please explain the problem in a few short sentences) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… The New/Amended Job Description is attached (where there is NOT a NEW Job Description please highlight the new elements of the description) SIGNED………………………………. INCUMBENT………………………………... DATE……………………………… SUPERVISOR……………………………….. DATE……………………………… LINE MANAGER………..…………………… DATE……………………………
  • 28. GUIDELINES FOR GRADING JOBS Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines BAND F: POLICY DECISIONS At the top of the organisation,making decisions framing the policy affecting the Coordinating M anaging Laws of the country, Policy in all major areas Normally Coordinators of F Lower employees who make entire enterprise. These decisions are Policy Director economic conditions, of operation. F2 'Policy' Decisions regarde as being superior to any other broad market conditions, For example: decisions. They are associated w ith broad Political climate, M anufacturing level management and give overall direction availability of finance and Production to the organisation. The limits are w ide and Policy Executive demographic Financial The employees make 'Policy' Decisions in many cases only specified by the law s Directors considerations M arketing F1 of the land. Ususally decisions made at Personnel Board level. BAND E: PROGAMMING DECISIONS Within the limits set by the policy, the Coordinating General execution is broadly planned or programming M anager Policy direction in major The organisation E2 Normally coordinators of E Lower employees who make programmed for the major functions such areas of the operation. structure of major Programming' Decisions. as production, sales, marketing, personnel Assist G.M For example: functional areas; Overall and finance. Includes establishing capital Programming M arketing Production programmes; investments and budgets. Long term M anager Finance Relationships and interlink E1 The employee makes 'Programming' Decisions planning done at this level affects jobs Production M arketing between major functions graded at the same level or below . M anager Personnel to ensure coordination; Financial Engineering M ajor operating Controller objectives.
  • 29. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 29 Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines BAND D: INTERPRETIVE DECISIONS The limits of discretion for interpretive Departmental decisions are set by the master plan, Coordinating M anager Programme Process, systems and D5 Normally Coordinators of grade 4 level employees programme or budget. The interpretive Interpretive Senior Project M ajor Objectives procedures. Rules and aspect comes from the choice of a best Engineer M ajor functions regulations. Localised D4 Normally Coordinators of grade D lower employees decision out of a range of possible courses Personnel Broad Organisational plans/ programmes. of action ( decisions). The limits of this M anager structure Interpretations not range are set by the programme. These Interpretive Senior covered by exisiting rules. D3 Wide spectrum of 'interpretive' decisions are made. Generally decisions often involve determining the Engineer Plant manuals. Details of has in-depth knowledge of the company policies, proceedures best use of available manpow er, money Accountants organisation and allocation and authority to change rule and regulations within the limits of and machines to achieve the targets M anagement of responsibility within area discretion. M ust have ability to consider the whole 'picture' agreed in the programme. Outcomes at Accountants of influence. and all the possibilities/ choices arising within the relevent this level are normally probabilistic Operations rules and regulations M anager D2 A 'Spectrum' of several 'interpretive' decisions are made Training Will generally know company rules and regulations well, and M anager be able to make accurate decisions with this knowledge Branch Should be able to asses most of the choices/ possibilities M anager offered at the time and decide the best method to follow Chief Industrial Engineer D1 A few 'interpretive decisions are made. Generally has the same Superintendant ability and knowledge, but not neccesarily the same experience, as the next level within the D Band. Will be expected to make decisions based on a 'probablistic' choice within particular circumstances, but will only be expected to accept the full accountability for choices made at his / her own level (major decisions involving company rules/ regulations and similar should be referred upwards.
  • 30. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 30 Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines BAND C: ROUTINE DECISIONS The rules and proceedures have been set out by Service M anager the interpretive decisions. What is to be done has Coordinating Workshop Process Operations ie how the rule C5 Normally Coordinators of Grade C4 employees already been decided and the next level of decision Routine M anager Established practice will be applied to the (routine) is the choice in which it is to be carried out Foreman Rules and Regulations particular problem in hand. C4 Normally Coordinators of C Band employees The employee is concerned not only with Section Leader Systems For example, a chief clerk operations but also with process. (A process is an Trade Knowledge will decide how the statistics integrated combination of operations which Routine Draughtsman will be tabulated, or how a requires an understanding by the employee of the Planner return will be collated in the C3 There should be a 'wide' range of 'Routine' Decisions made at way in which operations have been combined Chief Clerk light of the needs of the this level. The employee, with the requisite knowledge/ skill s/ before he can carry out the process at an Inspectors accountant, or how a filing experience has a very large variety of process to choose from. acceptable standard). It often means that the Technician system should be organised. He/ she is working to stricter requirements and the 'tolerances' employee must acquire qualifications or Tradesman demand are very much finer than for the lower level of considerable experience (3+years) which will decision bands. ensure that he will understand the theoratical and/or systematic components of the process. Since the C2 Several 'Routine' Decisions are made. The employee will have process demands a knowledge of proceedures, the neccesary knowledge/ qualifications for the C band, but systems or theory, the employee is in a position to will probably need additional experience within the organisation choose or take decisions regarding which technique to cope with the extended routines/processes of the or routine he will follow once he has summed up particular job. The employee will have a large variety of what the requirements of the particular situation are. processes to choose from, and the 'cycle of activities' will The end result of what is needed is decided for him. be longer than that at C1 . for example, keeping a set of accounts to meet an accounting system and producing financial statements, or turning a metal object to C1 Few 'Routine' Decisions are made. The employee has to specification or replacing the brakes of a car. understand the theoratical and systematic components to He is matching routines, techniques, proceedures operate his/ her job successfully. The employee however, to changing circumstances. is expected to work within a limited choice of processes, Outcomes of this level are normally pre-determined and does not take accountability for jobs with extensive and the decisions taken are routne. routines/processes. The choice of processes and the 'cycle Requires more than three years continuous training, of activities' are limited. and/ or experience after a basic level of education.
  • 31. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 31 Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines BAND B: AUTOMATIC/ DISCRETIONARY DECISIONS This involves work in which the processes are B5 Coordinates B4 employees. This is also an advanced training defined and freedom of choice is restricted to the Supervisory/ Chargehand Operations. ( How do the Elements that make up the grade between semi skilled jobs. operations. Coordinating Senior Typist operations work?) operation, for example, B4 The employee is normally a Grade B3 employee. Additionally Some decisions have to be learnt in the job Automatic Senior Driver arithmetical calculations he has extensive experience with the department or in a because decisions have to be made on how to do within given formulae, or similar job, and he normally supervises B Band employees. the operations in the job. adjustment of machinery B3 The employee is not fully skilled. However he has developed, Basic skills can be taught but before an acceptable Automatic Operators within prescribed limits. with experience, so that he can carry out departmental standard of performance can be obtained, Clerks routines: neither is he left fully on his own in this type of work. additional experience and practice is necessary. Typists is generally responsible for several 'cycle of activities' and The why,what, where and when of the job is decided Receptiionist has more job related experience than the lower levels. for him Drivers B2 The cycle of activities is longer than at B1Level and The way in which his part of the job fits is also Security Guards presents a more varied array of cues for the employee to decided for him. respond to.Once acceptable standards of performance have He has to decide, in addition to the best been reached, jobs may still become semi- repetitive. movements to do the operation, the best tools or Previous experince in a related Band B job may be equipment to use from within a limited range. required and/or additional training is necessary. He does not know immediately, but within a The job requires skill in a variety of operations performed short time( one day to two months) whether the within a department. A knowledge of how these operations job has been done correctly. fit together improves skill in performing these operations. Not all possible situations in which the employee The employee can learn all these operations and how they fit will find himself on this job can be envisaged. together and can be left on his own with: Once the skill and experience have been acquired, formal training after 4-6 months the incumbent can perform the tasks automatically, on-the-job experience in about 1year for example, driving a motor vehicle or operating B1 The cycle of activities is limited and once acceptable certain machinery. level of basic skill has been reached , the job becomes semi- Continuous training required is more than one repetitive. month and up to three years. can be taught familiarity with the basic equipment /forms/ operations and how to make decisions within 3-4 weeks.If taught on the job, where the cycle of operations takes longer, within three months Supervisors of Band A employees
  • 32. PROSERVE 03/2022: SILO FOOD INDUSTRIES – PATERSON JOB EVALUATION MANUAL Page 32 Characteristics of the Kind of Examples of Limits of Discretion Grade Characteristics of Sub Grades Band Decisions Typical Titles Given/chooses From Decides on/ Determines BAND A: DEFINED DECISIONS These are called defined decisions because with Defined Operator Elements of the job ( I.e. Speed of operation A3 The cycle of activities is greater and the cues may be more very little training the employee knows exactly what Tabulating the very small parts of the complex. Tolerances demanded in the operation are finer. to do and has few or no decisions to make with the Clerks job e.g. dusting the office) The variety of processes is larger. exceptions of how fast or slow he works. Labourer The Why, Where, How, What and When of the job to M essenger be done is decided for him. The equipment to be used in performing the job is A2 Some training before he/she can be left on his/her own and clearly laid down (specified). expected to do the job properly The movements used in the job are clearly laid down Greater skill and knowledge through experience or self-evident. Very heavy physical effort If there are different ways of doing the job, they make M ore than one cycle of 'activity.' no real difference to the end result, for example, from which corner to start sweeping the room. The employee does not have to know how his job fits in with any others to complete the job A1 Simple defined work satisfactorily. Requiring little or no training Whether or not the job has been succesfully done Cues to respond to are limited in number is known immediately. Tasks are predominantly of a manual labouring nature, Once taught, he can perform the job to an for example fetching, carrying, loading, sweeping:or if clerical acceptable standard without any further experience simply involving transposition of information from one in the job beyond what he obtained in the training document to another period. Low to medium effort most of the time Training period minimal (less than 1month- normally a few hours to a few days). N.B Supervisors of Grade A jobs are placed in B1