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Call a spade a spade—SCAMORE 7/8
  the power of open data and appropriate metadata




photo: ©GM 2010
Development strategy
    Session 7/8
Metadata

     Increases specificity

 Improves common, wide,
unambiguous understanding

 Content becomes
   computable
Metadata

     Increases specificity

 Improves common, wide,
unambiguous understanding

 Content becomes
   computable
Compiling metadata




Working individually, prepare some metadata
about familiar entities by completing the
following table...
Compiling metadata



      Subject        Property          Value
me

me

me

my organisation

my organisation

my organisation

my home town

my home town

my home town
Compiling metadata



      Subject            Property                Value
me                name                  “George Munroe”

me                organisation          my organisation

me                email address         “george@netskills.biz”

my organisation   name                  “Platypus Consultancy”

my organisation   year formed           “2004”

my organisation   town/city             my home town

my home town      name                  “Belfast”

my home town      country               UK

my home town      population            “1 million”
Compiling metadata



      Subject          Property                Value
GM              name                  “George Munroe”

GM              organisation          PCL

GM              email address         “george@netskills.biz”

PCL             name                  “Platypus Consultancy”

PCL             year formed           “2004”

PCL             town/city             BFS

BFS             name                  “Belfast”

BFS             country               UK

BFS             population            “1 million”
organisation
GM                     PCL




 ho
    m
     e
     to
        wn
             BFS
name                   organisation
George Munroe                     GM                     PCL
                              l
                            ai




                                   ho
                          em




                                      m
george@netskills.biz



                                       e
                                       to
                                          wn
                                               BFS
me
                                                                             Platypus Consultancy
                                                                 na
                   name                   organisation
George Munroe                     GM                       PCL   formed in
                                                                              2004




                                                       n
                              l
                            ai




                                   ho




                                                    di
                          em




                                      m




                                                  se
george@netskills.biz



                                       e




                                                 ba
                                       to
                                          wn
                                               BFS
me
                                                                                          Platypus Consultancy
                                                                               na
                   name                   organisation
George Munroe                     GM                                   PCL    formed in
                                                                                              2004




                                                              n
                              l
                            ai




                                   ho




                                                           di
                          em




                                      m




                                                         se
george@netskills.biz



                                       e




                                                         ba
                                       to
                                          wn
                                                                       name
                                               BFS                                  Belfast
                                                          po
                                                              pu
                                                                  la


                                               country
                                                                    tio
                                                                        n
                                                                             1 million


                                                  UK
me
                                                                                          Platypus Consultancy
                                                                               na
                   name                   organisation
George Munroe                     GM                                   PCL    formed in
                                                                                              2004




                                                              n
                              l
                            ai




                                   ho




                                                           di
                          em




                                      m




                                                         se
george@netskills.biz



                                       e




                                                         ba
                                       to
                                          wn
                                                                       name
                                               BFS                                  Belfast
                                                          po
                                                              pu
                                                                  la


                                               country
                                                                    tio
                                                                        n
                                                                             1 million


                                                  UK
name
  Christine Cahoon                          CJ




                                                      or
                                                 home

                                                          ga
                                        l
                                      ai




                                                                ni
                                            ws
                                    em




                                                                   s
                                                                  at
  christine@netskills.biz                                                                        Platypus Consultancy




                                         kno




                                                                     io
                                                                                        me




                                                  town



                                                                       n
                                                                                      na
                     name                       organisation
George Munroe                       GM                                        PCL    formed in
                                                                                                     2004




                                                                     n
                                l
                              ai




                                         ho




                                                                  di
                            em




                                            m




                                                                se
george@netskills.biz



                                            e




                                                                ba
                                             to
                                                 wn
                                                                              name
                                                        BFS                                Belfast
                                                                  po
                                                                       pu
                                                                         la


                                                      country
                                                                            tio
                                                                               n
                                                                                    1 million


                                                         UK
name
          Christine Cahoon                                         CJ




                                                                             or
                                                                        home

                                                                                 ga
                                                               l
                                                             ai




                                                                                       ni
                                                                   ws
                                                           em




                                                                                          s
                                                                                         at
          christine@netskills.biz                                                                                        Platypus Consultancy




                                                                kno




                                                                                            io
                                                                                                                 me




                                                                         town



                                                                                              n
                                                                                                             na
                                    name                               organisation
        George Munroe                                      GM                                        PCL     formed in
                                                                                                                            2004




                                                                                            n
                                                       l
                                                     ai




                                                                ho




                                                                                         di
                                                   em




                                                                   m




                                                                                       se
        george@netskills.biz



                                                                   e




                                                                                       ba
                                                                    to
                                                                        wn
                                                                                                     name
                                                                               BFS                                Belfast
                                                                                         po
                                                                                              pu
                                                                                                la


                                                                             country
                  name                                                                             tio
   Brian Kelly                     BK                                                                 n
                                                                                                           1 million
                               l
                             ai
                         em
                                    organisation


                                                     ho




brian@netskills.biz                                                             UK
                                                        m
                                                        e
                                                           to
                                                            wn




                                                                             ntry
                                                                          cou




                      name
          UKOLN                    ULN                             BTH                  name
                                                                                                          Bath
                                                   based in
Real metadata




Resource description framework
   ‣ RDF is a generic "way" of using definitive metadata with web resources.
   ‣ RDF describes "things" (defined by uniform resource identifiers, URIs) by assigning
       properties and corresponding values—statements are known as "triples" consisting
       of [subject] [predicate] [object].
   ‣   The predicate URI usually references a term in a standard metadata vocabulary,
       resulting in unambiguous meaning.
   ‣   Any part of the triple can be a URI and URIs can point to other URIs that can be
       read using HTTP and extended (or related) in other web resources, thus a scalable
       model and very flexible.




                          http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/
What is RDFa?




           RDFa =
Resource Description Framework
               in

          attributes
What is RDFa?




Generic model for the provision of metadata




                               RDFa =
            Resource Description Framework
                                    in

                             attributes
What is RDFa?




Generic model for the provision of metadata




                               RDFa =
            Resource Description Framework
                                    in

                             attributes
                                              HTML
An RDFa basics tutorial by Manu Sporny




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ldl0m-5zLz4&feature=player_embedded
Simple RDFa web page

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#">
<head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab">
<title>Simple RDFa example</title>
</head>

<body>
<div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person">

 My name is <span property="v:name">George Munroe</span>,

 also known online as <span property="v:nickname">mungeo</span>.

 I am involved in several ventures but my home web site is at:

 <a href="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com"

 rel="v:url">www.platypusconsultancy.com</a>.

 I live in

 <span rel="v:address">

 
 <span typeof="v:Address">

 
 
 <span property="v:locality">Donegal</span>,

 
 
 <span property="v:region">Ulster</span>

 
 </span>

 </span>

 and work as a <span property="v:title">consultant trainer</span>

 at <span property="v:affiliation">Netskills</span>.
</div>
</body>
</html>
Simple RDFa web page

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#">
<head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab">
<title>Simple RDFa example</title>
</head>

<body>
<div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person">

 My name is <span property="v:name">George Munroe</span>,

 also known online as <span property="v:nickname">mungeo</span>.

 I am involved in several ventures but my home web site is at:

 <a href="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com"

 rel="v:url">www.platypusconsultancy.com</a>.

 I live in

 <span rel="v:address">

 
 <span typeof="v:Address">

 
 
 <span property="v:locality">Donegal</span>,

 
 
 <span property="v:region">Ulster</span>

 
 </span>

 </span>

 and work as a <span property="v:title">consultant trainer</span>

 at <span property="v:affiliation">Netskills</span>.
</div>
</body>
</html>
Simple RDFa web page

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#">
<head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab">
<title>Simple RDFa example</title>
</head>

<body>
<div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person">

 My name is <span property="v:name">George Munroe</span>,

 also known online as <span property="v:nickname">mungeo</span>.

 I am involved in several ventures but my home web site is at:

 <a href="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com"

 rel="v:url">www.platypusconsultancy.com</a>.

 I live in

 <span rel="v:address">

 
 <span typeof="v:Address">

 
 
 <span property="v:locality">Donegal</span>,

 
 
 <span property="v:region">Ulster</span>

 
 </span>

 </span>

 and work as a <span property="v:title">consultant trainer</span>

 at <span property="v:affiliation">Netskills</span>.
</div>
</body>
</html>
Simple RDFa web page

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#">
<head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab">
<title>Simple RDFa example</title>
</head>

<body>
<div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person">

 My name is <span property="v:name">George Munroe</span>,

 also known online as <span property="v:nickname">mungeo</span>.

 I am involved in several ventures but my home web site is at:

 <a href="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com"

 rel="v:url">www.platypusconsultancy.com</a>.

 I live in

 <span rel="v:address">

 
 <span typeof="v:Address">

 
 
 <span property="v:locality">Donegal</span>,

 
 
 <span property="v:region">Ulster</span>

 
 </span>

 </span>

 and work as a <span property="v:title">consultant trainer</span>

 at <span property="v:affiliation">Netskills</span>.
</div>
</body>
</html>
RDFa distiller




Extract RDF from HTML + RDFa
W3C service to identify and list RDF from a web page
    ‣ using web address, local file or direct text inputs
    ‣ provides “clean” view of data hierarchy
    ‣ enables simple check on markup validation *and* intended meaning




                         http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/
Distilled RDFa page




<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<rdf:RDF
  xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
  xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
  xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"
  xmlns:xhv="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab#"
  xmlns:xml="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
>
  <v:Person>
    <v:nickname>mungeo</v:nickname>
    <v:address>
      <v:Address>
         <v:region>Ulster</v:region>
         <v:locality>Donegal</v:locality>
      </v:Address>
    </v:address>
    <v:url rdf:resource="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com"/>
    <v:name>George Munroe</v:name>
    <v:title>consultant trainer</v:title>
    <v:affiliation>Netskills</v:affiliation>
  </v:Person>
</rdf:RDF>
Real metadata




Microformats and RDFa
  ‣ Previously RDF statements were usually provided in separate .rdf files and were not
        widely used because of the extra effort required to produce.
  ‣     Microformats consist of informal vocabularies (not referenced in the document) that
        have been established by rapid user adoption, ease of use and desire to create
        richer semantics with embedded metadata. These are used with "class" attribute in
        <div> and <span> blocks or with “rel” in anchor <a …> tags.
  ‣     RDFa allows RDF statements to be included in ordinary HTML files using formally
        defined attributes within <span> blocks, with metadata vocabularies referenced in
        <head>.




      http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/    http://microformats.org/wiki/Main_Page
Data integration




Seamless use of data in a web page with
desktop applications
   ‣ use of microformats tools to generate contact information in a web page
   ‣ viewing of web page containing microformats with an “aware” browser
   ‣ addition of data in the web page to desktop address book




       http://microformats.org/code-tools   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HCard
Metadata vocabularies




The importance of using commonly understood
and accessible metadata language
Everyone (and every computer) must have a common understanding of
what particular “things“ (entities and their properties) actually are
    ‣ concept of XML namespaces, identifying vocabularies (descriptions of what
          properties could be defined for a particular entity) available on the web
      ‣   these descriptions supplied as RDF (or RDFa) files with a URL (URI)

And there’s more to it than just a flat list of entities and properties
     ‣ a real understanding involves being aware of the relationships between entity
          classes as well as what properties are associated with an entity
      ‣   these relationships can be defined using other vocabularies (OWL)
      ‣   a very complex “ontology” can be built very simply from triples where the object of
          one triple may be the subject of another
Exploring vocabularies




Commonly used metadata vocabularies
Google (person, organisation, review, event, recipe)
    ‣ http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/
FOAF (Friend Of A Friend)
    ‣ http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
GoodRelations (ecommerce)
    ‣ http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/goodrelations/v1.owl
Dublin Core (generic document)
     ‣ http://dublincore.org/2008/01/14/dcelements.rdf
Creative Commons (licensing)
    ‣ http://creativecommons.org/ns
SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organisation System)
    ‣ http://www.w3.org/2009/08/skos-reference/skos.rdf
Metadata—deployment




 RDFa and linked data in UK government web-
 sites
 Mark Birbeck, Nodalities Magazine, 29 July 2009

 The UK government’s Central Office of Information had a straightforward problem to solve:
 how could they create a centralised web-site of information that the public could search and
 access, when the source of that information could be any government department database
 or any public sector web-site?
 By using RDFa to address the challenge of making distributed data available in one place, the
 COI avoided having to make changes to each department's systems. But once each
 department is publishing RDFa, it becomes possible for third parties to consume that
 information however they see fit. Such a flexible architecture is crucial in the age of open
 government, and is a cornerstone of linked open data.




http://blogs.talis.com/nodalities/2009/07/rdfa-and-linked-data-in-uk-government-web-sites.php
Metadata—deployment




TSO announces major new platform to
accelerate open data drive
TSO partners with Garlik on hosted "trillion triple" RDF platform, 18 January 2010

TSO (The Stationery Office), the public sector division of Williams Lea, has today announced
a partnership with Garlik, the leading semantic technology innovator, to launch what is
believed to be the world's most scalable, securely hosted RDF platform for use by UK Central
and Local Government departments. As the largest publisher in the UK of public sector
documents (over 8,000 titles a year), TSO has taken this proactive step to provide its core
public sector customers with the ability to participate with confidence in the Government's
open data initiative.




              http://www.tso.co.uk/press/latestnews/archive/2010/triplestore/
Metadata—deployment


RDFa adoption
21 January 2010
The open graph protocol




Facebook and the open graph
protocol
Announced at the Facebook Developers Conference, 21 April 2010

The Open Graph protocol enables you to integrate your web pages
into the social graph. It is currently designed for web pages
representing profiles of real-world things—things like movies,
sports teams, celebrities, and restaurants. Once your pages
become objects in the graph, users can establish connections to
your pages as they do with Facebook Pages. Based on the
structured data you provide via the Open Graph protocol, your
pages show up richly across Facebook: in user profiles, within
search results and in News Feed.
With the open graph protocol, any URL can be treated just like a
Facebook page.




      http://opengraphprotocol.org/   http://developers.facebook.com/docs/opengraph
The “open data” movement




Linking Open Data project
The goal is to extend the web by publishing various open data sets as RDF on the web and by
setting RDF links between data items in different data sources. These RDF links then enable
navigation from a data item within one data source to related data items within other sources
using a semantic web browser.
RDF links can also be followed by the crawlers of semantic web search engines, which may
provide sophisticated search and query capabilities over crawled data. As query results are
structured data and not just links to HTML pages, they can be used within other applications.




     http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/
The “open data” movement




http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/
The “open data” movement




Contains 4.7 billion triples, interlinked by
      around 142 million RDF links




http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/
Open linked data




School of Electronics and Computer Science
(ECS) at University of Southampton releases
all public data in open linked data format
Joyce Lewis, 13 July 2010

In what is believed also to be a world-first, ECS has become the UK’s first University
department to release all its public data in open linked data format.
In accordance with the spirit of the open linked data initiative, ECS has released all its own
data for public reuse. This includes data about research papers in the EPrints archive
(announced this in the official global rankings as one of the top ten in the world), people in
the School, research groups, teaching modules, seminars and events, buildings and rooms.
All public (RDF) data from rdf.ecs.soton.ac.uk and eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk is now available
and can be reused for any legal purpose, including derivative works and commercial use. The
School has opted for a creative commons public domain (CC0) license to allow the data to be
reused.
Christopher Gutteridge, ECS Web Projects Manager, comments: “We believe that in the future
this will become common practice for certain types of open data, and it is our responsibility to
lead the way in setting the standards of best practice.”




                        http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/about/news/3313
Open and linked data




It's all semantics: open data, linked data and
the semantic web
Richard MacManus, ReadWriteWeb, 31 March 2010

Titti Cimmino put it nicely: Open Data is simply 'data on the web,' whereas Linked Data is a
'web of data.'
However, the idea of Open Data is to turn it into Linked Data. As John S. Erickson pointed
out, the first priority of Data.gov.uk (and its U.S. counterpart) is to publish lots of Open Data.
The next step is to work towards linking it all up. This is already starting to happen.
Answering a question I posed on Twitter, Kingsley Idehen confirmed that Data.gov.uk is
currently a combination of Open Data and Linked Data.




     http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/open_data_linked_data_semantic_web.php
Open data



Open data principles
December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open
government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government
data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing.




              http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
Open data



Open data principles
December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open
government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government
data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing.

     1.   Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject
          to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.




              http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
Open data



Open data principles
December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open
government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government
data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing.

     1.   Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject
          to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
     2.   Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of
          granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.




              http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
Open data



Open data principles
December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open
government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government
data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing.

     1.   Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject
          to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
     2.   Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of
          granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.
     3.   Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of
          the data.




              http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
Open data



Open data principles
December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open
government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government
data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing.

     1.   Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject
          to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
     2.   Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of
          granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.
     3.   Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of
          the data.
     4.   Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of
          purposes.




              http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
Open data



Open data principles
December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open
government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government
data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing.

     1.   Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject
          to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
     2.   Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of
          granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.
     3.   Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of
          the data.
     4.   Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of
          purposes.
     5.   Machine processable. Data is reasonably structured to allow automated
          processing.




              http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
Open data



Open data principles
December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open
government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government
data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing.

     1.   Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject
          to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
     2.   Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of
          granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.
     3.   Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of
          the data.
     4.   Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of
          purposes.
     5.   Machine processable. Data is reasonably structured to allow automated
          processing.
     6.   Non-discriminatory. Data is available to anyone, with no requirement of
          registration.




              http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
Open data



Open data principles
December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open
government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government
data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing.

     1.   Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject
          to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
     2.   Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of
          granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.
     3.   Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of
          the data.
     4.   Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of
          purposes.
     5.   Machine processable. Data is reasonably structured to allow automated
          processing.
     6.   Non-discriminatory. Data is available to anyone, with no requirement of
          registration.
     7.   Non-proprietary. Data is available in a format over which no entity has exclusive
          control.




              http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
Open data



Open data principles
December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open
government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government
data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing.

     1.   Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject
          to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
     2.   Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of
          granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.
     3.   Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of
          the data.
     4.   Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of
          purposes.
     5.   Machine processable. Data is reasonably structured to allow automated
          processing.
     6.   Non-discriminatory. Data is available to anyone, with no requirement of
          registration.
     7.   Non-proprietary. Data is available in a format over which no entity has exclusive
          control.
     8.   License-free. Data is not subject to any copyright, patent, trademark or trade
          secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions may be
          allowed.



              http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
Open government




The currents of our time
Carl Malamud, Gov 2.0 Summit, 7-8 September
2010

If our government is to do the jobs with which we
have entrusted it—if government is to ensure that
the air we breathe and the water we drink are
safe, or that every child is to be given a chance to
flourish—if we are to accomplish these goals, the
machinery of our government must be made to
work properly...

Our federal government spends $81.9 billion a
year on Information Technology. Much of that is
wasted effort. We build systems so badly, it is
crippling the infrastructure of government.




                              http://public.resource.org/currents/
RDFa tools




https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/195085/
RDFa tools


RDF/RDFa related tools
RDFa distiller (extract pure RDF from HTML + RDFa)
    ‣ http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/
    ‣ get RDF directly from http://example.com/sample.html using single address
         http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/extract?uri=http://example.com/sample.html

RDF validator and grapher
    ‣ http://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator/
Google’s RDFa tutorial
    ‣ http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?
         hl=en&answer=146898

Operator plug in for Firefox
    ‣ https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/4106
DBpedia applications (try e.g. the relation finder)
    ‣ http://wiki.dbpedia.org/Applications
OpenLink Data Explorer extension for Firefox
    ‣ https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/8062
List global namespaces and entities
      ‣ http://pingthesemanticweb.com/
Discovery using RDF links




DBpedia applications
DBpedia is RDF data extracted from the well structured wikipedia pages
(13 million)
    ‣ open web page at: http://wiki.dbpedia.org/Applications
    ‣ select the “Relation Finder” application
    ‣ on the left hand side of the page enter two “entities” that are likely to have several
          mentions in wikipedia
      ‣   select “Find Relations” and watch the RDF links begin to match up to reveal
          interesting direct and indirect information about the entities
      ‣   explore some of the other DBpedia applications and determine if there is any
          relevance to your own work
SPARQL




Exploring, mining, combining RDF triples using
a simple query language
   ‣ requires a “SPARQL” endpoint as query engine to examine data and present results
   ‣ generic (using any data set) or specific (using a particular data set) available
   ‣ typical SPARQL query using dbpedia data set:
       PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
       SELECT DISTINCT ?person
       FROM <http://dbpedia.org/>
       WHERE {
         ?person foaf:name ?name .
         GRAPH ?g1 { ?person a foaf:Person }
         GRAPH ?g2 { ?person a foaf:Person }
         FILTER(?g1 != ?g2) .
       }
   ‣   potentially extremely powerful search of many resources




                              http://dbpedia.org/snorql/
The “open data” movement




http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_the_year_open_data_went_worldwide.html
Maximising Online Resource Effectiveness Workshop Session 7/8 Development strategy

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Maximising Online Resource Effectiveness Workshop Session 7/8 Development strategy

  • 1. Call a spade a spade—SCAMORE 7/8 the power of open data and appropriate metadata photo: ©GM 2010
  • 2.
  • 3. Development strategy Session 7/8
  • 4. Metadata Increases specificity Improves common, wide, unambiguous understanding Content becomes computable
  • 5. Metadata Increases specificity Improves common, wide, unambiguous understanding Content becomes computable
  • 6. Compiling metadata Working individually, prepare some metadata about familiar entities by completing the following table...
  • 7. Compiling metadata Subject Property Value me me me my organisation my organisation my organisation my home town my home town my home town
  • 8. Compiling metadata Subject Property Value me name “George Munroe” me organisation my organisation me email address “george@netskills.biz” my organisation name “Platypus Consultancy” my organisation year formed “2004” my organisation town/city my home town my home town name “Belfast” my home town country UK my home town population “1 million”
  • 9. Compiling metadata Subject Property Value GM name “George Munroe” GM organisation PCL GM email address “george@netskills.biz” PCL name “Platypus Consultancy” PCL year formed “2004” PCL town/city BFS BFS name “Belfast” BFS country UK BFS population “1 million”
  • 10.
  • 11. organisation GM PCL ho m e to wn BFS
  • 12. name organisation George Munroe GM PCL l ai ho em m george@netskills.biz e to wn BFS
  • 13. me Platypus Consultancy na name organisation George Munroe GM PCL formed in 2004 n l ai ho di em m se george@netskills.biz e ba to wn BFS
  • 14. me Platypus Consultancy na name organisation George Munroe GM PCL formed in 2004 n l ai ho di em m se george@netskills.biz e ba to wn name BFS Belfast po pu la country tio n 1 million UK
  • 15. me Platypus Consultancy na name organisation George Munroe GM PCL formed in 2004 n l ai ho di em m se george@netskills.biz e ba to wn name BFS Belfast po pu la country tio n 1 million UK
  • 16. name Christine Cahoon CJ or home ga l ai ni ws em s at christine@netskills.biz Platypus Consultancy kno io me town n na name organisation George Munroe GM PCL formed in 2004 n l ai ho di em m se george@netskills.biz e ba to wn name BFS Belfast po pu la country tio n 1 million UK
  • 17. name Christine Cahoon CJ or home ga l ai ni ws em s at christine@netskills.biz Platypus Consultancy kno io me town n na name organisation George Munroe GM PCL formed in 2004 n l ai ho di em m se george@netskills.biz e ba to wn name BFS Belfast po pu la country name tio Brian Kelly BK n 1 million l ai em organisation ho brian@netskills.biz UK m e to wn ntry cou name UKOLN ULN BTH name Bath based in
  • 18. Real metadata Resource description framework ‣ RDF is a generic "way" of using definitive metadata with web resources. ‣ RDF describes "things" (defined by uniform resource identifiers, URIs) by assigning properties and corresponding values—statements are known as "triples" consisting of [subject] [predicate] [object]. ‣ The predicate URI usually references a term in a standard metadata vocabulary, resulting in unambiguous meaning. ‣ Any part of the triple can be a URI and URIs can point to other URIs that can be read using HTTP and extended (or related) in other web resources, thus a scalable model and very flexible. http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/
  • 19. What is RDFa? RDFa = Resource Description Framework in attributes
  • 20. What is RDFa? Generic model for the provision of metadata RDFa = Resource Description Framework in attributes
  • 21. What is RDFa? Generic model for the provision of metadata RDFa = Resource Description Framework in attributes HTML
  • 22. An RDFa basics tutorial by Manu Sporny http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ldl0m-5zLz4&feature=player_embedded
  • 23. Simple RDFa web page <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"> <head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab"> <title>Simple RDFa example</title> </head> <body> <div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person"> My name is <span property="v:name">George Munroe</span>, also known online as <span property="v:nickname">mungeo</span>. I am involved in several ventures but my home web site is at: <a href="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com" rel="v:url">www.platypusconsultancy.com</a>. I live in <span rel="v:address"> <span typeof="v:Address"> <span property="v:locality">Donegal</span>, <span property="v:region">Ulster</span> </span> </span> and work as a <span property="v:title">consultant trainer</span> at <span property="v:affiliation">Netskills</span>. </div> </body> </html>
  • 24. Simple RDFa web page <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"> <head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab"> <title>Simple RDFa example</title> </head> <body> <div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person"> My name is <span property="v:name">George Munroe</span>, also known online as <span property="v:nickname">mungeo</span>. I am involved in several ventures but my home web site is at: <a href="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com" rel="v:url">www.platypusconsultancy.com</a>. I live in <span rel="v:address"> <span typeof="v:Address"> <span property="v:locality">Donegal</span>, <span property="v:region">Ulster</span> </span> </span> and work as a <span property="v:title">consultant trainer</span> at <span property="v:affiliation">Netskills</span>. </div> </body> </html>
  • 25. Simple RDFa web page <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"> <head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab"> <title>Simple RDFa example</title> </head> <body> <div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person"> My name is <span property="v:name">George Munroe</span>, also known online as <span property="v:nickname">mungeo</span>. I am involved in several ventures but my home web site is at: <a href="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com" rel="v:url">www.platypusconsultancy.com</a>. I live in <span rel="v:address"> <span typeof="v:Address"> <span property="v:locality">Donegal</span>, <span property="v:region">Ulster</span> </span> </span> and work as a <span property="v:title">consultant trainer</span> at <span property="v:affiliation">Netskills</span>. </div> </body> </html>
  • 26. Simple RDFa web page <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"> <head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab"> <title>Simple RDFa example</title> </head> <body> <div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person"> My name is <span property="v:name">George Munroe</span>, also known online as <span property="v:nickname">mungeo</span>. I am involved in several ventures but my home web site is at: <a href="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com" rel="v:url">www.platypusconsultancy.com</a>. I live in <span rel="v:address"> <span typeof="v:Address"> <span property="v:locality">Donegal</span>, <span property="v:region">Ulster</span> </span> </span> and work as a <span property="v:title">consultant trainer</span> at <span property="v:affiliation">Netskills</span>. </div> </body> </html>
  • 27. RDFa distiller Extract RDF from HTML + RDFa W3C service to identify and list RDF from a web page ‣ using web address, local file or direct text inputs ‣ provides “clean” view of data hierarchy ‣ enables simple check on markup validation *and* intended meaning http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/
  • 28. Distilled RDFa page <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" xmlns:xhv="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab#" xmlns:xml="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" > <v:Person> <v:nickname>mungeo</v:nickname> <v:address> <v:Address> <v:region>Ulster</v:region> <v:locality>Donegal</v:locality> </v:Address> </v:address> <v:url rdf:resource="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com"/> <v:name>George Munroe</v:name> <v:title>consultant trainer</v:title> <v:affiliation>Netskills</v:affiliation> </v:Person> </rdf:RDF>
  • 29. Real metadata Microformats and RDFa ‣ Previously RDF statements were usually provided in separate .rdf files and were not widely used because of the extra effort required to produce. ‣ Microformats consist of informal vocabularies (not referenced in the document) that have been established by rapid user adoption, ease of use and desire to create richer semantics with embedded metadata. These are used with "class" attribute in <div> and <span> blocks or with “rel” in anchor <a …> tags. ‣ RDFa allows RDF statements to be included in ordinary HTML files using formally defined attributes within <span> blocks, with metadata vocabularies referenced in <head>. http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-in-html/ http://microformats.org/wiki/Main_Page
  • 30. Data integration Seamless use of data in a web page with desktop applications ‣ use of microformats tools to generate contact information in a web page ‣ viewing of web page containing microformats with an “aware” browser ‣ addition of data in the web page to desktop address book http://microformats.org/code-tools http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HCard
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. Metadata vocabularies The importance of using commonly understood and accessible metadata language Everyone (and every computer) must have a common understanding of what particular “things“ (entities and their properties) actually are ‣ concept of XML namespaces, identifying vocabularies (descriptions of what properties could be defined for a particular entity) available on the web ‣ these descriptions supplied as RDF (or RDFa) files with a URL (URI) And there’s more to it than just a flat list of entities and properties ‣ a real understanding involves being aware of the relationships between entity classes as well as what properties are associated with an entity ‣ these relationships can be defined using other vocabularies (OWL) ‣ a very complex “ontology” can be built very simply from triples where the object of one triple may be the subject of another
  • 35. Exploring vocabularies Commonly used metadata vocabularies Google (person, organisation, review, event, recipe) ‣ http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/ FOAF (Friend Of A Friend) ‣ http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ GoodRelations (ecommerce) ‣ http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/goodrelations/v1.owl Dublin Core (generic document) ‣ http://dublincore.org/2008/01/14/dcelements.rdf Creative Commons (licensing) ‣ http://creativecommons.org/ns SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organisation System) ‣ http://www.w3.org/2009/08/skos-reference/skos.rdf
  • 36. Metadata—deployment RDFa and linked data in UK government web- sites Mark Birbeck, Nodalities Magazine, 29 July 2009 The UK government’s Central Office of Information had a straightforward problem to solve: how could they create a centralised web-site of information that the public could search and access, when the source of that information could be any government department database or any public sector web-site? By using RDFa to address the challenge of making distributed data available in one place, the COI avoided having to make changes to each department's systems. But once each department is publishing RDFa, it becomes possible for third parties to consume that information however they see fit. Such a flexible architecture is crucial in the age of open government, and is a cornerstone of linked open data. http://blogs.talis.com/nodalities/2009/07/rdfa-and-linked-data-in-uk-government-web-sites.php
  • 37. Metadata—deployment TSO announces major new platform to accelerate open data drive TSO partners with Garlik on hosted "trillion triple" RDF platform, 18 January 2010 TSO (The Stationery Office), the public sector division of Williams Lea, has today announced a partnership with Garlik, the leading semantic technology innovator, to launch what is believed to be the world's most scalable, securely hosted RDF platform for use by UK Central and Local Government departments. As the largest publisher in the UK of public sector documents (over 8,000 titles a year), TSO has taken this proactive step to provide its core public sector customers with the ability to participate with confidence in the Government's open data initiative. http://www.tso.co.uk/press/latestnews/archive/2010/triplestore/
  • 39. The open graph protocol Facebook and the open graph protocol Announced at the Facebook Developers Conference, 21 April 2010 The Open Graph protocol enables you to integrate your web pages into the social graph. It is currently designed for web pages representing profiles of real-world things—things like movies, sports teams, celebrities, and restaurants. Once your pages become objects in the graph, users can establish connections to your pages as they do with Facebook Pages. Based on the structured data you provide via the Open Graph protocol, your pages show up richly across Facebook: in user profiles, within search results and in News Feed. With the open graph protocol, any URL can be treated just like a Facebook page. http://opengraphprotocol.org/ http://developers.facebook.com/docs/opengraph
  • 40. The “open data” movement Linking Open Data project The goal is to extend the web by publishing various open data sets as RDF on the web and by setting RDF links between data items in different data sources. These RDF links then enable navigation from a data item within one data source to related data items within other sources using a semantic web browser. RDF links can also be followed by the crawlers of semantic web search engines, which may provide sophisticated search and query capabilities over crawled data. As query results are structured data and not just links to HTML pages, they can be used within other applications. http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/
  • 41. The “open data” movement http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/
  • 42. The “open data” movement Contains 4.7 billion triples, interlinked by around 142 million RDF links http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/
  • 43. Open linked data School of Electronics and Computer Science (ECS) at University of Southampton releases all public data in open linked data format Joyce Lewis, 13 July 2010 In what is believed also to be a world-first, ECS has become the UK’s first University department to release all its public data in open linked data format. In accordance with the spirit of the open linked data initiative, ECS has released all its own data for public reuse. This includes data about research papers in the EPrints archive (announced this in the official global rankings as one of the top ten in the world), people in the School, research groups, teaching modules, seminars and events, buildings and rooms. All public (RDF) data from rdf.ecs.soton.ac.uk and eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk is now available and can be reused for any legal purpose, including derivative works and commercial use. The School has opted for a creative commons public domain (CC0) license to allow the data to be reused. Christopher Gutteridge, ECS Web Projects Manager, comments: “We believe that in the future this will become common practice for certain types of open data, and it is our responsibility to lead the way in setting the standards of best practice.” http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/about/news/3313
  • 44. Open and linked data It's all semantics: open data, linked data and the semantic web Richard MacManus, ReadWriteWeb, 31 March 2010 Titti Cimmino put it nicely: Open Data is simply 'data on the web,' whereas Linked Data is a 'web of data.' However, the idea of Open Data is to turn it into Linked Data. As John S. Erickson pointed out, the first priority of Data.gov.uk (and its U.S. counterpart) is to publish lots of Open Data. The next step is to work towards linking it all up. This is already starting to happen. Answering a question I posed on Twitter, Kingsley Idehen confirmed that Data.gov.uk is currently a combination of Open Data and Linked Data. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/open_data_linked_data_semantic_web.php
  • 45. Open data Open data principles December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing. http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
  • 46. Open data Open data principles December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing. 1. Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
  • 47. Open data Open data principles December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing. 1. Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. 2. Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
  • 48. Open data Open data principles December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing. 1. Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. 2. Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. 3. Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
  • 49. Open data Open data principles December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing. 1. Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. 2. Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. 3. Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. 4. Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes. http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
  • 50. Open data Open data principles December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing. 1. Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. 2. Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. 3. Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. 4. Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes. 5. Machine processable. Data is reasonably structured to allow automated processing. http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
  • 51. Open data Open data principles December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing. 1. Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. 2. Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. 3. Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. 4. Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes. 5. Machine processable. Data is reasonably structured to allow automated processing. 6. Non-discriminatory. Data is available to anyone, with no requirement of registration. http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
  • 52. Open data Open data principles December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing. 1. Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. 2. Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. 3. Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. 4. Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes. 5. Machine processable. Data is reasonably structured to allow automated processing. 6. Non-discriminatory. Data is available to anyone, with no requirement of registration. 7. Non-proprietary. Data is available in a format over which no entity has exclusive control. http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
  • 53. Open data Open data principles December 7-8, 2007—30 open government advocates gathered to develop principles of open government data in California, resulting in 8 fundamental principles for open government data. Governments can become more effective, transparent, and relevant by embracing. 1. Complete. All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. 2. Primary. Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. 3. Timely. Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. 4. Accessible. Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes. 5. Machine processable. Data is reasonably structured to allow automated processing. 6. Non-discriminatory. Data is available to anyone, with no requirement of registration. 7. Non-proprietary. Data is available in a format over which no entity has exclusive control. 8. License-free. Data is not subject to any copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions may be allowed. http://wiki.opengovdata.org/index.php?title=OpenDataPrinciples
  • 54. Open government The currents of our time Carl Malamud, Gov 2.0 Summit, 7-8 September 2010 If our government is to do the jobs with which we have entrusted it—if government is to ensure that the air we breathe and the water we drink are safe, or that every child is to be given a chance to flourish—if we are to accomplish these goals, the machinery of our government must be made to work properly... Our federal government spends $81.9 billion a year on Information Technology. Much of that is wasted effort. We build systems so badly, it is crippling the infrastructure of government. http://public.resource.org/currents/
  • 56. RDFa tools RDF/RDFa related tools RDFa distiller (extract pure RDF from HTML + RDFa) ‣ http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/ ‣ get RDF directly from http://example.com/sample.html using single address http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/extract?uri=http://example.com/sample.html RDF validator and grapher ‣ http://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator/ Google’s RDFa tutorial ‣ http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py? hl=en&answer=146898 Operator plug in for Firefox ‣ https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/4106 DBpedia applications (try e.g. the relation finder) ‣ http://wiki.dbpedia.org/Applications OpenLink Data Explorer extension for Firefox ‣ https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/8062 List global namespaces and entities ‣ http://pingthesemanticweb.com/
  • 57. Discovery using RDF links DBpedia applications DBpedia is RDF data extracted from the well structured wikipedia pages (13 million) ‣ open web page at: http://wiki.dbpedia.org/Applications ‣ select the “Relation Finder” application ‣ on the left hand side of the page enter two “entities” that are likely to have several mentions in wikipedia ‣ select “Find Relations” and watch the RDF links begin to match up to reveal interesting direct and indirect information about the entities ‣ explore some of the other DBpedia applications and determine if there is any relevance to your own work
  • 58. SPARQL Exploring, mining, combining RDF triples using a simple query language ‣ requires a “SPARQL” endpoint as query engine to examine data and present results ‣ generic (using any data set) or specific (using a particular data set) available ‣ typical SPARQL query using dbpedia data set: PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> SELECT DISTINCT ?person FROM <http://dbpedia.org/> WHERE { ?person foaf:name ?name . GRAPH ?g1 { ?person a foaf:Person } GRAPH ?g2 { ?person a foaf:Person } FILTER(?g1 != ?g2) . } ‣ potentially extremely powerful search of many resources http://dbpedia.org/snorql/
  • 59. The “open data” movement http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_the_year_open_data_went_worldwide.html

Editor's Notes