Hydrocolloid for meat and fish

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  • A colloid is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance.A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase (or internal phase) and a continuous phase (or dispersion medium). A colloidal system may be solid, liquid, or gaseous.
  • Hydrocolloid for meat and fish

    1. 1. Hydrocolloids and its application in coating NARESH KUMAR MEHTA PhD SCHOLAR
    2. 2. A hydrocolloid is defined as a colloid system wherein the colloid particles are dispersed in water. Hydrocolloids are high molecular weight hydrophilic biopolymer used as functional ingredient in the foods One of most extensively used additive in the food industry
    3. 3. Sources of hydrocolloids Basically it is a polysaccharide • Plants- starch (Tapioca, Barley, rice ) • Sea weeds (carageenan) • Microbes (xanthan gum) • Plant exudates (gum, gum Arabic) • Modified biopolymer made by chemical treatment of cellulose
    4. 4. Hydrocolloids as additive in food Industry •Starch •Agar •Pectin •Alginates •Carrageenan •Guar gum •Gum Arabic •Xanthan gum •Cellulose derivatives-CMC
    5. 5. properties • Have neutral taste and utilized in small quantities • edible and Non toxic • They provides an unctuous body to fat reduced products • Biocompatibility, non polluting, low cost • Enhance the bulk of the product while improving many functional properties • Barrier properties
    6. 6. starch Source-corn, wheat, barley, potato and tapioca It is polymer of amylose and amylopectin (25:75) Gelatinization temperature is 55-75 ⁰C Use Of Starch- Sausage, battered And Breaded Products, noodles
    7. 7. Pectin •It is polymer of galacturonic acid •Main source –peels of apple (15%) and citrus fruits (30%) •It is good gelling and solidifying agent •Uses-jem and jellies Sodium Alginate •Sodium alginate is an anionic polysaccharide •extracted principally from the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera as alginic acid and neutralized to the sodium salt. • It is soluble in hot or cold water and gives somewhat hazy solutions of neutral pH.
    8. 8. Guar Gum Guar gum is a nonionic source- endosperm of legume Cyamopsis tetragonolobus It gives neutral pH Solution in cold water Xanthan Gum •Xanthan gum is an anionic polysaccharide derived from the fermentation of the plant bacteria Xanthomonas compestris •It is soluble in hot or cold water and gives visually hazy, neutral pH solutions
    9. 9. Carrageenan •Carrageenan is an anionic polysaccharide •extracted principally from the red seaweed Chondrus crispus •Carrageenan is available in sodium, potassium, magnesium,calcium and mixed cation forms •Carrageenan solutions are typically clear, and of alkaline ph Gum Arabic (Acacia) • Gum arabic is an anionic polysaccharide collected as the dried exudate from The acacia tree (Acacia senegal) • it is soluble in hot or cold water and gives clear solutions of neutral to acidic pH.
    10. 10. Hydrocolloids as additives Polysaccharides and proteins are food hydrocolloids with an important role in the structure, stability and functional properties of several processed foods. Protein carbohydrate interactions determine the functional properties in foods where proteins are the major ingredients, such as meat and fish processed products.
    11. 11. •Fish Protein solublised by salt and water forms a continuous matrix •Some additive can be entrapped within this matrix filling the gel and exerting their functional effect in restructured products by 1. Influencing the formation of continuous surimi gel matrix during thermal inducing gelation 2. Modifying the viscosity, mobility and other properties of the liquid phase 3. Influencing the appearance and texture of the gel i.e. particle size distribution, rheological properties and relative volume fraction of the gel.
    12. 12. Suggested mechanism for induced changes in protein due to hydrocolloids
    13. 13. Hydrocolloids utilised in food Industry Properties Food Hydrocolloid Binding properties sausages starch Bulking agent Crystallization inhibitors Clarifying agent Clouding agent emulsifier Encapsulating agent Gelling agent Foam stabilizer Diatic food α-cellulose ice-cream Sodium alginates Beer, wine Ising glass Fruit juices Gum arabic chocolates alginates capsule Gum ,gelatin paste carrageen Beer, myonnaise CMC
    14. 14. Experimental set up • Double filleted oil sardines were taken in the study • Chitosan dip treatment was given at rate of 1 % and 2 % for 10 minutes and one control was performed. • Fillets were kept in HDPE boxes and 1-2 ⁰C temperature was maintained with ice during whole storage study.
    15. 15. L is lightness, a-redness b-yelloness
    16. 16. conclusion • Chitosan treatment was found to be effective in reducing spoilage and extending the self life of the fillets. • It also helps to maintain good WHC, reduce drip loss and textural qualities • A self life of 8 and 10 days was observed for 1 and 2 % chitosan treated samples respectively compare to 5 days for control.

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