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Gums & Jellies
Jörg R. Braun
Confectionery Technologist
ZDS
2
Gums and Jellies
Basic ingredients Sucrose / Glucose syrup /
Gelling agents / Flavour
Types Gums
*Gum arabic / Gelatine / Starch
Jellies
*Agar-agar / Pectin + Acid
Sucrose / Glucose
syrup
100 - 60
to
100 - 200
Residual moisture 10 - 25%
E.R.H. 45 - 70%
Shaping Starch depositing / Mogul
Starchless depositing
Cutting - Extrusion
3
Definition:
Gums and jellies are comparatively low boiled and
contain about 20% of moisture.
The texture of these products, which can be soft or firm,
is obtained by the use of various types of water binding
gelling and thickening agents, principally:
 gelatine
 starch,
 agar-agar
 pectin
 gum arabic
Gums and Jellies
4
The texture of the end product will be
influenced by :
1- Type of hydrocolloid
2- Balance sucrose / glucose syrup
3- Residual moisture
4- Treatment in moulding starch
Gums and Jellies
5
Structure:
Soft and elastic: GUM
Hard and little elastic: GUM
Soft and very chewy: GUM
Very hard: GUM
Soft and short: JELLY
Soft and little elastic: JELLY
Gums and Jellies
6
Raw materials Jellies Gums of Gum arabic gums Starch gums
Pectin Agar-agar Starch gelatine soft hard soft hard
Balance
sucrose-glucose
syrup
70/30
to
60/40
70/30
to
60/40
60/40
to
45-55
60/40
to
40/60
65/45
to
50/50
70/30
to
65/35
60/40
to
45/55
70/30
to
45/55
Pectin 1,2-2,0%
Agar-agar 0,8-1,2%
Thin boiling
starch
11-15%
Gelatine 5-10% 2-3% 2-3%
Gum arabic 25-35% 40-55%
Waxy maize
starch
20-30% 25-35%
Residual
moisture
20-22% 20-22% 15-20% 15-20% 15-17% 10-13% 15-17% 10-13%
Combinations Gelatine Gelatine Gelatine Gum arabic
Pectin
Agar-agar
Starch
Starch Gelatine
Gum arabic
Gums and Jellies
7
Gelatine
• origins
• manufacture
• composition
• physical-chemical properties
• use in confectioneries
Gelling and thickening agents
8
origin
Raw materials for industrial production:
The raw material is the collagen, a natural protein, found in:
– Pig skin – pig bone
– Bovine hide – bovine bone
– Poultry
– Fish skin
Collagen has to be rendered soluble in hot water by an:
- acid process  gelatine type A
- alkaline process  gelatine type B
The result is a dry yellowish powder of different particle sizes.
Gelatine
9
composition
Gelatine is composed of : 84 - 90% proteins
1 - 2% mineral salts
8 - 15% water
It contains no additives and no conservatives.
Gelatine is made up of amino acids linked together by
peptide bonds:
- Glycine : 27 %
- Proline : 16 %
- Hydroxyproline : 14%
- no tryptophan
Gelatine
10
Physical-chemical properties
• Gel property
• Solubility
• Gel strength
• Melting and setting point
• Colour
• Microbiology
Gelatine
11
Gel property
 Gel is thermo-reversible
 Jellification is relatively slow (completed after 16 hours).
GELATINE – physical-chemical properties
Solubility
Gelatine doesn’t dissolve in cold water, but it can absorb 5
to 10 times its weight of water.
To dissolve gelatine it is necessary to heat up the mix to at
least 40°C.
12
Bloom grade
The Bloom represents the gel strength of a gelatine.
Usually the Bloom is between 50 and 300.
· low Bloom 50 - 120
· medium Bloom 130 - 180
· high Bloom 200 - 300
Melting and setting point
These two values depend on the Bloom degree of the gelatine
and on its concentration.
GELATINE – physical-chemical properties
Used in gummy pears
13
Colour
The higher the Bloom of the gelatine, the lighter the typical
yellowish colour of the gelatine. Therefore, it is advisable to
use a gelatine of high Bloom if the colour of the finished
product is not supposed to be influenced.
GELATINE – physical-chemical properties
Low bloom
High bloom
14
Use in confectionery
These characteristics make out of gelatine a very
polyvalent ingredient for confectioneries:
· jellying power
· elasticity
· foaming power
· stabilising power
· chewiness
· binding power
· film forming
Gelatine
15
Product Property Bloom Gelatine content Solution
gelatine/water
Wine and fruit gums Gelling and 240 – 260 6 – 10 % 1:2
binding water
Soft chewy candies chewiness and 70 -130 0,5 – 2,5% 1:2
emulsifier 1:3
Marshmallows Foaming 180 – 250 1 – 5% 1:2
Stabilising 1:3
1:5
White turron Foaming 130 – 180 0,5 – 2 % 1:2
Stabilising 1:5
Aerated products Foaming 150 – 250 1 – 5 % 1:2
Stabilising 1:5
Tablets Binding 130 – 180 0,2 – 0,4 % 1:5
1:10
Dragees (gumming) Film forming 130 – 180 15 – 20 % 1:5
1:10
Gelatine: Use in confectionery
16
• Conventional method: first swell the gelatine in cold water (30 min. to 1
hour, depending on particle size), then dissolve by heating in a water bath.
• High-speed method: disperse the gelatin directly in hot water (80-90°C),
using appropriate high-speed stirring; after dispersion allow the gelatine to
dissolve and deaerate
• Intermediate method: swell the gelatine in cold water, then dissolve by
adding to other hot ingredients
• Dissolution of mixtures: gelatine is mixed with other dry ingredients
before dissolution (only applicable for fine particle size)
Solutions of gelatine up to 40% concentration can be prepared.
A concentrated gelatine solution can be kept at 55-60°C for max. 4 to 6 hours
without significant degradation.
Dissolution of gelatine
Gelatine
17
Gelatine gums: working method
• Dissolution of the gelatine
• Dissolution and concentration of the sugars
• Mixing of the gelatine solution into the cooked sugar mass after a
certain cooling
• Flavouring and colouring of the mass
• Depositing into moulding starch.
• Depositing solids: 76-78 %
• Depositing temperature: 70 - 80°C
• If using a pressure dissolver, the gelatine solution can be added to
the sugar slurry from the beginning. Processing time is then short
enough to avoid degradation of the gelatine.
Gelatine
18
Gelatine gums: formulation
Water 15 - 18 %
Gelatine 6 - 10 %
Sucrose 25 - 30 %
Invert sugar 0 - 10 %
Glucose syrup 40 - 50 %
Flavour 0,1 - 0,3 %
Colour 0,02 - 0,1 %
Acid 1 - 2 %
ERH 60-65 %
Gelatine
19
Gelatine gums: texture variation
- The higher the gelatine content, the chewier the product.
- At a same dosage, the lower the bloom, the softer the product.
- The lower the DE of the glucose syrup, the firmer the product.
- The lower the moisture content, the firmer the product.
Gelatine can be combined with other gelling agents or thickeners to give
particular textures to the end product:
with agar-agar or pectin products have a shorter texture
with modified starch products are firmer and shorter
with gum arabic texture is harder and less elastic
Gelatine
20
pectin
• origin
• classification
• properties
• use in confectioneries
• formulations
Gelling and thickening agents
21
Origin
Pectin is a water soluble hydrocolloid and a natural component
of plants.
Pectin is present in high levels in well hydrated and young fruits.
Even if theoretically every plant contains pectin substance, the
commercial production is just out of apple and citrus fruits,
where good quality pectin is present in relative high quantities.
Pectin
Apple pomace 10 - 15%
Citrus fruit peels 20 - 35%
22
Classification
Pectin are classified in two big categories:
• The high esterified pectins (HE)
 form gels in acid and sugared medium
• The low esterified pectins (LE)
 form gels in presence of a bivalent cation, usually calcium.
In the group of the low-esterified pectins we find as well a separate
group of amidated pectins (LA)
Pectin
23
Physical-chemical properties
• General properties
• Dissolution
• Gelling properties
Pectin
24
General properties
Pectin is available in the form of fine powder
(~200µm) of a light grey to yellow-brownish colour
depending on the origin.
Pectin has thickening, stabilising and first of all gelling
properties.
Pectin – physical-chemical properties
25
Solubilisation
To obtain a homogeneous gel, pectin has to be completely
dissolved. Therefore, it is necessary to form a good dispersion
without lumps (lumps are difficult to dissolve).
 Dissolution in water with a turbo agitator
 Pre-mix with crystal sugar (approx. 5 times the
quantity of pectin)
 Dispersion in a concentrated sugar solution
Pectin – physical-chemical properties
26
Gelling properties
Pectin give stable and firm gels in aqueous media.
Factors influencing jellification are:
1. temperature
2. pectin type
3. pH
4. presence of sugar and other dissolved substances
5. calcium ions
Gels of citrus fruits are more brittle and elastic than gels made
with apple pectin, that are more spreadable.
Pectin – physical-chemical properties
27
Jellification of HE pectin
Presence of solids in the solution  55%
pH  3,6
(addition of citric or
tartaric acid)
solids optimal pH
75 - 76 % 3,2 – 3,3
77 % 3,3 – 3,4
78 % 3,4 – 3,5
79 - 80 % 3,5 – 3,6
HE pectin forms irreversible gels
Pectin – physical-chemical properties
28
Jellification of the pectins HE
Pectin – gelling properties
As the gelling temperature of pectin is very high and the
process is quick, it is convenient to add a certain amount of
buffer salts to the recipe.
These salts are supposed to delay the effect of the acid at the
beginning of jellification.
Buffer salts:
• Sodium or potassium citrate
• Sodium/Potassium tartrate
• Phosphates
29
Use in confectioneries
Pectins HE:
• Pectin jellies
• Pâtes de fruits
• Combined jellies
Pectins LE:
• Marmalades and jams
• Non acid jellies
Pectin
30
Use in confectionery
Steam jacket
Dissolution with
high speed
mixer
Vacuum
pump
Jelly manufacturing
process
• Traditional open kettle
• Combination with
dissolution tank is a
necessity with pectin
and combination with
a vacuum unit
decreases process
time
Pectin
31
Use in confectionery
Jelly manufacturing
process
A continuous system that
works well with pectin is
the pressure dissolver.
Both jet cooker and
pressure dissolver
provide greater
uniformity, less intensive
labour requirements,
higher through put and
economised energy
consumption.
Dissolution of
pectin
Tank with
high speed
stirrer
Coil
cooking
Steam
Back pressure valve Vacuum
line
Vacuum
separating vessel
Colour
Acid
Flavour
Static mixer
Pectin
32
Keep temperature
higher than 80 °C
Acid
Static mixer
Jelly process
Because of the non
heat reversibility of
pectin candies the
liquid confectionery
should never be
allowed to cool to
temperatures below
80°C after the acid has
been added and while
the liquid is still in the
system.
Use in confectionery
Pectin
33
Moulding
•Starch moulds
•Plastic, metal or
ceramic moulds
•Rubber moulds
Different moulding
principles may be
used for jellies
made with HE
pectin
Moulding time can
be as low as 10-15
minutes in moulds
with rapid cooling
system
Pectin
34
• Fruit jellies
Pectin in confectioneries
1.7 g buffered pectin
500 g sucrose
330 g glucose syrup (80 % solids, appr. 42 DE)
220 g water
colour, flavouring
x ml 50% citric acid solution to adjust pH
Netto weight: approx. 1050 g
Yield: 1000 g
solids: 78 %
pH: 3.3-3,4
35
• Pâtes de fruits (fruit pastes)
Through the addition of fruit pulp
it is possible to enhance the fruity
character of the jellies.
These products, with 25% of fruit
content, have a typical coarse
texture due to the fruit pulp.
Pectin in confectioneries
36
Influence of the formulation on
the texture of pectin jellies
• Pectin type
• Fruit – Type and quantity
• Total solids
• pH value
• Type of buffer salt
• Dosage of the buffer salt
• Relation sucrose/glucose syr.
• Dosage of pectin
Pectin in confectioneries
37
Agar-agar
• origin
• classification
• properties
• use in confectioneries
Gelling and thickening agents
38
origin
Agar-agar, as well called agar or
gelose, is a complex substance
extracted from red seaweed of the
variety Gelidium and Gracilaria, in
which it forms the cellular membrane.
It is well known as the culture growing
medium used in petri dishes.
Agar Agar
39
Physical-chemical properties
• Dissolution
• Gel strength
• Effect of heat and pH
Agar-agar is available under various commercial
qualities. The differences will be in the colour (white till
grey powders), in the transparency of the gels and in the
gel strength.
Agar Agar
40
Solubilisation
Agar-agar is insoluble in cold water, but it can absorb until 5
times its weight in water. It can be dissolved in hot water.
About 30 time the weight in water is needed to dissolve it.
Agar Agar – physical-chemical properties
Gelling properties
Agar-agar has a high gelling power even in low
concentration.
Usually, preference is given to qualities with a gelling strength
between 700 and 800 g/cm².
Agar-agar give gels of a short texture (like pectin)
41
Jellification of agar-agar
Setting temperature: 35 - 45°C
Melting temperature: 70 - 85°C.
Agar agar – gelling properties
Gels of agar-agar are thermo-reversible
Effect of heat and acids
Heat and acid medium will strongly spoil agar-agar and
generate a loss of gelling power.
For this reason, acid has to be added at temperatures under
70°C.
42
Use in confectioneries
Agar-agar is interesting because of its gelling
properties and its properties as stabiliser/texturiser.
The stabilising effect of agar-agar is
useful in some aerated products of
very low density and for the
manufacture of aerated jelly
products.
It gives a gel similar to the pectin gel
but don’t need any acid nor sugar to
gel.
Agar Agar
43
Agar jellies: formulation
Water 20 - 22 %
Agar-agar 0,8 - 1,2 %
Sucrose 40 - 50 %
Invert sugar 2 - 5 %
Glucose syrup 25 - 30 %
Sorbitol 2 - 5 %
Flavour 0,1 - 0,3 %
Colour 0,02 - 0,1 %
Acid 0,5 - 1 %
ERH 70-75 %
Agar Agar
44
Starch
• origin
• composition
• modifications
• gelatinisation
• use in confectioneries
Gelling and thickening agents
45
Origin
Starch is present in nearly all plants were it serves as
energy source.
High concentrations of starch are found in potatoes, corn,
wheat, rice and tapioca. It is easy to identify the origin of
starch by looking through a microscope (e.g.: potato 
big rounded granules, corn  irregular rounded
pentagonal structure)
The properties of the starches vary depending on their
origin.
Starch
46
Composition
Starch belongs to the carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide which very long
chains of carbohydrates. The basic unit is a D-glucose (dextrose) molecule.
One molecule of starch can wear more than thousand of these units.
Starch is composed of polysaccharide chains of 2 types:
amylose : linear chain
amylopectin : longer ramified chain
AMYLOSE
Linear molecule
AMYLOPECTIN
Ramified molecule
O
CH
OH
2
O
H
O
O
H
O
CH
OH
2
O
H
O
O
H
O
CH
OH
2
O
H
O
O
H
O
CH
OH
2
O
H
O
O
H
O O
O
H
O
O
H
O
CH
OH
2
O
H
O
O
H
O
O
O
H
O
O
H
O
CH
OH
2
O
H
O
O
H
Starch
47
Amylose: * gelatinise at high temperatures
* dissolve not easily
* low binding power
* forms a gel after cooling
* the opaque gel forms a crust and tends to retrogradation.
Amylopectin: * gelatinise at low temperatures
* good solubility en water
* high binding power
* no forms a gel
* gives transparent solutions
Composition of starch
48
Cooking of starch
Cold water
Hot water
Suspension
viscous starch paste
Starch slurry
Hot water Starch
granule
(20µm)
gelatinized starch
granule
49
Cooking of starch
50
Starch
Gelatinisation
When the starch granule is heated in water, it swells with progressive
hydration.
As the granule continues to expand, more water is imbibed, clarity is
improved, more space is occupied, movement is restricted and viscosity
increased.
If cooking continues, the granules will be destroyed liberating water. The
viscosity of the solution drops.
60 100
Temperature
Viscosity
Temperature of
gelatinization
Peak
complete
dispersion
It is essential to reach
gelatinisation
temperature during
processing to ensure
that the texture benefits
of the starch are
realized.
51
Wheat starch, undercooked
Iodine coloration
Wheat starch, well cooked
Iodine coloration
Wheat
starch,
overcooked
Iodine
coloration
Wheat starch
under microscope : x240
Starch
52
Modifications
The properties of the native starch are such that it is very
difficult to use them in a lot of applications.
Through chemical and physical modifications of the starch
molecule it is possible to adjust starches to the requirements of
the food industry.
Starch granule
Fluid native starch
Acid conversion
Maltodextrines
Acid conversion & stabilisation
Oxydation
 Solution = fluidified and converted starches
Starch
53
Production of starch gums
Cooking
Drying Gums
Depositing
70 % DS
85 to 90 % DS
Starch
 Concentration for a good texture and body of the gums:
12 to 30 %
 Starches must show only few increase of the viscosity
during cooking and depositing.
Starch
54
Production of starch gums
Slurry ~ 60°C
Pump
Back-pressure
valve
Flue
Carbon filter
Manometer
Cooking chamber
Three-way valve
Steam
Mogul unit
Vacuum
Colouring, acids,
flavours
JET COOKER
Starch
55
Gum Arabic
• origin
• composition / properties
• use in confectioneries
Gelling and thickening agents
56
Origin
Gum Arabic is the dried resin of the
Acacia Senegal.
The resin escapes through cuts made
artificially in the stems and branches,
and dries out in the shape of irregular
tears.
Each tree, when it is cut, produces 500
to 1000 g of gum Arabic per year.
Gum arabic
57
Composition / properties
Gum arabic is composed of about 88% of polysaccharides and
12% of water.
It is very soluble in water. At 25°C it gives solutions of more than
50% of solids.
Gum arabic is a thickening agent. It doesn’t form a gel with
water.
These solutions are low in taste. They are sensitive to pH
variations and hydrolyse easily, especially in hot and acid
media.
Gum arabic
58
Hard gums: working method
• Dissolution of the gum arabic (de-aeration during some hours at 40-
50°C)
• Dissolution and cooking of the sugars
• Mixing of the gum arabic solution into the cooked sugar mass
• Flavouring and colouring of the mass
• Depositing into moulding starch.
• Depositing solids: 65-69 %
• Depositing temperature: 60 - 70°C
• If using a pressure dissolver, the gum arabic solution can be added
to the sugar slurry from the beginning. Processing time is then short
enough to avoid degradation of the gum arabic.
Gum arabic
59
Hard gums: formulation
Water 10 - 13 %
Gum arabic 40 - 50 %
Sucrose 30 - 40 %
Invert sugar 2 - 5 %
Glucose syrup 10 - 15 %
Honey, licorice,… 3 - 5 %
Flavour 0,1 - 0,3 %
Colour 0,02 - 0,1 %
Acid 0 - 2 %
ERH 50-55 %
Gum arabic

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Gum-jellie zds.pdf slide presentation gummies

  • 1. 1 Gums & Jellies Jörg R. Braun Confectionery Technologist ZDS
  • 2. 2 Gums and Jellies Basic ingredients Sucrose / Glucose syrup / Gelling agents / Flavour Types Gums *Gum arabic / Gelatine / Starch Jellies *Agar-agar / Pectin + Acid Sucrose / Glucose syrup 100 - 60 to 100 - 200 Residual moisture 10 - 25% E.R.H. 45 - 70% Shaping Starch depositing / Mogul Starchless depositing Cutting - Extrusion
  • 3. 3 Definition: Gums and jellies are comparatively low boiled and contain about 20% of moisture. The texture of these products, which can be soft or firm, is obtained by the use of various types of water binding gelling and thickening agents, principally:  gelatine  starch,  agar-agar  pectin  gum arabic Gums and Jellies
  • 4. 4 The texture of the end product will be influenced by : 1- Type of hydrocolloid 2- Balance sucrose / glucose syrup 3- Residual moisture 4- Treatment in moulding starch Gums and Jellies
  • 5. 5 Structure: Soft and elastic: GUM Hard and little elastic: GUM Soft and very chewy: GUM Very hard: GUM Soft and short: JELLY Soft and little elastic: JELLY Gums and Jellies
  • 6. 6 Raw materials Jellies Gums of Gum arabic gums Starch gums Pectin Agar-agar Starch gelatine soft hard soft hard Balance sucrose-glucose syrup 70/30 to 60/40 70/30 to 60/40 60/40 to 45-55 60/40 to 40/60 65/45 to 50/50 70/30 to 65/35 60/40 to 45/55 70/30 to 45/55 Pectin 1,2-2,0% Agar-agar 0,8-1,2% Thin boiling starch 11-15% Gelatine 5-10% 2-3% 2-3% Gum arabic 25-35% 40-55% Waxy maize starch 20-30% 25-35% Residual moisture 20-22% 20-22% 15-20% 15-20% 15-17% 10-13% 15-17% 10-13% Combinations Gelatine Gelatine Gelatine Gum arabic Pectin Agar-agar Starch Starch Gelatine Gum arabic Gums and Jellies
  • 7. 7 Gelatine • origins • manufacture • composition • physical-chemical properties • use in confectioneries Gelling and thickening agents
  • 8. 8 origin Raw materials for industrial production: The raw material is the collagen, a natural protein, found in: – Pig skin – pig bone – Bovine hide – bovine bone – Poultry – Fish skin Collagen has to be rendered soluble in hot water by an: - acid process  gelatine type A - alkaline process  gelatine type B The result is a dry yellowish powder of different particle sizes. Gelatine
  • 9. 9 composition Gelatine is composed of : 84 - 90% proteins 1 - 2% mineral salts 8 - 15% water It contains no additives and no conservatives. Gelatine is made up of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds: - Glycine : 27 % - Proline : 16 % - Hydroxyproline : 14% - no tryptophan Gelatine
  • 10. 10 Physical-chemical properties • Gel property • Solubility • Gel strength • Melting and setting point • Colour • Microbiology Gelatine
  • 11. 11 Gel property  Gel is thermo-reversible  Jellification is relatively slow (completed after 16 hours). GELATINE – physical-chemical properties Solubility Gelatine doesn’t dissolve in cold water, but it can absorb 5 to 10 times its weight of water. To dissolve gelatine it is necessary to heat up the mix to at least 40°C.
  • 12. 12 Bloom grade The Bloom represents the gel strength of a gelatine. Usually the Bloom is between 50 and 300. · low Bloom 50 - 120 · medium Bloom 130 - 180 · high Bloom 200 - 300 Melting and setting point These two values depend on the Bloom degree of the gelatine and on its concentration. GELATINE – physical-chemical properties Used in gummy pears
  • 13. 13 Colour The higher the Bloom of the gelatine, the lighter the typical yellowish colour of the gelatine. Therefore, it is advisable to use a gelatine of high Bloom if the colour of the finished product is not supposed to be influenced. GELATINE – physical-chemical properties Low bloom High bloom
  • 14. 14 Use in confectionery These characteristics make out of gelatine a very polyvalent ingredient for confectioneries: · jellying power · elasticity · foaming power · stabilising power · chewiness · binding power · film forming Gelatine
  • 15. 15 Product Property Bloom Gelatine content Solution gelatine/water Wine and fruit gums Gelling and 240 – 260 6 – 10 % 1:2 binding water Soft chewy candies chewiness and 70 -130 0,5 – 2,5% 1:2 emulsifier 1:3 Marshmallows Foaming 180 – 250 1 – 5% 1:2 Stabilising 1:3 1:5 White turron Foaming 130 – 180 0,5 – 2 % 1:2 Stabilising 1:5 Aerated products Foaming 150 – 250 1 – 5 % 1:2 Stabilising 1:5 Tablets Binding 130 – 180 0,2 – 0,4 % 1:5 1:10 Dragees (gumming) Film forming 130 – 180 15 – 20 % 1:5 1:10 Gelatine: Use in confectionery
  • 16. 16 • Conventional method: first swell the gelatine in cold water (30 min. to 1 hour, depending on particle size), then dissolve by heating in a water bath. • High-speed method: disperse the gelatin directly in hot water (80-90°C), using appropriate high-speed stirring; after dispersion allow the gelatine to dissolve and deaerate • Intermediate method: swell the gelatine in cold water, then dissolve by adding to other hot ingredients • Dissolution of mixtures: gelatine is mixed with other dry ingredients before dissolution (only applicable for fine particle size) Solutions of gelatine up to 40% concentration can be prepared. A concentrated gelatine solution can be kept at 55-60°C for max. 4 to 6 hours without significant degradation. Dissolution of gelatine Gelatine
  • 17. 17 Gelatine gums: working method • Dissolution of the gelatine • Dissolution and concentration of the sugars • Mixing of the gelatine solution into the cooked sugar mass after a certain cooling • Flavouring and colouring of the mass • Depositing into moulding starch. • Depositing solids: 76-78 % • Depositing temperature: 70 - 80°C • If using a pressure dissolver, the gelatine solution can be added to the sugar slurry from the beginning. Processing time is then short enough to avoid degradation of the gelatine. Gelatine
  • 18. 18 Gelatine gums: formulation Water 15 - 18 % Gelatine 6 - 10 % Sucrose 25 - 30 % Invert sugar 0 - 10 % Glucose syrup 40 - 50 % Flavour 0,1 - 0,3 % Colour 0,02 - 0,1 % Acid 1 - 2 % ERH 60-65 % Gelatine
  • 19. 19 Gelatine gums: texture variation - The higher the gelatine content, the chewier the product. - At a same dosage, the lower the bloom, the softer the product. - The lower the DE of the glucose syrup, the firmer the product. - The lower the moisture content, the firmer the product. Gelatine can be combined with other gelling agents or thickeners to give particular textures to the end product: with agar-agar or pectin products have a shorter texture with modified starch products are firmer and shorter with gum arabic texture is harder and less elastic Gelatine
  • 20. 20 pectin • origin • classification • properties • use in confectioneries • formulations Gelling and thickening agents
  • 21. 21 Origin Pectin is a water soluble hydrocolloid and a natural component of plants. Pectin is present in high levels in well hydrated and young fruits. Even if theoretically every plant contains pectin substance, the commercial production is just out of apple and citrus fruits, where good quality pectin is present in relative high quantities. Pectin Apple pomace 10 - 15% Citrus fruit peels 20 - 35%
  • 22. 22 Classification Pectin are classified in two big categories: • The high esterified pectins (HE)  form gels in acid and sugared medium • The low esterified pectins (LE)  form gels in presence of a bivalent cation, usually calcium. In the group of the low-esterified pectins we find as well a separate group of amidated pectins (LA) Pectin
  • 23. 23 Physical-chemical properties • General properties • Dissolution • Gelling properties Pectin
  • 24. 24 General properties Pectin is available in the form of fine powder (~200µm) of a light grey to yellow-brownish colour depending on the origin. Pectin has thickening, stabilising and first of all gelling properties. Pectin – physical-chemical properties
  • 25. 25 Solubilisation To obtain a homogeneous gel, pectin has to be completely dissolved. Therefore, it is necessary to form a good dispersion without lumps (lumps are difficult to dissolve).  Dissolution in water with a turbo agitator  Pre-mix with crystal sugar (approx. 5 times the quantity of pectin)  Dispersion in a concentrated sugar solution Pectin – physical-chemical properties
  • 26. 26 Gelling properties Pectin give stable and firm gels in aqueous media. Factors influencing jellification are: 1. temperature 2. pectin type 3. pH 4. presence of sugar and other dissolved substances 5. calcium ions Gels of citrus fruits are more brittle and elastic than gels made with apple pectin, that are more spreadable. Pectin – physical-chemical properties
  • 27. 27 Jellification of HE pectin Presence of solids in the solution  55% pH  3,6 (addition of citric or tartaric acid) solids optimal pH 75 - 76 % 3,2 – 3,3 77 % 3,3 – 3,4 78 % 3,4 – 3,5 79 - 80 % 3,5 – 3,6 HE pectin forms irreversible gels Pectin – physical-chemical properties
  • 28. 28 Jellification of the pectins HE Pectin – gelling properties As the gelling temperature of pectin is very high and the process is quick, it is convenient to add a certain amount of buffer salts to the recipe. These salts are supposed to delay the effect of the acid at the beginning of jellification. Buffer salts: • Sodium or potassium citrate • Sodium/Potassium tartrate • Phosphates
  • 29. 29 Use in confectioneries Pectins HE: • Pectin jellies • Pâtes de fruits • Combined jellies Pectins LE: • Marmalades and jams • Non acid jellies Pectin
  • 30. 30 Use in confectionery Steam jacket Dissolution with high speed mixer Vacuum pump Jelly manufacturing process • Traditional open kettle • Combination with dissolution tank is a necessity with pectin and combination with a vacuum unit decreases process time Pectin
  • 31. 31 Use in confectionery Jelly manufacturing process A continuous system that works well with pectin is the pressure dissolver. Both jet cooker and pressure dissolver provide greater uniformity, less intensive labour requirements, higher through put and economised energy consumption. Dissolution of pectin Tank with high speed stirrer Coil cooking Steam Back pressure valve Vacuum line Vacuum separating vessel Colour Acid Flavour Static mixer Pectin
  • 32. 32 Keep temperature higher than 80 °C Acid Static mixer Jelly process Because of the non heat reversibility of pectin candies the liquid confectionery should never be allowed to cool to temperatures below 80°C after the acid has been added and while the liquid is still in the system. Use in confectionery Pectin
  • 33. 33 Moulding •Starch moulds •Plastic, metal or ceramic moulds •Rubber moulds Different moulding principles may be used for jellies made with HE pectin Moulding time can be as low as 10-15 minutes in moulds with rapid cooling system Pectin
  • 34. 34 • Fruit jellies Pectin in confectioneries 1.7 g buffered pectin 500 g sucrose 330 g glucose syrup (80 % solids, appr. 42 DE) 220 g water colour, flavouring x ml 50% citric acid solution to adjust pH Netto weight: approx. 1050 g Yield: 1000 g solids: 78 % pH: 3.3-3,4
  • 35. 35 • Pâtes de fruits (fruit pastes) Through the addition of fruit pulp it is possible to enhance the fruity character of the jellies. These products, with 25% of fruit content, have a typical coarse texture due to the fruit pulp. Pectin in confectioneries
  • 36. 36 Influence of the formulation on the texture of pectin jellies • Pectin type • Fruit – Type and quantity • Total solids • pH value • Type of buffer salt • Dosage of the buffer salt • Relation sucrose/glucose syr. • Dosage of pectin Pectin in confectioneries
  • 37. 37 Agar-agar • origin • classification • properties • use in confectioneries Gelling and thickening agents
  • 38. 38 origin Agar-agar, as well called agar or gelose, is a complex substance extracted from red seaweed of the variety Gelidium and Gracilaria, in which it forms the cellular membrane. It is well known as the culture growing medium used in petri dishes. Agar Agar
  • 39. 39 Physical-chemical properties • Dissolution • Gel strength • Effect of heat and pH Agar-agar is available under various commercial qualities. The differences will be in the colour (white till grey powders), in the transparency of the gels and in the gel strength. Agar Agar
  • 40. 40 Solubilisation Agar-agar is insoluble in cold water, but it can absorb until 5 times its weight in water. It can be dissolved in hot water. About 30 time the weight in water is needed to dissolve it. Agar Agar – physical-chemical properties Gelling properties Agar-agar has a high gelling power even in low concentration. Usually, preference is given to qualities with a gelling strength between 700 and 800 g/cm². Agar-agar give gels of a short texture (like pectin)
  • 41. 41 Jellification of agar-agar Setting temperature: 35 - 45°C Melting temperature: 70 - 85°C. Agar agar – gelling properties Gels of agar-agar are thermo-reversible Effect of heat and acids Heat and acid medium will strongly spoil agar-agar and generate a loss of gelling power. For this reason, acid has to be added at temperatures under 70°C.
  • 42. 42 Use in confectioneries Agar-agar is interesting because of its gelling properties and its properties as stabiliser/texturiser. The stabilising effect of agar-agar is useful in some aerated products of very low density and for the manufacture of aerated jelly products. It gives a gel similar to the pectin gel but don’t need any acid nor sugar to gel. Agar Agar
  • 43. 43 Agar jellies: formulation Water 20 - 22 % Agar-agar 0,8 - 1,2 % Sucrose 40 - 50 % Invert sugar 2 - 5 % Glucose syrup 25 - 30 % Sorbitol 2 - 5 % Flavour 0,1 - 0,3 % Colour 0,02 - 0,1 % Acid 0,5 - 1 % ERH 70-75 % Agar Agar
  • 44. 44 Starch • origin • composition • modifications • gelatinisation • use in confectioneries Gelling and thickening agents
  • 45. 45 Origin Starch is present in nearly all plants were it serves as energy source. High concentrations of starch are found in potatoes, corn, wheat, rice and tapioca. It is easy to identify the origin of starch by looking through a microscope (e.g.: potato  big rounded granules, corn  irregular rounded pentagonal structure) The properties of the starches vary depending on their origin. Starch
  • 46. 46 Composition Starch belongs to the carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide which very long chains of carbohydrates. The basic unit is a D-glucose (dextrose) molecule. One molecule of starch can wear more than thousand of these units. Starch is composed of polysaccharide chains of 2 types: amylose : linear chain amylopectin : longer ramified chain AMYLOSE Linear molecule AMYLOPECTIN Ramified molecule O CH OH 2 O H O O H O CH OH 2 O H O O H O CH OH 2 O H O O H O CH OH 2 O H O O H O O O H O O H O CH OH 2 O H O O H O O O H O O H O CH OH 2 O H O O H Starch
  • 47. 47 Amylose: * gelatinise at high temperatures * dissolve not easily * low binding power * forms a gel after cooling * the opaque gel forms a crust and tends to retrogradation. Amylopectin: * gelatinise at low temperatures * good solubility en water * high binding power * no forms a gel * gives transparent solutions Composition of starch
  • 48. 48 Cooking of starch Cold water Hot water Suspension viscous starch paste Starch slurry Hot water Starch granule (20µm) gelatinized starch granule
  • 50. 50 Starch Gelatinisation When the starch granule is heated in water, it swells with progressive hydration. As the granule continues to expand, more water is imbibed, clarity is improved, more space is occupied, movement is restricted and viscosity increased. If cooking continues, the granules will be destroyed liberating water. The viscosity of the solution drops. 60 100 Temperature Viscosity Temperature of gelatinization Peak complete dispersion It is essential to reach gelatinisation temperature during processing to ensure that the texture benefits of the starch are realized.
  • 51. 51 Wheat starch, undercooked Iodine coloration Wheat starch, well cooked Iodine coloration Wheat starch, overcooked Iodine coloration Wheat starch under microscope : x240 Starch
  • 52. 52 Modifications The properties of the native starch are such that it is very difficult to use them in a lot of applications. Through chemical and physical modifications of the starch molecule it is possible to adjust starches to the requirements of the food industry. Starch granule Fluid native starch Acid conversion Maltodextrines Acid conversion & stabilisation Oxydation  Solution = fluidified and converted starches Starch
  • 53. 53 Production of starch gums Cooking Drying Gums Depositing 70 % DS 85 to 90 % DS Starch  Concentration for a good texture and body of the gums: 12 to 30 %  Starches must show only few increase of the viscosity during cooking and depositing. Starch
  • 54. 54 Production of starch gums Slurry ~ 60°C Pump Back-pressure valve Flue Carbon filter Manometer Cooking chamber Three-way valve Steam Mogul unit Vacuum Colouring, acids, flavours JET COOKER Starch
  • 55. 55 Gum Arabic • origin • composition / properties • use in confectioneries Gelling and thickening agents
  • 56. 56 Origin Gum Arabic is the dried resin of the Acacia Senegal. The resin escapes through cuts made artificially in the stems and branches, and dries out in the shape of irregular tears. Each tree, when it is cut, produces 500 to 1000 g of gum Arabic per year. Gum arabic
  • 57. 57 Composition / properties Gum arabic is composed of about 88% of polysaccharides and 12% of water. It is very soluble in water. At 25°C it gives solutions of more than 50% of solids. Gum arabic is a thickening agent. It doesn’t form a gel with water. These solutions are low in taste. They are sensitive to pH variations and hydrolyse easily, especially in hot and acid media. Gum arabic
  • 58. 58 Hard gums: working method • Dissolution of the gum arabic (de-aeration during some hours at 40- 50°C) • Dissolution and cooking of the sugars • Mixing of the gum arabic solution into the cooked sugar mass • Flavouring and colouring of the mass • Depositing into moulding starch. • Depositing solids: 65-69 % • Depositing temperature: 60 - 70°C • If using a pressure dissolver, the gum arabic solution can be added to the sugar slurry from the beginning. Processing time is then short enough to avoid degradation of the gum arabic. Gum arabic
  • 59. 59 Hard gums: formulation Water 10 - 13 % Gum arabic 40 - 50 % Sucrose 30 - 40 % Invert sugar 2 - 5 % Glucose syrup 10 - 15 % Honey, licorice,… 3 - 5 % Flavour 0,1 - 0,3 % Colour 0,02 - 0,1 % Acid 0 - 2 % ERH 50-55 % Gum arabic