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INTRODUCTION to HFDM
Presented to:
IHST Accident Intervention WORKSHOP



By:
 Captain Mike Pilgrim
 FDM Manager CHC Helicopter Services
 Co-Chair
 Global HFDM Steering Group



Date: 4th March 2013


www.HFDM.org
Global HFDM Steering Group

• Vision:
  – Routine and effective utilisation of
    HFDM in a just culture environment
    across the global helicopter industry.




                   Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                   March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Global HFDM Steering Group

• Mission:
  – Improve helicopter safety through
    provision of focus and leadership on
    issues concerning the manufacture,
    provision, support and operation of
    HFDM systems.




                   Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                   March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
The Definition
                          of
      Flight Data Monitoring.
Flight Data Monitoring (FDM)
is the systematic,
pro-active use of digital flight
data from routine operations
to improve aviation safety.

Flight Data Monitoring (FDM)
programmes assist an
operator to identify, quantify,
assess and address
operational risks.      Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                        March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Why HFDM?
                                                                             REACTIVE
                                                         Accidents
Severity of event


                                                            Serious incidents
                    Active Failures
                    and Latent
                    Threats
                                         Minor incidents

                                                                         PROACTIVE?
                                      Routine operations



                                 FREQUENCY OF EVENT

                                            Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                                            March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
This is Why




                     O
FDM
IIII                 O


   Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
   March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Flight Data Monitoring
Data will only be worth anything if the aircraft
  is actually doing something.


    • What do we mean by
      Flight?



   So ‘flight’
   is from power on to power off
                    Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                    March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Flight Data Monitoring
Anything about the state of the aircraft that can
  be recorded:


      • and Data?


Airspeed
   Rate of climb/descent
       Flight control positions
           Engines / rotors / temps &
             pressures
                       Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                       March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Flight Data Monitoring
  Careful analysis of groups of data for indications of
     anything undesirable.


        • What about
          monitoring?


So what does it look like?
                        Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                        March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Flight Data – Take-Off




        Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
        March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Flight Data – Altitude




     Altitude




          Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
          March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Flight Data – Pitch




     Pitch Attitude




         Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
         March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Rate of Descent

                                        700ft              150ft




  -1000fpm


                                           30 SECS




              Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
              March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
How do we get the data?




     Solid State Quick Access Recorder
           Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
           March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Aircraft without FDRs
Stand alone units
Power
Earth

Geospatial
Digital (Optional)
Video (Optional)
Engine Data
                     Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                     March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Now I have the knowledge

Start compiling your trend information

  Its not about individual incidents
  Aggregate the event types
  Produce readable reports
  Involve your staff
  Don’t talk about individual events in
   terms of the crews who flew them


               Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Flight Data Monitoring

Demonstrable safety:

Don’t just think you’re safe,


 KNOW YOU’RE SAFE


             Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
             March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Example

Overtorque on take-off




         Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
         March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Plotting Engine Tq against IAS




            Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
            March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Tq vs IAS graph




     Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
     March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Example

Potential Dynamic Roll-Over




           Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
           March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Example 1

Close to Roll-over




       Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
       March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Rolling moment with left cyclic
CF                                                        applied due to inclined main
                                                          rotor and offset flapping hinges.

                         Rolling Moment
                                                                                      CF
 Rolling moment due to the
 tail rotor thrust with left
 pedal applied.




                               Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
                               March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Rolling moment with left cyclic
CF                                applied due to inclined main
                                  rotor and offset flapping hinges.




                                                              CF
                               Rolling moment due to the
                               tail rotor thrust with RIGHT
                               pedal applied.




     Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
     March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Rolled over aircraft




       Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
       March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
High Risk Area




Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Google Earth Jan ‘07




        Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
        March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
FDM Newsletter
                                        FDM
                                        Newsletter
                                        Feb 2007




      Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
      March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
|Google Earth Feb ‘07




        Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention
        March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas

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Intro to Helicopter Flight Data Monitoring

  • 1. INTRODUCTION to HFDM Presented to: IHST Accident Intervention WORKSHOP By: Captain Mike Pilgrim FDM Manager CHC Helicopter Services Co-Chair Global HFDM Steering Group Date: 4th March 2013 www.HFDM.org
  • 2. Global HFDM Steering Group • Vision: – Routine and effective utilisation of HFDM in a just culture environment across the global helicopter industry. Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 3. Global HFDM Steering Group • Mission: – Improve helicopter safety through provision of focus and leadership on issues concerning the manufacture, provision, support and operation of HFDM systems. Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 4. The Definition of Flight Data Monitoring. Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) is the systematic, pro-active use of digital flight data from routine operations to improve aviation safety. Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) programmes assist an operator to identify, quantify, assess and address operational risks. Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 5. Why HFDM? REACTIVE Accidents Severity of event Serious incidents Active Failures and Latent Threats Minor incidents PROACTIVE? Routine operations FREQUENCY OF EVENT Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 6. This is Why O FDM IIII O Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 7. Flight Data Monitoring Data will only be worth anything if the aircraft is actually doing something. • What do we mean by Flight? So ‘flight’ is from power on to power off Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 8. Flight Data Monitoring Anything about the state of the aircraft that can be recorded: • and Data? Airspeed Rate of climb/descent Flight control positions Engines / rotors / temps & pressures Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 9. Flight Data Monitoring Careful analysis of groups of data for indications of anything undesirable. • What about monitoring? So what does it look like? Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 10. Flight Data – Take-Off Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 11. Flight Data – Altitude Altitude Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 12. Flight Data – Pitch Pitch Attitude Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 13. Rate of Descent 700ft 150ft -1000fpm 30 SECS Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 14. How do we get the data? Solid State Quick Access Recorder Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 15. Aircraft without FDRs Stand alone units Power Earth Geospatial Digital (Optional) Video (Optional) Engine Data Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 16. Now I have the knowledge Start compiling your trend information Its not about individual incidents Aggregate the event types Produce readable reports Involve your staff Don’t talk about individual events in terms of the crews who flew them Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 17.
  • 18. Flight Data Monitoring Demonstrable safety: Don’t just think you’re safe, KNOW YOU’RE SAFE Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 19. Example Overtorque on take-off Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 20. Plotting Engine Tq against IAS Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 21. Tq vs IAS graph Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 22. Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 23. Example Potential Dynamic Roll-Over Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 24. Example 1 Close to Roll-over Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 25. Rolling moment with left cyclic CF applied due to inclined main rotor and offset flapping hinges. Rolling Moment CF Rolling moment due to the tail rotor thrust with left pedal applied. Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 26. Rolling moment with left cyclic CF applied due to inclined main rotor and offset flapping hinges. CF Rolling moment due to the tail rotor thrust with RIGHT pedal applied. Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 27. Rolled over aircraft Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 28. Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 29. High Risk Area Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 30. Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 31. Google Earth Jan ‘07 Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 32. FDM Newsletter FDM Newsletter Feb 2007 Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 33. Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas
  • 34. |Google Earth Feb ‘07 Intro to HFDM - IHST Accident Intervention March 4th 2013 – Las Vegas

Editor's Notes

  1. This is our Vision:We would like to see universal uptake of HFDM because we know the benefit it brings will ultimately save lives.... And our Mission...
  2. Our MISSION is to deliver this vision, and we hope this workshop will help us to do this.
  3. This is what the Workshop is about...The collection of flight data from routine flying operations, not just when there’s an incident, but from every flight.Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) programmes assist an operator to Identify and quantify issues with respect to the risks they pose,Then assess and subsequently address those risks with interventions, before they lead us into incidents and accidents
  4. Flight: From an HFDM point of view...We’re only interested when the aircraft is actually doing something. When the power is switched on...
  5. DATAIs all about PARAMETERS, each one of these items is a parameter.When the value of a parameter reaches a predetermined THRESHOLD, an EVENT is created
  6. Monitoring is about reviewing the events over time, We aggregate the events and quantify them as trends, Provide trends to Review Team giving the opportunity to assess the results and determine mitigationsHere High Rate of Descent events are on the increase... Now you know, you can ask yourself why?
  7. In this one we see a Take-Off,A take off followed by a left roll and then a right roll, let’s look at the altitude trace...
  8. ... And next Pitch Attitude...
  9. ... The next slide... So how do we get the data...
  10. Mike 14/17Solid line depicts zero climb/descent700ft RAlt to 150ft RAltThreshold – RoD >1000fpm
  11. If you operate aircraft without FDRs then you can opt for the stand alone solution …There are a number available on the market some of which have approved modifications already for some aircraft.These typically capture GPS, Pitch/Roll/Yaw attitudes and ‘G’ Forces from which other parameters can be derived – Groundspeed for example, and may be configured to capture digital data, cockpit video and even engine data if available.
  12. So now you have the knowledge provided by the data, you have a good handle on what is happening on the flight line.... So what are you going to do with it?Identify – the events types – High rate of descent eventsQuantify – the numbers of events - How many high rate of descent events are we having?Assess – the severity of what you have found – How high is the rate of descent?Address – the problems, what are we going to doo about it??***NB***Bear in mind that this is not a policing tool. It will tell you what is happening and to a certain extent who is doing what, but be very careful what you do with the data and who you allow to see it.Long term safety improvements come from trends, not from persecution which only builds resentment.Produce newsletters based on the information you find, DON’T mention details which will identify crews, even to their peers.
  13. The Traditional HFDM Cycle illustrates the whole process:Data is collected, identify, quantify, assess and address by presenting the findings for Review by Operational management. They decide what goes in the newsletters, what goes to the accountable manager etc... They may request confidential crew feedback concerning one particular event – they won’t know who the crew is.They determine improvements/changes to procedures/training etc... And the aircraft flies again for more data collection, and now the reduction in event rates shows real, demonstrated improvements to safety and operational practices.Depending on the size of operation you can tailor this to suit your needs
  14. FDM allows you to demonstrate to yourself and to your customers that you are actively improving the safety margins in your operation.