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HEALTH EDUCATION ON
FEVER AND UPPER
RESPIRATORY TRACT
INFECTION
SUBMITTED TO:
Dr. S. SUJATHA
HOD,
DEPARTMENT OF CHILD HEALTH
NURSING,
CON- PIMS.
SUBMITTED BY:
K. SIVASAKTHI,
M.SC NURSING IIND
YEAR,
CON- PIMS.
SUBMIITTED ON:
NAME OF THE STUDENT : K. SIVASAKTHI
COURSE : MSC.NURSING II ND YEAR
BATCH : 2021-23
SUBJECT : CHILD HEALTH NURSING
TOPIC : FEVER & URTI
METHOD OF TEACHING. : LECTURE CUM DISCUSSION
AUDIO VISUAL AIDS : FLASH CARDS
DATE/ TIME :
VENUE :
DURATION : 20 MINUTES
NAME OF THE EVALUATOR : Dr.S. SUJATHA
HOD, CON- PIMS.
GENERAL OBJECTIVE:
At the end of the class, the learner’s will be able to acquire knowledge on fever and upper respiratory tract infection and develop positive
attitude and skills towards treating and preventing fever and upper respiratory tract infection in home setting.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:
By the end of the class, the learner will be able to
• define fever.
• describe the causes of fever.
• list the symptoms of fever.
• discuss about the treatment of fever.
• enlist the home care for fever management.
• define upper respiratory tract infections
• enlist the causes of upper respiratory tract infections
• explain the epidemiology of upper respiratory tract infections.
• discuss the risk factors and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection.
• enumerate the treatment for upper respiratory tract infection
• describe the complications of upper respiratory tract infections
• list the preventive measure for upper respiratory tract infections
TIME SPECIFIC
OBJECTIVE
CONTENTS TEACHER
ACTIVITY
LEARNER’S
ACIVITY
AV
AI
DS
EVALUATIO
N
2 mins
2 mins
Define fever.
Describe the
causes of
fever.
FEVER
Fever:
A fever is when your child’s body temperature is higher
than normal. A normal body temperature is about 37º
Celsius but this can vary during the day. In children, a
temperature over 38ºC indicates a fever.
It does not indicate a serious illness. A fever needs to reach
about 42ºC to cause harm to your child (or damage their
brain). This is very rare.
Causes:
A fever is usually caused by an infection somewhere in the
body. Some types of infections that lead to fever include:
• Viral (caused by a virus) – around nine out of ten children
with a fever will have a viral illness, such as cold, flu or
gastroenteritis
• Bacterial (caused by bacteria) – such as some ear
infections, pneumonia or urine infections. The fever itself
is not harmful and your child’s temperature will return to
normal when the infection settles.
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5 mins List the
symptoms of
fever.
Babies under three months of age are most at risk when
they have a fever and need to be checked by a doctor or
healthcare professional.
Symptoms:
A child may:
• look flushed and feel hot (their hands and feet may feel
cool)
• feel miserable and tired (they may want to sleep more)
• breathe quicker and/or their heartbeat is fast or ‘pounding’
• not want to eat.
These symptoms are all due to the fever and will resolve
when your child’s temperature returns to normal. Fevers
are very common in childhood. Your child’s temperature
will go up and down, which is the body’s natural way of
fighting an infection. This is normal and should not be a
cause for concern. Children may get sick with a viral illness
and develop a fever several times in one year. This is
because children often get sick from other children who are
sick, usually by sharing toys, food and drink and simply
through coughing and sneezing. Getting sick helps children
to build a stronger immune system and is a normal part of
childhood.
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3 mins
2 mins
Discuss about
the treatment
of fever.
Enlist the
home care for
fever
management.
Treatment
• It is not always necessary to treat a fever. You may
be advised to give your child medication such as
paracetamol or ibuprofen(15mg/kg/dose), to make
your child more comfortable.
• Medication is recommended if your child is
miserable, irritable or in pain, rather than to treat the
fever itself.
• The fever is not harmful and helps your child’s
body fight the infection. By reducing the fever, your
child’s illness may be prolonged.
• If your child has a viral illness they are likely to get
better without treatment, and antibiotics will not be
helpful.
• If your child has a bacterial infection they may need
antibiotics to fight the infection. The cause of a
child’s fever may not be obvious.
Home care
• Give your child plenty to drink.
• Offer small frequent drinks of clear fluids (such as
water or diluted juice). This is especially important
if your child is vomiting or has diarrhoea.
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• If you are breastfeeding, offer the breastmilk more
often and give cooled boiled water in between
times, if needed.
• Do not worry if your baby or child does not eat.
• They will get their appetite back once they are
feeling better (usually after two to three days).
• Fluids are most important as this helps to prevent
dehydration (loss of water) in your child.
• Consider giving your child paracetamol for pain or
discomfort. Carefully check the label for the correct
dose and make sure you are not giving your child
any other products containing paracetamol (such as
some cough and pain medicines and cold and flu
preparations).
• Make your child comfortable with plenty of cuddles
and reassurance. Encourage your child to rest or
play quietly if they are unwell.
• Do not put your child in a cold bath
• Do not give your child aspirin
• Sponging a child with a fever does not help to lower
the fever and may make your child more distressed.
• Dress them for comfort.
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3 mins
5 mins
Define upper
respiratory
tract infection.
Enlist the
causes of
URTI
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION
Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is a nonspecific
term used to describe acute infections involving the nose,
paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
The prototype is the illness known as the common cold in
addition to pharyngitis, sinusitis, and trachea bronchitis. So
it commonly includes:
Tonsillitis
Pharyngitis
Laryngitis
Sinusitis
Otitis media
Common cold
CAUSES OF URTI’s:
Over 200 different viruses have been isolated in patients
with URIs. The most common virus is called the
rhinovirus. Other viruses include the:
•Coronavirus,
•Parainfluenza virus,
•Adenovirus,
•Enterovirus,
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2 mins
5 mins
Explain the
epidemiology
of URTI.
Discuss the
risk factors
and symptoms
of upper
respiratory
tract infection.
Up to 15% of acute pharyngitis cases may be caused by
bacteria, commonly GroupA streptococcus in
Streptococcal pharyngitis ("Strep Throat").
Epidemiology:
Transmission is via respiratory droplets or by virus-
contaminated hands.
Upper respiratory tract (nose, throat, sinuses) mucosa
inflammation causes increased secretions, rhinorrhea and
results in sneezing, and coughing facilitating the spread.
Risk Factors
Not everybody exposed to or who comes into direct contact
with an ill person will "catch" their cold. People are
especially susceptible if there is a decrease in the body's
immune system so that the virus can begin to spread and
cause symptoms in the body.
Symptoms
Symptoms of the common cold may include:
Stuffiness (nasal congestion), runny nose, low grade
fever and cough.
The cough is usually dry. With post-nasal drip, the cough
may bring up some of the nasal secretions that have dripped
into the back of the throat.
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3 mins Enumerate the
treatment for
upper
respiratory
tract infection
Sinusitis symptoms such as fullness in the face, increased
nasal drainage and occasionally pain and fever. Onset of
the symptoms usually begins 1– 3 days after the exposure
to a microbial pathogen. The illness usually lasts 7 – 10
days.
Group A beta hemolytic streptococcal
pharyngitis/tonsillitis (strep throat) typically presents with
a sudden onset of sore throat, pain with swallowing and
fever. Strep throat does not usually cause runny nose, voice
changes or cough.
Pain and pressure of the ear caused by a middle ear
infection (Otitis media) and the reddening of the eye caused
by viral Conjunctivitis are often associated with upper
respiratory infections.
Treatment
Medication:
• Medications are usually not prescribed for upper
respiratory infections.
• Antibiotics are not effective in fighting viral
infections. However, antibiotics are appropriate if
the health care practitioner suspects that a bacterial
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2 mins
Describe the
complications
of URTI
infection exists, for example in cases of otitis media
(ear infections), bacterial sinusitis, and strep throat.
• In some cases, where there is significant
inflammation of the upper airways, for example
croup in infants and children, corticosteroid
medications such as prednisone or Dexamethasone
may be prescribed to decrease that inflammation.
• Use of Vitamin C in the inhibition and treatment of
upper respiratory infections has been suggested, it
could be justified in persons exposed to brief
periods of severe physical exercise and/or cold
environments
Complications
Most colds resolve on their own with few complications.
Sometimes, the inflammation caused by the upper
respiratory infection may cause drainage problems within
the sinuses or the middle ear, which can create the potential
of secondary bacterial infections such as sinusitis or otitis
media. If not enough fluid is taken, dehydration is always
a potential complication of infection.
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5 mins List the
preventive
measure for
URTI
Prevention
Upper respiratory infection prevention includes:
Avoiding people who are ill;
If you are ill, remain at home until you are no longer
contagious;
Avoid touching your nose, eyes, and mouth;
Cover the cough and sneeze; sneezes and coughs should
be covered with the elbow or sleeve - not the hand; and
Wash your hands often, and properly (20 seconds or more
with soap and warm water).
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CONCLUSION:
Appropriately managing fever without a source in infants and children is essential to minimizing risks of serious bacterial infection.
Guidelines presented do not eliminate all risks. Physicians may individualize therapy based on clinical circumstances.
SUMMARY:
So, for we have discussed about the fever and upper respiratory tract infection, causes, symptoms, diagnosis , treatment and preventive
measures.
POST EVALUATION:
1. What is fever?
2. What is meant by upper respiratory tract infection?
3. What are all the symptoms of fever?
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Book reference:
1. Padmaja. A, “Pediatric Nursing” Jaypee Brothers Medical Publication, first edition (2014) page no:
2. Rimple sharma, “Essentials of pediatric nursing” Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, third edition (2021) page no. .
Net reference:
• https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/4022-upper-respiratory-infection
• https://www.healthline.com/health/acute-upper-respiratory-infection
• https://www.slideshare.net/mahesh0926/upper-respiratory-tract-infections-ppt
• https://www.slideshare.net/LubnaAbuAlRub/fever-52631937

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ANATOMY OF THE LOWER URINARY TRACT AND MALE [Autosaved] [Autosaved].pptx
 

LESSON PLAN ON fever.pdf child health nursing

  • 1. HEALTH EDUCATION ON FEVER AND UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION SUBMITTED TO: Dr. S. SUJATHA HOD, DEPARTMENT OF CHILD HEALTH NURSING, CON- PIMS. SUBMITTED BY: K. SIVASAKTHI, M.SC NURSING IIND YEAR, CON- PIMS. SUBMIITTED ON:
  • 2. NAME OF THE STUDENT : K. SIVASAKTHI COURSE : MSC.NURSING II ND YEAR BATCH : 2021-23 SUBJECT : CHILD HEALTH NURSING TOPIC : FEVER & URTI METHOD OF TEACHING. : LECTURE CUM DISCUSSION AUDIO VISUAL AIDS : FLASH CARDS DATE/ TIME : VENUE : DURATION : 20 MINUTES NAME OF THE EVALUATOR : Dr.S. SUJATHA HOD, CON- PIMS.
  • 3. GENERAL OBJECTIVE: At the end of the class, the learner’s will be able to acquire knowledge on fever and upper respiratory tract infection and develop positive attitude and skills towards treating and preventing fever and upper respiratory tract infection in home setting. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: By the end of the class, the learner will be able to • define fever. • describe the causes of fever. • list the symptoms of fever. • discuss about the treatment of fever. • enlist the home care for fever management. • define upper respiratory tract infections • enlist the causes of upper respiratory tract infections • explain the epidemiology of upper respiratory tract infections. • discuss the risk factors and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. • enumerate the treatment for upper respiratory tract infection • describe the complications of upper respiratory tract infections • list the preventive measure for upper respiratory tract infections
  • 4. TIME SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE CONTENTS TEACHER ACTIVITY LEARNER’S ACIVITY AV AI DS EVALUATIO N 2 mins 2 mins Define fever. Describe the causes of fever. FEVER Fever: A fever is when your child’s body temperature is higher than normal. A normal body temperature is about 37º Celsius but this can vary during the day. In children, a temperature over 38ºC indicates a fever. It does not indicate a serious illness. A fever needs to reach about 42ºC to cause harm to your child (or damage their brain). This is very rare. Causes: A fever is usually caused by an infection somewhere in the body. Some types of infections that lead to fever include: • Viral (caused by a virus) – around nine out of ten children with a fever will have a viral illness, such as cold, flu or gastroenteritis • Bacterial (caused by bacteria) – such as some ear infections, pneumonia or urine infections. The fever itself is not harmful and your child’s temperature will return to normal when the infection settles. L E C T U R E C U M D I S S C U S S I O N L I S T E N I N G F L A S H C A R D S
  • 5. 5 mins List the symptoms of fever. Babies under three months of age are most at risk when they have a fever and need to be checked by a doctor or healthcare professional. Symptoms: A child may: • look flushed and feel hot (their hands and feet may feel cool) • feel miserable and tired (they may want to sleep more) • breathe quicker and/or their heartbeat is fast or ‘pounding’ • not want to eat. These symptoms are all due to the fever and will resolve when your child’s temperature returns to normal. Fevers are very common in childhood. Your child’s temperature will go up and down, which is the body’s natural way of fighting an infection. This is normal and should not be a cause for concern. Children may get sick with a viral illness and develop a fever several times in one year. This is because children often get sick from other children who are sick, usually by sharing toys, food and drink and simply through coughing and sneezing. Getting sick helps children to build a stronger immune system and is a normal part of childhood. L E C T U R E C U M D I S S C U S S I O N L I S T E N I N G F L A S H C A R D S
  • 6. 3 mins 2 mins Discuss about the treatment of fever. Enlist the home care for fever management. Treatment • It is not always necessary to treat a fever. You may be advised to give your child medication such as paracetamol or ibuprofen(15mg/kg/dose), to make your child more comfortable. • Medication is recommended if your child is miserable, irritable or in pain, rather than to treat the fever itself. • The fever is not harmful and helps your child’s body fight the infection. By reducing the fever, your child’s illness may be prolonged. • If your child has a viral illness they are likely to get better without treatment, and antibiotics will not be helpful. • If your child has a bacterial infection they may need antibiotics to fight the infection. The cause of a child’s fever may not be obvious. Home care • Give your child plenty to drink. • Offer small frequent drinks of clear fluids (such as water or diluted juice). This is especially important if your child is vomiting or has diarrhoea. L E C T U R E C U M D I S S C U S S I O N L I S T E N I N G F L A S H C A R D S
  • 7. • If you are breastfeeding, offer the breastmilk more often and give cooled boiled water in between times, if needed. • Do not worry if your baby or child does not eat. • They will get their appetite back once they are feeling better (usually after two to three days). • Fluids are most important as this helps to prevent dehydration (loss of water) in your child. • Consider giving your child paracetamol for pain or discomfort. Carefully check the label for the correct dose and make sure you are not giving your child any other products containing paracetamol (such as some cough and pain medicines and cold and flu preparations). • Make your child comfortable with plenty of cuddles and reassurance. Encourage your child to rest or play quietly if they are unwell. • Do not put your child in a cold bath • Do not give your child aspirin • Sponging a child with a fever does not help to lower the fever and may make your child more distressed. • Dress them for comfort. L E C T U R E C U M D I S S C U S S I O N L I S T E N I N G F L A S H C A R D S
  • 8. 3 mins 5 mins Define upper respiratory tract infection. Enlist the causes of URTI UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is a nonspecific term used to describe acute infections involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi. The prototype is the illness known as the common cold in addition to pharyngitis, sinusitis, and trachea bronchitis. So it commonly includes: Tonsillitis Pharyngitis Laryngitis Sinusitis Otitis media Common cold CAUSES OF URTI’s: Over 200 different viruses have been isolated in patients with URIs. The most common virus is called the rhinovirus. Other viruses include the: •Coronavirus, •Parainfluenza virus, •Adenovirus, •Enterovirus, L E C T U R E C U M D I S S C U S S I O N L I S T E N I N G F L A S H C A R D S
  • 9. 2 mins 5 mins Explain the epidemiology of URTI. Discuss the risk factors and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. Up to 15% of acute pharyngitis cases may be caused by bacteria, commonly GroupA streptococcus in Streptococcal pharyngitis ("Strep Throat"). Epidemiology: Transmission is via respiratory droplets or by virus- contaminated hands. Upper respiratory tract (nose, throat, sinuses) mucosa inflammation causes increased secretions, rhinorrhea and results in sneezing, and coughing facilitating the spread. Risk Factors Not everybody exposed to or who comes into direct contact with an ill person will "catch" their cold. People are especially susceptible if there is a decrease in the body's immune system so that the virus can begin to spread and cause symptoms in the body. Symptoms Symptoms of the common cold may include: Stuffiness (nasal congestion), runny nose, low grade fever and cough. The cough is usually dry. With post-nasal drip, the cough may bring up some of the nasal secretions that have dripped into the back of the throat. L E C T U R E C U M D I S S C U S S I O N L I S T E N I N G F L A S H C A R D S
  • 10. 3 mins Enumerate the treatment for upper respiratory tract infection Sinusitis symptoms such as fullness in the face, increased nasal drainage and occasionally pain and fever. Onset of the symptoms usually begins 1– 3 days after the exposure to a microbial pathogen. The illness usually lasts 7 – 10 days. Group A beta hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis (strep throat) typically presents with a sudden onset of sore throat, pain with swallowing and fever. Strep throat does not usually cause runny nose, voice changes or cough. Pain and pressure of the ear caused by a middle ear infection (Otitis media) and the reddening of the eye caused by viral Conjunctivitis are often associated with upper respiratory infections. Treatment Medication: • Medications are usually not prescribed for upper respiratory infections. • Antibiotics are not effective in fighting viral infections. However, antibiotics are appropriate if the health care practitioner suspects that a bacterial L E C T U R E C U M D I S S C U S S I O N L I S T E N I N G F L A S H C A R D S
  • 11. 2 mins Describe the complications of URTI infection exists, for example in cases of otitis media (ear infections), bacterial sinusitis, and strep throat. • In some cases, where there is significant inflammation of the upper airways, for example croup in infants and children, corticosteroid medications such as prednisone or Dexamethasone may be prescribed to decrease that inflammation. • Use of Vitamin C in the inhibition and treatment of upper respiratory infections has been suggested, it could be justified in persons exposed to brief periods of severe physical exercise and/or cold environments Complications Most colds resolve on their own with few complications. Sometimes, the inflammation caused by the upper respiratory infection may cause drainage problems within the sinuses or the middle ear, which can create the potential of secondary bacterial infections such as sinusitis or otitis media. If not enough fluid is taken, dehydration is always a potential complication of infection. L E C T U R E C U M D I S S C U S S I O N L I S T E N I N G F L A S H C A R D S
  • 12. 5 mins List the preventive measure for URTI Prevention Upper respiratory infection prevention includes: Avoiding people who are ill; If you are ill, remain at home until you are no longer contagious; Avoid touching your nose, eyes, and mouth; Cover the cough and sneeze; sneezes and coughs should be covered with the elbow or sleeve - not the hand; and Wash your hands often, and properly (20 seconds or more with soap and warm water). L E C T U R E C U M D I S S C U S S I O N L I S T E N I N G F L A S H C A R D S
  • 13. CONCLUSION: Appropriately managing fever without a source in infants and children is essential to minimizing risks of serious bacterial infection. Guidelines presented do not eliminate all risks. Physicians may individualize therapy based on clinical circumstances. SUMMARY: So, for we have discussed about the fever and upper respiratory tract infection, causes, symptoms, diagnosis , treatment and preventive measures. POST EVALUATION: 1. What is fever? 2. What is meant by upper respiratory tract infection? 3. What are all the symptoms of fever? BIBLIOGRAPHY: Book reference: 1. Padmaja. A, “Pediatric Nursing” Jaypee Brothers Medical Publication, first edition (2014) page no: 2. Rimple sharma, “Essentials of pediatric nursing” Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, third edition (2021) page no. . Net reference: • https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/4022-upper-respiratory-infection • https://www.healthline.com/health/acute-upper-respiratory-infection • https://www.slideshare.net/mahesh0926/upper-respiratory-tract-infections-ppt • https://www.slideshare.net/LubnaAbuAlRub/fever-52631937