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G C G G G C G A T G G T C T C T G G C T T G A G G G A C A G G A T G G A G G G G A G A C T G T C T G A G G A T G G A C A A A G C T G G A G G G A A A C A G C C A A T T
G C A A A G G C A G G A G G G C G G A A G G G G G A G G G G A G A G G T G G G A T C A G C A C T G G T A T A G A C A G G C G G T G C T G C A G C C C A G C T C C T C T
C T C T C C T C T G C C T C C T G C C C T C A G G C C C C T T C G A A G G C C C G A A T T A C C A C A T C G C T C C C A G A T G G G T G T A C C A C C T C A C C A G T
G T C T G G A T G A T C T T T G T G G T C A T T G C A T C C G T C T T C A C A A A T G G G C T T G T G C T G G C G G C C A C C A T G A A G T T C A A G A A G C T G C G
C C A C C C G C T G A A C T G G A T C C T G G T G A A C C T G G C G G T C G C T G A C C T G G C A G A G A C C G T C A T C G C C A G C A C T A T C A G C G T T G T G A
A C C A G G T C T A T G G C T A C T T C G T G C T G G G C C A C C C T A T G T G T G T C C T G G A G G G C T A C A C C G T C T C C C T G T G T G G T A A G C C A G T C
G G G G C C C A G G C T C G G C G G A A A C C A C T C A T T C A C C C T G C A A G C C C C T C C G G C C A C C T C A T G A T G A T C G G G G C C C A G C T G C T C C T
G T A G G C C T G T C T C C C T C C A C A T C T G C G C C T C A C A T C C A T A T A C T G A A G G G T T C T G G A G G C T T C C A T C T G A A C A C T C A C A T T A A
A T T C A G C T C C C T T G A G T C A A A C A T A C C C T G A G T T C C T A C T C T T G A G T C A G G C T C T G C C C G G G G A C A G C C A G T T T G G A G C T G T G
G G G C T G G T G T G G G A G G A G A C A G A T A C A G A G C T A G A C A A C C C C A G A A C A G T A G G G G G G C G G G G A C T C T G G G C A C C C T G G A C A G A
A C T C C C C T G C A A T T A G G G A T G C C T G C T C T T T C A G C T C G C C A G C A T C T G C T T T T C C C G G A G G A G A C A C A A T T C C C A G A T C C T C T
C C C C A T C C C C A T C A C T A A T A T C T C T G T G G G C C A C T A T T C C G C T C A G G T C A G G A G A C A G T G G C G G A G A G G T A C T A G C G T G C C A G
G C T C T G T G C T A A G G A G G G G G C C C T A T A G C C A G A C G G C A A C C A C A C A G T A C C A T C A T C A G T C C T C T C A G A C A A G A A G G G G C C T G
G G G C A G G T G G T G G A G G A G C G G C T G G G A G C A G T T T G T G G T T C G A G T G G A T A G A G T A C C A C C A A G C A G C C G T G G C T G C T G G A C A C
G A G G T G G G C A G G C C C A G G T C T C A G A G G C C T C A G A C G T C A T G C C C A G G A G C T G G G A C T T T C T T T C A G G A G G A G G A G A C C C C A C A
T C C A G C A G C A G C A G C T C C T G C T C T T G C C T C C C C A C C A C T C T T A G C A G C C T C C C C A A C C C C A C C C C G T T A A C T G C C T C A A A T T G
T A C C C A C G A T G G C C C A G A C C A G A G A G G G T G C T T G T C C A A G T C C C G G C A C T A C C C C G A T A G T G T A G A A G G G G A G C C A A G G G A A G
G T C A G G C A G A G A A G G T C C A T C C C C G G G T C C G A G T G C T C T C T G C A G C A G G C A T G G C C T C G G T G G T C A C A C G A C C C T T C C C G A G T
G C C C C C C T G C A T C T C C G C C C A C G T C T G T C T C C G T T T C T G C C A T G G T C T C C C G C T C A C C C T T G C C T C T G C T C A T G G T C T G T T C T
T G G G T C A G T C A G G T G C C A A G C A G C C A G C A C T T C C C C A C C A C T T T T G G T C C A C G G A T G C C C T T G G C C A T C T G G G A A G C C T G T G G
A C C C C A T C T C A G G A G A A T T T T T G C A A A C G C A T A A A A T G A G A C C C A T A G G A T T A C A A A G G C A G C A A A T T A T A C T G A A A T A C A G T
T A T C A A A G T A T T A A A C A T T C A T C A G T A A C A T A G T C T T T A G T T A A A A G C A T T T A C T G G C C A G G C T C A T A C C T G T A A T C C C A G C A
C T T T G G G A G G C T G A G G T G G G A G G A C T G C T T G C C T C C A A G A G T T T G A G A C C A G C C T G G G C A A C A T A G T G A G A C C T C T T C T C T A C
A A C A A A T A A A A A C A G C T G G G C G T G G T G G C A C A C C A G T A G T C C C A G C T A C T C A G G A G G C T C A G G C G G G A G G A T C G C T T G A G C T C
T G G A G G T C A A G G C T G C A G T G A G C T A T G A T G G C A C C A C T G C A C T C A G C C T G G G C A A C A G A G T G A G A T T C T G T C T C A A A A A G T A A
A T A A A A A T A A A A G C A T G T G T T A A A C G T A T T A G T G A C A C C A C T C A G T A T T A A G G T A T T A A A T A A C A G G A T C C C G C C T G A C A A C C
A C T G T T A T T T C A G A G T A G T G A T G A A C A T A A G T G G T A T T C G A A C T C T C T G C C A C C T C T A T G A A T T G A C A G G A A A A C A T C T G T G A
C C T C T C T T G C T G A C C G A G T C A C G G G T A C T G C T A A T A C T G C C A C G T T C A T A A T G G A A G G A A A T G T C C A G T G T C T G T T C G A G G T T
G G T G G A A A G A A A G A T G T C G T T T T T T C C A C C T C A G T C C G T G G A G C C C T G A A T T C T G T G T G C A G A C G T T T G G G G T C T A A G C A G G A
C A G T G G G A A G C T T T G C T T C C C A C C T T T G C T T T G G C T C A A A G C C C T C A T C T G T C T G C T C T C C C C A T A G G G A T C A C A G G T C T C T G
G T C T C T G G C C A T C A T T T C C T G G G A G A G A T G G A T G G T G G T C T G C A A G C C C T T T G G C A A T G T G A G A T T T G A T G C C A A G C T G G C C A
T C G T G G G C A T T G C C T T C T C C T G G A T C T G G T C T G C T G T G T G G A C A G C C C C G C C C A T C T T T G G T T G G A G C A G G T A A G G G T G C G A G
G A C G C A A G A T G G A G T G G G C A G G G T C A G A C T C T G T G A C C T T A A G G C A A A T C A C T T C C T T T C T C T G G G C C C C T C T G A G C G T G C A A
T G T C T A T C A A T G T A T G A A T G T G G C T G C A A C A T A G G A A A G G C T C T G T G G T C C C C G A A C C T C T G G A A A C A T A T T T A T C C C A A G C A
C G A T C A G G T C A C A G G C G C A C A C G G A G C T C A G G C C A T C A G C A C A G C T G T C A G T G A A C G C A T A G C G T G T T T G C A T T C C A G G T C T C
T T T C T T G C A C A C G C T G C C G C A C C A C G C C C C C C A C C T T T C A G A G G C T G C T T G G G T C A T A G A T C C A C C T G G G C C T A C A G A G C A C A
T G T C C T G G C C A G G C C A A G C A A G T G G C T C A A A T G T T T G A T T G G A G T G G A C T G G G T G G G A C A G C A T T T C A C T G T T T T A T C G A C A A
G C T C G T G A A T A A G T T C T C G T G G T G T T T G G A G A G G G A A T G T T C T T T C C T C G A G A A C G T T C C A C A A T T C T A G G A A A C A A A C C T T G
T G G A A G C C T G T C T C T G T C T C C C G C C C T C C T C A T G C C G C C A T G C C C C A C A C A G C T G C C C G T T A T C A A A C A T G T G T G G T G A G C T G
A C C C T G G T G G A G G C T C T C C C G C G G G T T A T C T C A T T T A A T C C T C C A G G C C A C T A A G T G A G C A G G G C C C T T T A T T T C A G T C A T G G
2
G C G G G C G A T G G T C T C T G G C T T G A G G G A C A G G A T G G A G G G G A G A C T G T C T G A G G A T G G A C A A A G C T G G A G G G A A A C A G C C A A T T
G C A A A G G C A G G A G G G C G G A A G G G G G A G G G G A G A G G T G G G A T C A G C A C T G G T A T A G A C A G G C G G T G C T G C A G C C C A G C T C C T C T
C T C T C C T C T G C C T C C T G C C C T C A G G C C C C T T C G A A G G C C C G A A T T A C C A C A T C G C T C C C A G A T G G G T G T A C C A C C T C A C C A G T
G T C T G G A T G A T C T T T G T G G T C A T T G C A T C C G T C T T C A C A A A T G G G C T T G T G C T G G C G G C C A C C A T G A A G T T C A A G A A G C T G C G
C C A C C C G C T G A A C T G G A T C C T G G T G A A C C T G G C G G T C G C T G A C C T G G C A G A G A C C G T C A T C G C C A G C A C T A T C A G C G T T G T G A
A C C A G G T C T A T G G C T A C T T C G T G C T G G G C C A C C C T A T G T G T G T C C T G G A G G G C T A C A C C G T C T C C C T G T G T G G T A A G C C A G T C
G G G G C C C A G G C T C G G C G G A A A C C A C T C A T T C A C C C T G C A A G C C C C T C C G G C C A C C T C A T G A T G A T C G G G G C C C A G C T G C T C C T
G T A G G C C T G T C T C C C T C C A C A T C T G C G C C T C A C A T C C A T A T A C T G A A G G G T T C T G G A G G C T T C C A T C T G A A C A C T C A C A T T A A
A T T C A G C T C C C T T G A G T C A A A C A T A C C C T G A G T T C C T A C T C T T G A G T C A G G C T C T G C C C G G G G A C A G C C A G T T T G G A G C T G T G
G G G C T G G T G T G G G A G G A G A C A G A T A C A G A G C T A G A C A A C C C C A G A A C A G T A G G G G G G C G G G G A C T C T G G G C A C C C T G G A C A G A
A C T C C C C T G C A A T T A G G G A T G C C T G C T C T T T C A G C T C G C C A G C A T C T G C T T T T C C C G G A G G A G A C A C A A T T C C C A G A T C C T C T
C C C C A T C C C C A T C A C T A A T A T C T C T G T G G G C C A C T A T T C C G C T C A G G T C A G G A G A C A G T G G C G G A G A G G T A C T A G C G T G C C A G
G C T C T G T G C T A A G G A G G G G G C C C T A T A G C C A G A C G G C A A C C A C A C A G T A C C A T C A T C A G T C C T C T C A G A C A A G A A G G G G C C T G
G G G C A G G T G G T G G A G G A G C G G C T G G G A G C A G T T T G T G G T T C G A G T G G A T A G A G T A C C A C C A A G C A G C C G T G G C T G C T G G A C A C
G A G G T G G G C A G G C C C A G G T C T C A G A G G C C T C A G A C G T C A T G C C C A G G A G C T G G G A C T T T C T T T C A G G A G G A G G A G A C C C C A C A
T C C A G C A G C A G C A G C T C C T G C T C T T G C C T C C C C A C C A C T C T T A G C A G C C T C C C C A A C C C C A C C C C G T T A A C T G C C T C A A A T T G
T A C C C A C G A T G G C C C A G A C C A G A G A G G G T G C T T G T C C A A G T C C C G G C A C T A C C C C G A T A G T G T A G A A G G G G A G C C A A G G G A A G
G T C A G G C A G A G A A G G T C C A T C C C C G G G T C C G A G T G C T C T C T G C A G C A G G C A T G G C C T C G G T G G T C A C A C G A C C C T T C C C G A G T
G C C C C C C T G C A T C T C C G C C C A C G T C T G T C T C C G T T T C T G C C A T G G T C T C C C G C T C A C C C T T G C C T C T G C T C A T G G T C T G T T C T
T G G G T C A G T C A G G T G C C A A G C A G C C A G C A C T T C C C C A C C A C T T T T G G T C C A C G G A T G C C C T T G G C C A T C T G G G A A G C C T G T G G
A C C C C A T C T C A G G A G A A T T T T T G C A A A C G C A T A A A A T G A G A C C C A T A G G A T T A C A A A G G C A G C A A A T T A T A C T G A A A T A C A G T
T A T C A A A G T A T T A A A C A T T C A T C A G T A A C A T A G T C T T T A G T T A A A A G C A T T T A C T G G C C A G G C T C A T A C C T G T A A T C C C A G C A
C T T T G G G A G G C T G A G G T G G G A G G A C T G C T T G C C T C C A A G A G T T T G A G A C C A G C C T G G G C A A C A T A G T G A G A C C T C T T C T C T A C
A A C A A A T A A A A A C A G C T G G G C G T G G T G G C A C A C C A G T A G T C C C A G C T A C T C A G G A G G C T C A G G C G G G A G G A T C G C T T G A G C T C
T G G A G G T C A A G G C T G C A G T G A G C T A T G A T G G C A C C A C T G C A C T C A G C C T G G G C A A C A G A G T G A G A T T C T G T C T C A A A A A G T A A
A T A A A A A T A A A A G C A T G T G T T A A A C G T A T T A G T G A C A C C A C T C A G T A T T A A G G T A T T A A A T A A C A G G A T C C C G C C T G A C A A C C
A C T G T T A T T T C A G A G T A G T G A T G A A C A T A A G T G G T A T T C G A A C T C T C T G C C A C C T C T A T G A A T T G A C A G G A A A A C A T C T G T G A
C C T C T C T T G C T G A C C G A G T C A C G G G T A C T G C T A A T A C T G C C A C G T T C A T A A T G G A A G G A A A T G T C C A G T G T C T G T T C G A G G T T
G G T G G A A A G A A A G A T G T C G T T T T T T C C A C C T C A G T C C G T G G A G C C C T G A A T T C T G T G T G C A G A C G T T T G G G G T C T A A G C A G G A
C A G T G G G A A G C T T T G C T T C C C A C C T T T G C T T T G G C T C A A A G C C C T C A T C T G T C T G C T C T C C C C A T A G G G A T C A C A G G T C T C T G
G T C T C T G G C C A T C A T T T C C T G G G A G A G A T G G A T G G T G G T C T G C A A G C C C T T T G G C A A T G T G A G A T T T G A T G C C A A G C T G G C C A
T C G T G G G C A T T G C C T T C T C C T G G A T C T G G T C T G C T G T G T G G A C A G C C C C G C C C A T C T T T G G T T G G A G C A G G T A A G G G T G C G A G
G A C G C A A G A T G G A G T G G G C A G G G T C A G A C T C T G T G A C C T T A A G G C A A A T C A C T T C C T T T C T C T G G G C C C C T C T G A G C G T G C A A
T G T C T A T C A A T G T A T G A A T G T G G C T G C A A C A T A G G A A A G G C T C T G T G G T C C C C G A A C C T C T G G A A A C A T A T T T A T C C C A A G C A
C G A T C A G G T C A C A G G C G C A C A C G G A G C T C A G G C C A T C A G C A C A G C T G T C A G T G A A C G C A T A G C G T G T T T G C A T T C C A G G T C T C
T T T C T T G C A C A C G C T G C C G C A C C A C G C C C C C C A C C T T T C A G A G G C T G C T T G G G T C A T A G A T C C A C C T G G G C C T A C A G A G C A C A
T G T C C T G G C C A G G C C A A G C A A G T G G C T C A A A T G T T T G A T T G G A G T G G A C T G G G T G G G A C A G C A T T T C A C T G T T T T A T C G A C A A
G C T C G T G A A T A A G T T C T C G T G G T G T T T G G A G A G G G A A T G T T C T T T C C T C G A G A A C G T T C C A C A A T T C T A G G A A A C A A A C C T T G
T G G A A G C C T G T C T C T G T C T C C C G C C C T C C T C A T G C C G C C A T G C C C C A C A C A G C T G C C C G T T A T C A A A C A T G T G T G G T G A G C T G
A C C C T G G T G G A G G C T C T C C C G C G G G T T A T C T C A T T T A A T C C T C C A G G C C A C T A A G T G A G C A G G G C C C T T T A T T T C A G T C A T G G
Young & Dalton
Why can’t my brother and I
tell red from green?
Young & Dalton
Hmm, maybe your eyes lack
1 of 3 common hue sensors?
Why can’t my brother and I
tell red from green?
Young & Dalton
Hmm, maybe your eyes lack
1 of 3 common hue sensors?
Why can’t my brother and I
tell red from green?
Nucleic
(DNA)
Nucleic
(RNA)
Amino
(protein)
Egyptian
(hieroglyphic)
Egyptian
(demotic)
Greek
(proto)
Nucleic
(DNA)
Nucleic
(RNA)
Amino
(protein)
Nucleic
(DNA)
Amino
(protein)
Getting centrally dogmatic
Nucleic
(RNA)
Getting centrally dogmatic
Nucleic
(DNA)
Nucleic
(RNA)
Amino
(protein)
Getting centrally dogmatic
Nucleic
(DNA)
Nucleic
(RNA)
Amino
(protein)
transcription translation
retrotranscription
prions
And that’s just information flow.
Not mechanistic activity.
Splicing? Recombination? Epigenetic marks? RNAi & catalysis? Editing?
Chromatin packing? Supercoiling? Sugar/phosphate/other moieties?...
Later!
repair/replication
regulation
Getting centrally dogmatic
Nucleic
(DNA)
Nucleic
(RNA)
Amino
(protein)
transcription translation
retrotranscription
prions
And that’s just information flow.
Not mechanistic activity.
Splicing? Recombination? Epigenetic marks? RNAi & catalysis? Editing?
Chromatin packing? Supercoiling? Sugar/phosphate/other moieties?...
Later!
regulation
repair/replication
Ceci n’est pas un génome.
Mendel & Darwin
Mulder & Kossel
Proteins are
~n(C400H620N100O120S).
Nucleobases are
A,C,G,T,U.
Stevens & Ingram
Beetles with a short copy of
chromosome 10 grow male.
β-globin with a valine at
residue 7 sickles.
Tjio & Chargaff
Most human body cells have
(only) 46 chromosomes.
In human DNA
[A]≃[T] > [C]≃[G].
Sturtevant & McClintock
Genes…move.Genes…map.
Franklin & Crick
DNA encodes proteins via
a tandem triplet code.
DNA forms
a double helix.
Baseball…
A
PyrimidinesPurines
G
T U
C
Baseball…
A
Purines
G
T U
C
Pyrimidines
Baseball…
Purines
aG
T U
C
Ag
Pyrimidines
Baseball…
A
Purines
G
Thy U
Cy
Pyrimidines
Baseball…
A
PyrimidinesPurines
G
T U
C
Baseball…
A
Purines
T U
CGuano
Pyrimidines
Baseball…
A
Purines
T U
CGuano
Pyrimidines
Baseball…
A
Purines
U
CGuano
Pyrimidines
meT
Baseball…
A
Purines
U
CGuano
Pyrimidines
meThyl
Know the Code…
Know the Code…
By cleverly watching the results of short insertion/deletion
mutations alone or in combos, Crick et al. (1961) deduced
that viral DNA encodes proteins by a genetic code that is
triplet words each have 3 (or multiple thereof) letters.
tandem words abut with no overlap or comma/space*.
degenerate words outnumber meanings.
In this and later work, he and colleagues fully deciphered
this (handy if inefficient) code…and surmised that all known
life uses it or slight variants** on it (by ‘frozen accident’?).
*Caveats include introns, overlapping reading frames in some viruses, etc.
**In us, exceptions include mitochondrially encoded genes, and selenocysteines
encoded by dispersed sequence context.
Looking back and ahead
Nucleic
(DNA)
Nucleic
(RNA)
Amino
(protein)
transcription translation
retrotranscription
prions
Splicing? Recombination? Epigenetic marks? RNAi & catalysis? Editing?
Chromatin packing? Supercoiling? Sugar/phosphate/other moieties?...
To be continued!
regulation
repair/replication
Looking back and ahead…past the dogma

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Molecular genetics i

  • 1. 1 G C G G G C G A T G G T C T C T G G C T T G A G G G A C A G G A T G G A G G G G A G A C T G T C T G A G G A T G G A C A A A G C T G G A G G G A A A C A G C C A A T T G C A A A G G C A G G A G G G C G G A A G G G G G A G G G G A G A G G T G G G A T C A G C A C T G G T A T A G A C A G G C G G T G C T G C A G C C C A G C T C C T C T C T C T C C T C T G C C T C C T G C C C T C A G G C C C C T T C G A A G G C C C G A A T T A C C A C A T C G C T C C C A G A T G G G T G T A C C A C C T C A C C A G T G T C T G G A T G A T C T T T G T G G T C A T T G C A T C C G T C T T C A C A A A T G G G C T T G T G C T G G C G G C C A C C A T G A A G T T C A A G A A G C T G C G C C A C C C G C T G A A C T G G A T C C T G G T G A A C C T G G C G G T C G C T G A C C T G G C A G A G A C C G T C A T C G C C A G C A C T A T C A G C G T T G T G A A C C A G G T C T A T G G C T A C T T C G T G C T G G G C C A C C C T A T G T G T G T C C T G G A G G G C T A C A C C G T C T C C C T G T G T G G T A A G C C A G T C G G G G C C C A G G C T C G G C G G A A A C C A C T C A T T C A C C C T G C A A G C C C C T C C G G C C A C C T C A T G A T G A T C G G G G C C C A G C T G C T C C T G T A G G C C T G T C T C C C T C C A C A T C T G C G C C T C A C A T C C A T A T A C T G A A G G G T T C T G G A G G C T T C C A T C T G A A C A C T C A C A T T A A A T T C A G C T C C C T T G A G T C A A A C A T A C C C T G A G T T C C T A C T C T T G A G T C A G G C T C T G C C C G G G G A C A G C C A G T T T G G A G C T G T G G G G C T G G T G T G G G A G G A G A C A G A T A C A G A G C T A G A C A A C C C C A G A A C A G T A G G G G G G C G G G G A C T C T G G G C A C C C T G G A C A G A A C T C C C C T G C A A T T A G G G A T G C C T G C T C T T T C A G C T C G C C A G C A T C T G C T T T T C C C G G A G G A G A C A C A A T T C C C A G A T C C T C T C C C C A T C C C C A T C A C T A A T A T C T C T G T G G G C C A C T A T T C C G C T C A G G T C A G G A G A C A G T G G C G G A G A G G T A C T A G C G T G C C A G G C T C T G T G C T A A G G A G G G G G C C C T A T A G C C A G A C G G C A A C C A C A C A G T A C C A T C A T C A G T C C T C T C A G A C A A G A A G G G G C C T G G G G C A G G T G G T G G A G G A G C G G C T G G G A G C A G T T T G T G G T T C G A G T G G A T A G A G T A C C A C C A A G C A G C C G T G G C T G C T G G A C A C G A G G T G G G C A G G C C C A G G T C T C A G A G G C C T C A G A C G T C A T G C C C A G G A G C T G G G A C T T T C T T T C A G G A G G A G G A G A C C C C A C A T C C A G C A G C A G C A G C T C C T G C T C T T G C C T C C C C A C C A C T C T T A G C A G C C T C C C C A A C C C C A C C C C G T T A A C T G C C T C A A A T T G T A C C C A C G A T G G C C C A G A C C A G A G A G G G T G C T T G T C C A A G T C C C G G C A C T A C C C C G A T A G T G T A G A A G G G G A G C C A A G G G A A G G T C A G G C A G A G A A G G T C C A T C C C C G G G T C C G A G T G C T C T C T G C A G C A G G C A T G G C C T C G G T G G T C A C A C G A C C C T T C C C G A G T G C C C C C C T G C A T C T C C G C C C A C G T C T G T C T C C G T T T C T G C C A T G G T C T C C C G C T C A C C C T T G C C T C T G C T C A T G G T C T G T T C T T G G G T C A G T C A G G T G C C A A G C A G C C A G C A C T T C C C C A C C A C T T T T G G T C C A C G G A T G C C C T T G G C C A T C T G G G A A G C C T G T G G A C C C C A T C T C A G G A G A A T T T T T G C A A A C G C A T A A A A T G A G A C C C A T A G G A T T A C A A A G G C A G C A A A T T A T A C T G A A A T A C A G T T A T C A A A G T A T T A A A C A T T C A T C A G T A A C A T A G T C T T T A G T T A A A A G C A T T T A C T G G C C A G G C T C A T A C C T G T A A T C C C A G C A C T T T G G G A G G C T G A G G T G G G A G G A C T G C T T G C C T C C A A G A G T T T G A G A C C A G C C T G G G C A A C A T A G T G A G A C C T C T T C T C T A C A A C A A A T A A A A A C A G C T G G G C G T G G T G G C A C A C C A G T A G T C C C A G C T A C T C A G G A G G C T C A G G C G G G A G G A T C G C T T G A G C T C T G G A G G T C A A G G C T G C A G T G A G C T A T G A T G G C A C C A C T G C A C T C A G C C T G G G C A A C A G A G T G A G A T T C T G T C T C A A A A A G T A A A T A A A A A T A A A A G C A T G T G T T A A A C G T A T T A G T G A C A C C A C T C A G T A T T A A G G T A T T A A A T A A C A G G A T C C C G C C T G A C A A C C A C T G T T A T T T C A G A G T A G T G A T G A A C A T A A G T G G T A T T C G A A C T C T C T G C C A C C T C T A T G A A T T G A C A G G A A A A C A T C T G T G A C C T C T C T T G C T G A C C G A G T C A C G G G T A C T G C T A A T A C T G C C A C G T T C A T A A T G G A A G G A A A T G T C C A G T G T C T G T T C G A G G T T G G T G G A A A G A A A G A T G T C G T T T T T T C C A C C T C A G T C C G T G G A G C C C T G A A T T C T G T G T G C A G A C G T T T G G G G T C T A A G C A G G A C A G T G G G A A G C T T T G C T T C C C A C C T T T G C T T T G G C T C A A A G C C C T C A T C T G T C T G C T C T C C C C A T A G G G A T C A C A G G T C T C T G G T C T C T G G C C A T C A T T T C C T G G G A G A G A T G G A T G G T G G T C T G C A A G C C C T T T G G C A A T G T G A G A T T T G A T G C C A A G C T G G C C A T C G T G G G C A T T G C C T T C T C C T G G A T C T G G T C T G C T G T G T G G A C A G C C C C G C C C A T C T T T G G T T G G A G C A G G T A A G G G T G C G A G G A C G C A A G A T G G A G T G G G C A G G G T C A G A C T C T G T G A C C T T A A G G C A A A T C A C T T C C T T T C T C T G G G C C C C T C T G A G C G T G C A A T G T C T A T C A A T G T A T G A A T G T G G C T G C A A C A T A G G A A A G G C T C T G T G G T C C C C G A A C C T C T G G A A A C A T A T T T A T C C C A A G C A C G A T C A G G T C A C A G G C G C A C A C G G A G C T C A G G C C A T C A G C A C A G C T G T C A G T G A A C G C A T A G C G T G T T T G C A T T C C A G G T C T C T T T C T T G C A C A C G C T G C C G C A C C A C G C C C C C C A C C T T T C A G A G G C T G C T T G G G T C A T A G A T C C A C C T G G G C C T A C A G A G C A C A T G T C C T G G C C A G G C C A A G C A A G T G G C T C A A A T G T T T G A T T G G A G T G G A C T G G G T G G G A C A G C A T T T C A C T G T T T T A T C G A C A A G C T C G T G A A T A A G T T C T C G T G G T G T T T G G A G A G G G A A T G T T C T T T C C T C G A G A A C G T T C C A C A A T T C T A G G A A A C A A A C C T T G T G G A A G C C T G T C T C T G T C T C C C G C C C T C C T C A T G C C G C C A T G C C C C A C A C A G C T G C C C G T T A T C A A A C A T G T G T G G T G A G C T G A C C C T G G T G G A G G C T C T C C C G C G G G T T A T C T C A T T T A A T C C T C C A G G C C A C T A A G T G A G C A G G G C C C T T T A T T T C A G T C A T G G
  • 2. 2 G C G G G C G A T G G T C T C T G G C T T G A G G G A C A G G A T G G A G G G G A G A C T G T C T G A G G A T G G A C A A A G C T G G A G G G A A A C A G C C A A T T G C A A A G G C A G G A G G G C G G A A G G G G G A G G G G A G A G G T G G G A T C A G C A C T G G T A T A G A C A G G C G G T G C T G C A G C C C A G C T C C T C T C T C T C C T C T G C C T C C T G C C C T C A G G C C C C T T C G A A G G C C C G A A T T A C C A C A T C G C T C C C A G A T G G G T G T A C C A C C T C A C C A G T G T C T G G A T G A T C T T T G T G G T C A T T G C A T C C G T C T T C A C A A A T G G G C T T G T G C T G G C G G C C A C C A T G A A G T T C A A G A A G C T G C G C C A C C C G C T G A A C T G G A T C C T G G T G A A C C T G G C G G T C G C T G A C C T G G C A G A G A C C G T C A T C G C C A G C A C T A T C A G C G T T G T G A A C C A G G T C T A T G G C T A C T T C G T G C T G G G C C A C C C T A T G T G T G T C C T G G A G G G C T A C A C C G T C T C C C T G T G T G G T A A G C C A G T C G G G G C C C A G G C T C G G C G G A A A C C A C T C A T T C A C C C T G C A A G C C C C T C C G G C C A C C T C A T G A T G A T C G G G G C C C A G C T G C T C C T G T A G G C C T G T C T C C C T C C A C A T C T G C G C C T C A C A T C C A T A T A C T G A A G G G T T C T G G A G G C T T C C A T C T G A A C A C T C A C A T T A A A T T C A G C T C C C T T G A G T C A A A C A T A C C C T G A G T T C C T A C T C T T G A G T C A G G C T C T G C C C G G G G A C A G C C A G T T T G G A G C T G T G G G G C T G G T G T G G G A G G A G A C A G A T A C A G A G C T A G A C A A C C C C A G A A C A G T A G G G G G G C G G G G A C T C T G G G C A C C C T G G A C A G A A C T C C C C T G C A A T T A G G G A T G C C T G C T C T T T C A G C T C G C C A G C A T C T G C T T T T C C C G G A G G A G A C A C A A T T C C C A G A T C C T C T C C C C A T C C C C A T C A C T A A T A T C T C T G T G G G C C A C T A T T C C G C T C A G G T C A G G A G A C A G T G G C G G A G A G G T A C T A G C G T G C C A G G C T C T G T G C T A A G G A G G G G G C C C T A T A G C C A G A C G G C A A C C A C A C A G T A C C A T C A T C A G T C C T C T C A G A C A A G A A G G G G C C T G G G G C A G G T G G T G G A G G A G C G G C T G G G A G C A G T T T G T G G T T C G A G T G G A T A G A G T A C C A C C A A G C A G C C G T G G C T G C T G G A C A C G A G G T G G G C A G G C C C A G G T C T C A G A G G C C T C A G A C G T C A T G C C C A G G A G C T G G G A C T T T C T T T C A G G A G G A G G A G A C C C C A C A T C C A G C A G C A G C A G C T C C T G C T C T T G C C T C C C C A C C A C T C T T A G C A G C C T C C C C A A C C C C A C C C C G T T A A C T G C C T C A A A T T G T A C C C A C G A T G G C C C A G A C C A G A G A G G G T G C T T G T C C A A G T C C C G G C A C T A C C C C G A T A G T G T A G A A G G G G A G C C A A G G G A A G G T C A G G C A G A G A A G G T C C A T C C C C G G G T C C G A G T G C T C T C T G C A G C A G G C A T G G C C T C G G T G G T C A C A C G A C C C T T C C C G A G T G C C C C C C T G C A T C T C C G C C C A C G T C T G T C T C C G T T T C T G C C A T G G T C T C C C G C T C A C C C T T G C C T C T G C T C A T G G T C T G T T C T T G G G T C A G T C A G G T G C C A A G C A G C C A G C A C T T C C C C A C C A C T T T T G G T C C A C G G A T G C C C T T G G C C A T C T G G G A A G C C T G T G G A C C C C A T C T C A G G A G A A T T T T T G C A A A C G C A T A A A A T G A G A C C C A T A G G A T T A C A A A G G C A G C A A A T T A T A C T G A A A T A C A G T T A T C A A A G T A T T A A A C A T T C A T C A G T A A C A T A G T C T T T A G T T A A A A G C A T T T A C T G G C C A G G C T C A T A C C T G T A A T C C C A G C A C T T T G G G A G G C T G A G G T G G G A G G A C T G C T T G C C T C C A A G A G T T T G A G A C C A G C C T G G G C A A C A T A G T G A G A C C T C T T C T C T A C A A C A A A T A A A A A C A G C T G G G C G T G G T G G C A C A C C A G T A G T C C C A G C T A C T C A G G A G G C T C A G G C G G G A G G A T C G C T T G A G C T C T G G A G G T C A A G G C T G C A G T G A G C T A T G A T G G C A C C A C T G C A C T C A G C C T G G G C A A C A G A G T G A G A T T C T G T C T C A A A A A G T A A A T A A A A A T A A A A G C A T G T G T T A A A C G T A T T A G T G A C A C C A C T C A G T A T T A A G G T A T T A A A T A A C A G G A T C C C G C C T G A C A A C C A C T G T T A T T T C A G A G T A G T G A T G A A C A T A A G T G G T A T T C G A A C T C T C T G C C A C C T C T A T G A A T T G A C A G G A A A A C A T C T G T G A C C T C T C T T G C T G A C C G A G T C A C G G G T A C T G C T A A T A C T G C C A C G T T C A T A A T G G A A G G A A A T G T C C A G T G T C T G T T C G A G G T T G G T G G A A A G A A A G A T G T C G T T T T T T C C A C C T C A G T C C G T G G A G C C C T G A A T T C T G T G T G C A G A C G T T T G G G G T C T A A G C A G G A C A G T G G G A A G C T T T G C T T C C C A C C T T T G C T T T G G C T C A A A G C C C T C A T C T G T C T G C T C T C C C C A T A G G G A T C A C A G G T C T C T G G T C T C T G G C C A T C A T T T C C T G G G A G A G A T G G A T G G T G G T C T G C A A G C C C T T T G G C A A T G T G A G A T T T G A T G C C A A G C T G G C C A T C G T G G G C A T T G C C T T C T C C T G G A T C T G G T C T G C T G T G T G G A C A G C C C C G C C C A T C T T T G G T T G G A G C A G G T A A G G G T G C G A G G A C G C A A G A T G G A G T G G G C A G G G T C A G A C T C T G T G A C C T T A A G G C A A A T C A C T T C C T T T C T C T G G G C C C C T C T G A G C G T G C A A T G T C T A T C A A T G T A T G A A T G T G G C T G C A A C A T A G G A A A G G C T C T G T G G T C C C C G A A C C T C T G G A A A C A T A T T T A T C C C A A G C A C G A T C A G G T C A C A G G C G C A C A C G G A G C T C A G G C C A T C A G C A C A G C T G T C A G T G A A C G C A T A G C G T G T T T G C A T T C C A G G T C T C T T T C T T G C A C A C G C T G C C G C A C C A C G C C C C C C A C C T T T C A G A G G C T G C T T G G G T C A T A G A T C C A C C T G G G C C T A C A G A G C A C A T G T C C T G G C C A G G C C A A G C A A G T G G C T C A A A T G T T T G A T T G G A G T G G A C T G G G T G G G A C A G C A T T T C A C T G T T T T A T C G A C A A G C T C G T G A A T A A G T T C T C G T G G T G T T T G G A G A G G G A A T G T T C T T T C C T C G A G A A C G T T C C A C A A T T C T A G G A A A C A A A C C T T G T G G A A G C C T G T C T C T G T C T C C C G C C C T C C T C A T G C C G C C A T G C C C C A C A C A G C T G C C C G T T A T C A A A C A T G T G T G G T G A G C T G A C C C T G G T G G A G G C T C T C C C G C G G G T T A T C T C A T T T A A T C C T C C A G G C C A C T A A G T G A G C A G G G C C C T T T A T T T C A G T C A T G G
  • 3. Young & Dalton Why can’t my brother and I tell red from green?
  • 4. Young & Dalton Hmm, maybe your eyes lack 1 of 3 common hue sensors? Why can’t my brother and I tell red from green?
  • 5. Young & Dalton Hmm, maybe your eyes lack 1 of 3 common hue sensors? Why can’t my brother and I tell red from green?
  • 10. Getting centrally dogmatic Nucleic (DNA) Nucleic (RNA) Amino (protein) transcription translation retrotranscription prions And that’s just information flow. Not mechanistic activity. Splicing? Recombination? Epigenetic marks? RNAi & catalysis? Editing? Chromatin packing? Supercoiling? Sugar/phosphate/other moieties?... Later! repair/replication regulation
  • 11. Getting centrally dogmatic Nucleic (DNA) Nucleic (RNA) Amino (protein) transcription translation retrotranscription prions And that’s just information flow. Not mechanistic activity. Splicing? Recombination? Epigenetic marks? RNAi & catalysis? Editing? Chromatin packing? Supercoiling? Sugar/phosphate/other moieties?... Later! regulation repair/replication
  • 12. Ceci n’est pas un génome.
  • 14. Mulder & Kossel Proteins are ~n(C400H620N100O120S). Nucleobases are A,C,G,T,U.
  • 15. Stevens & Ingram Beetles with a short copy of chromosome 10 grow male. β-globin with a valine at residue 7 sickles.
  • 16. Tjio & Chargaff Most human body cells have (only) 46 chromosomes. In human DNA [A]≃[T] > [C]≃[G].
  • 18. Franklin & Crick DNA encodes proteins via a tandem triplet code. DNA forms a double helix.
  • 29. Know the Code… By cleverly watching the results of short insertion/deletion mutations alone or in combos, Crick et al. (1961) deduced that viral DNA encodes proteins by a genetic code that is triplet words each have 3 (or multiple thereof) letters. tandem words abut with no overlap or comma/space*. degenerate words outnumber meanings. In this and later work, he and colleagues fully deciphered this (handy if inefficient) code…and surmised that all known life uses it or slight variants** on it (by ‘frozen accident’?). *Caveats include introns, overlapping reading frames in some viruses, etc. **In us, exceptions include mitochondrially encoded genes, and selenocysteines encoded by dispersed sequence context.
  • 31. Nucleic (DNA) Nucleic (RNA) Amino (protein) transcription translation retrotranscription prions Splicing? Recombination? Epigenetic marks? RNAi & catalysis? Editing? Chromatin packing? Supercoiling? Sugar/phosphate/other moieties?... To be continued! regulation repair/replication Looking back and ahead…past the dogma