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GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL
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What is Drugs?
Drug is defined as a chemical substance used as a medicine or in making
medicines which affects the body and mind and have potential for abuse. The use of any
drugs without an advice or prescription from a physician can be harmful.
Drugs is any chemically active substance rendering a specific effect on the central
nervous system of man.
A chemical substance that affects the functions of living cells and alters body or
mind processes when taken into the body or applied through the skin.
Is a chemical substance that brings about physical, emotional or behavioral
change in a person taking it.
Any chemical substance, other than food, which is intended for used in the
diagnosis, treatment, cure, mitigation or prevention of disease or symptoms
World Health Organization also defines drug as any substance or product that
is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological system or pathological
states for the benefits of the patient.
Etymology of the word Drug
The word "drug" is believe to had originated from Old French word "drogue", then later
changed into the term "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels" that refers
to medicinal plants preserved in them. (Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary,
2000)
What Is the Difference Between a Drug and a Medicine?
Medicine is any substance that is designed to prevent or treat diseases while drug
is designed to produce a specific reaction inside the body. Cocaine for example is a drug
designed to create a specific mental reaction that leads to a "high" for the user. However,
medical establishment does not recognize any medical benefits for cocaine, which means
that cocaine is categorized as drug but not medicine. Over-the-counter anti-
inflammatory medicines such as Advil are designed to treat pain, but they do not have
a strong enough effect to fit into a controlled substance classification, unlike stronger
pain relievers, this means that these are medicines and not drugs. Most of the medicines
that are also drugs are considered "controlled substances." This means that there are
laws governing their use and that using them in ways contrary to those laws can lead
to criminal charges.
Other distinctive characteristics of drug and medicine
1. Drugs have general effect of confusing the mind unlike medicines.
2. Drugs have a potential of addiction while medicines (in the general sense) don’t lead
to such.
3. The term “drugs” (either for therapeutic or non-therapeutic purposes) is nowadays
thought to have a more negative connotation.
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4. Drugs are substances that can still cure diseases to some extent but can have
severe adverse effects if used more than what’s necessary.
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GENERAL HISTORY OF DRUGS
Drug use and abuse is as old as mankind itself. Human beings have always had
a desire to eat or drink substances that make them feel relaxed, stimulated, or euphoric.
Humans have used drugs of one sort or another for thousands of years. Wine was used
at least from the time of early Egyptians, narcotics from 4000 B.C. and medicinal use
of marijuana has been dated to 2737 B.C in china.
As time went by, Home Remedies were discovered and used to alleviate aches,
pains and other ailments. Most of these preparations were herbs, roots, mushrooms or
fungi. They had to be eaten, drunk, rubbed on the skin, or inhaled to achieve the desired
effect.
One of the oldest records of such medicinal recommendations is found in the
writing of the Chinese scholar-emperor Shen Nung who lived in 2735 BC. He compiled
a book about herbs, a forerunner of the medieval pharmacopoeias that listed all the
then-known medications. He was able to judge the value of some Chinese herbs. For
example, he found that Ch’ang Shan was helpful in treating fevers; Ch’ang Shan is
antimalarial in Chinese medicine and It has emetic effects.
Pre-Columbian Mexicans used many substances varying from tobacco and other
mind-expanding plants in their medicinal collections. The most fascinating among these
substances is the Psilocybin mushroom.
As the centuries unrolled and new civilizations appeared, cultural, artistic,
and medical developments shifted towards the new center of power. A reversal of
traditional botanical drugs occurred in Greece in the fourth century BC, when
Hippocrates who is known as the “Father of Medicine,’’ became interested in inorganic
salts as medications. Hippocrates authority lasted throughout the middle Ages and
reminded alchemists and medical experimenters of the potential of inorganic drugs.
South American Indians, especially those in the Peruvian Andes Mountains made
several early discoveries of drug bearing plants. Two of these plants contain alkaloids of
worldwide importance that have become a modern drugs. They are cocaine, and quinine.
Cocaine ‘s potential for addiction was known and used with sinister intent by South
American Indian chiefs hundreds of years ago.
Sigmund Freud, the Austrian psychoanalyst [1859-1939] treated many deeply
disturbed cocaine addicts. In the course of his practice, he noted the numbing effect of
the drug. He called the attention of the clinical pharmacologist who introduced cocaine
as a local anesthetic into surgical procedures. One interesting truth is that Freud was
a cocaine user himself. Only that cocaine was not yet prohibited during his time, but
was prescribed and used as euphoric. The harmful side of the substance had not been
discovered yet.
During the American Civil War, morphine was used freely by the soldiers during
the war, and those wounded veterans returned home with their kits of morphine and
hypodermic needles and continued to consume the mentioned drug. Cocaine and heroin
were sold as patent medicines in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and marketed as
treatment for a wide variety of ailments. Recreational use of opium was once common
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in Asia and from there spread to the West, peaking in the 19th century, Opium dens
flourished.
Regarding marijuana, another notable herb that has its hallucinogenic effect,
historians credited it [Cannabis Sativa] as the world‘s oldest cultivated plant started by
the Incas of Peru.
GENERAL DRUG CATEGORY
1. Analgesics: Drugs that relieve pain.
There are two main types:
a. non-narcotic analgesics for mild pain, and
b. Narcotic analgesics for severe pain.
2. Antacids: Drugs that relieve indigestion and heartburn by neutralizing stomach
acid.
3. Antihistamines – those that control or combat allergic reactions.
4. Contraceptives – drugs that prevent the meeting of the egg cell and sperm cell
or prevent the ovary from releasing egg cells.
5. Decongestants –those that relieve congestion of the nasal passages.
6. Expectorants – those that can ease the expulsion of mucus and phlegm from the
lungs and the throat.
7. Laxatives – those that stimulate defecation and encourage bowel movement.
8. Sedatives and Tranquilizer – are those that can calm and quiet the nerves and
relieve anxiety without causing depression and clouding of the mind.
9. Vitamins – those substances necessary for normal growth and development and
proper functioning of the body.
10. Antibiotics - are drugs that combat or control infectious organism.
11. Antipyretics – those that can lower body temperature or fever due to infection.
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CRIMINOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
1. PRESCRIPTIVE DRUGS
These are drugs requiring written authorization from a doctor to allow its
purchase. They are prescribed according to the individual’s age, weight
and height and should not be taken by anyone else.
2. OVER – THE – COUNTER DRUGS
These are non – prescriptive drugs, which may be purchased from any
pharmacy or drugstore without written authorization from a doctor. They
are used to treat minor and short-term illnesses.
3. UNRECOGNIZED DRUGS
These are commercial products that have a psychoactive drug effects but
are not usually considered as drugs. These substances are not generally
regulated by the law except insofar as standards of sanitation and purity
is required.
4. ILLICIT DRUGS
These are drugs whose sale, purchase, use or manufacture is generally
prohibited by law. Criminal penalties usually apply to violators of these
laws.
How Drugs Works In our Body?
Drugs work in our body in a varied ways. They interfere with microorganisms
(germs) that invade our body, destroy abnormal cells that cause illness, replace deficient
substances (such as hormones or vitamins), or change the way that cells work in our
body. Most drugs act within our cell. Similar to common body chemicals, drugs enters
on cell and participates in the normal sequence of a cellular process. Thus, drug may
later, interfere on the established cellular life cycle, hopefully for the betterment of the
person. The actual action of a particular drug depends on its chemical makeup.
When two drugs are taken together or taken within a few hours of each
other, they have the tendency to interact with each other a d may yield an un-expected
result. This is one of the reasons why a physician always asked the names of drugs the
patient is using.
DOSE
A dose of drug refers to the amount taken by the patient at one time. The dose
taken becomes extremely important part of developing drug abuse. There are many
factors taken into consideration when deciding a dose of drug - including age of the
patient, weight, sex, ethnicity, liver and kidney function and whether the patient smokes
or drinks alcohol. Other medicines may also affect the drug dose.
Classification of Drug Dosage
1. Minimal dose – The amount needed to treat or heal that is, the smallest amount
of a drug that will produce a therapeutic effect.
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2. Maximal dose – largest amount of a drug that will produce a desired therapeutic
effect without any accompanying symptoms of toxicity.
3. Toxic dose – amount of drug that produces untoward effects or symptoms of
poisoning
4. Abusive dose – amount needed to produce the side effects and action desired by
the individual who improperly uses it.
5. Lethal dose – the amount of drug that will cause death.
How Drugs are administered?
Methods of Administering Drugs- Drugs may be introduced into the body in several
ways, each method serving a specific purpose.
1. ORAL—Among the advantages of administering medication orally) are the
following:
a. Oral medications are convenient. Oral medications are
cheaper.
b. Oral medications do not have to be pure or sterile. A wide
variety of oral dosage forms is available.
Oral medication administration may be disadvantageous for the following
reasons:
a. Some patients may have difficulty swallowing tablets or
capsules.
b. Oral medications are often absorbed too slowly.
c. Oral medications may be partially or completely
destroyed by the digestive system.
2. PARENTERAL— parenteral medications are introduced by injection. All
drugs used by this route must be pure, sterile, pyrogen-free, and in a
liquid state. There are several methods of parenteral administration,
including subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, and
intra thecal or intra spinal.
a. SUBCUTANEOUS— — the drug is injected just below the skin’s
cutaneous layers. Example: Insulin.
b. INTRADERMAL— — the drug is injected within the dermis layer of
the skin. Example: Purified protein derivative (PPD).
c. INTRAMUSCULAR— The drug is injected into the
muscle. Example: Procaine penicillin G.
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d. INTRAVENOUS— The drug is introduced directly into the
vein. Example: Intravenous fluids
e. INTRATHECAL OR INTRASPINAL- — The drug is introduced into
the subarachnoid space of the spinal column. Example: Procaine
hydrochloride.
3. INHALATION— this route makes use of gaseous and volatile drugs, which are
inhaled and absorbed rapidly through the cappillary system of the respiratory
tract. It is probably the second most commonly-used route of drug
administration.
4. TOPICAL— this refers to the application of drugs directly to a body site such as
the skin and the mucous membrane.
5. Iontophoresis – the introduction of drugs into the deeper layers of the skin by
the use of special type of electric current for local effect.
6. Snorting- Inhalation through the nose of drugs not in gaseous from. It is
perform by inhaling a powder of liquid drug into the nose coats of the mucous
membrane.
7. Buccal- The drug is administered by placing them into the buccal cavity just
under the lips and the active ingredients of the drug will be absorbed into the
bloodstream through the soft tissues lining the mouth.
8. Suppositories- The drug is administered through the vagina or rectum in
suppository form and the drug will also be absorbed into the bloodstream.
9. TRANSDERMAL ROUTE- Some drugs are delivered body wide through a
patch on the skin. These drugs are sometimes mixed with a chemical (such as
alcohol) that enhances penetration through the skin into the bloodstream
without any injection.
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DANGEROUS DRUGS
GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS ACCORDING TO IT’S THE EFFECTS
1. Depressant – These are drug that has the effect of depressing the central nervous
system. They decrease or depress body function and nerve activity. Depressants
drugs include sedative, hypnotics and tranquilizers.
2. Stimulant – These are drug having the effect of stimulating the central nervous
system. These are drugs that produce a feeling of well-being. Cocaine and
amphetamine are the most common stimulant.
3. Hallucinogens – These are drug that is considered as mind altering drugs and
gives general effects of mood distortion. These drugs are capable of provoking
change in sensation, thinking, self-awareness and emotion.
4. Inhalants – Although not a drug but these are household and industrial chemicals
whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the
nose or mouth and produces intoxication, in a manner not intended by the
manufacturer.
DEPRESSANT (downer)
These are drugs that suppresses the vital body function especially those of the
brain or central nervous system with the resulting impairment of judgment, hearing,
speech, and muscular coordination. They dull minds, slow down the body reactions
to such an extent that accidental deaths and/or suicides usually happen.
NOTABLE EXAMPLES OF DEPRESSANTS
LEGAL DEPRESSANTS
Alcohol – Alcohol is the most general legal depressant. There are different types of
alcohol such as beer, wine and liquor. Alcohol acts a psychoactive drug that weakens
attention and reduces reaction speed. Alcohol overdose affects the brain resulting in
slurred speech, clumsiness and delayed reflexes. Other physiological impacts include
altered insight of space and time, weakened psychomotor skills, affecting balance.
Instant effects of alcohol intoxication include slurred speech, sleep problems, nausea
and vomiting. Even when you consume low doses, alcohol impairs judgment and
coordination considerably.
Barbiturates – This group of drugs is also known as sedative-hypnotics. They help in
sleep disorders and reduce anxiety. Barbiturates generate impacts ranging mild
sedation to entire anesthesia. They can be injected directly into veins and muscles but
regularly taken in pill form. Signs of intoxication comprise respiratory depression, low
blood pressure, exhaustion, fever, strange excitement, irritability and seizures. The
major risk of intoxication is respiratory depression. Other impacts of barbiturate
overdoes include drowsiness, slurred speech and loss of inhibitions.
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Benzodiazephine – This is a prescriptive drug used to treat anxiety problems, alcohol
withdrawal signs or muscle spasm. It is at times applied with other medicines to cure
seizures. The most common Benzoz include xanax, activan and valium.
Benzodiazephine overdose can be dangerous. It can be very addictive.
ILLEGAL DEPRESSANTS
Inhalants – Inhalants normally include volatile substances that produce fumes or
vapors at room temperature. They include glue, paint thinner o hair spray. They have
the same effects as alcohol.
Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (Rohypnol) – GHB is also known as “the date rape
drug” GHB has a very fast onset and is swiftly removed from the body system. This is
an illegal depressant regularly used to drug victims before sexually assaulting them
because of its sedative components. Its effects include nausea, amnesia, drowsiness or
coma.
Street name: The forget-me pill, Mexican Valium, or Roofies
Opium – narcotic drug produced from the drying resin of unripe capsule of the opium
popy, papaver somniferum. Opium is grown mainly in Myanmar (formerly Burma) and
Afghanistan
Street name: weed, pot, dope, grass, reefer, herb, nuggets, blaze, rope etc.
Morphine – most commonly used and best used opiate. It is effective as painkiller six
times potent than opium, with a high dependence producing potential, morphine exerts
action characterized by analgesia, drowsiness, mood changes and mental clouding.
Street name: Dreamer, Gods Drug, Emsel, First line, Hows
Heroin – it is derive from morphine. It is three to five times more powerful than
morphine from which it is derived and the most addicting opium derivative. With
continued use, addiction occurs within 14 days. It is the most powerful opium
derivative.
Discovered by ALDER WRIGHT
Street Name: Dragon, Big H, White Nurse, White Lady and many others
Codeine – a derivative of morphine, commonly available in cough preparations. These
cough medicine have been widely abused by the youth whenever hard narcotics are
difficult to obtain withdrawal symptoms are less severe than other drugs.
Street Name: Cody, Captain Cody, or School boy
Demerol and Methadone – methadone was first sensitized in Germany in 1943, when
an opiate analgesic was not available because of war, it was first called “Dolophine” after
Adolf Hitler. Demerol is widely used as a painkiller in childbirth while methadone is the
drug of choice in the withdrawal treatment of heroin depends since it relieves the
physical craving for heroin.
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STIMULANT (uppers)
These are drugs that produced excitation, alertness and wakefulness, intense
feeling of “highness” and in some cases, a temporary rise in blood pressure and
respiration.
a. They produce the opposite to that of depressant. Instead of bringing
about relaxation and sleep, they produce increase mental alertness,
wakefulness, reduce hunger and provide a feeling of well-being.
b. Their medical use includes treatment of narcolepsy – a condition
characterized by an overwhelming desire to sleep. A person who has
narcolepsy goes to sleep as frequently as 5 times a day.
NOTABLE EXAMPLES OF STIMULANTS
Amphetamine - Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of
the phenethylamine class that is approved for the treatment of attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887.
Amphetamine is also used as a performance and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally
as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant.
Street name: Bennies, Ampes, Benzies, or Cartwheels
Caffeine- Caffeine is a stimulant compound belonging to the xanthine class of chemicals
naturally found in coffee, tea and (to a lesser degree) cocoa or chocolate. It is included
in many soft drinks, as well as a larger amount in energy drinks. Caffeine is the world's
most widely used psychoactive drug and by far the most common stimulant.
Ephedrine- Ephedrine is commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant,
concentration aid, and decongestant and to treat hypertension associated with
anesthesia.
MDMA - This commonly known as Ecstasy, MDMA is a psychoactive drug used
primarily as a recreational drug. The desired recreational effects include increased
empathy, euphoria, and heightened sensations. When taken by mouth, effects begin
after 30–45 minutes and last 3–6 hours. MDMA was first synthesized in 1912 by Merck
chemist Anton Kollisch.
Mephedrone - It is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone. It is
reported to be manufactured in China and is chemically similar to the cathinone
compounds found in the khat plant of Eastern Africa. It comes in the form of tablets or
a powder, which users can swallow, snort, or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA,
Amphetamines and cocaine. Mephedrone was first synthesized in 1929, but did not
become widely known until it was rediscovered in 2003.
Street name: Drone or MCAT
Cocaine- Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca shrub, which grows in the
mountain regions of South American countries such as Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. In
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Europe, North America, and some parts of Asia, the most common form of cocaine is a
white crystalline powder. Cocaine is a stimulant but is not normally prescribed
therapeutically for its stimulant properties, although it sees clinical use as a local
anesthetic, in particular in ophthalmology.
Street name: blanca, crack, flake, gold dust, haven dust, line
Nicotine - It is the active chemical constituent in tobacco, which is available in many
forms, including cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco and smoking cessation aids such
as nicotine patches, nicotine gum and electronic cigarettes. Nicotine is used widely
throughout the world for its stimulating and relaxing effects.
HALLUCINOGEN (psychedelics)
Hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent that can cause hallucinations, perceptual
anomalies and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion and
consciousness. The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics, dissociative and
deliriums.
NOTABLE EXAMPLES OF HALLUCINOGENS
Marijuana (Cannabis Sativa Lima) – the term marijuana is a Spanish-Mexican term
used to refer to the Indian hemp plant. It is the most commonly abuse hallucinogen in
the Philippines because it can be grown extensively in the country. The effect of
marijuana includes having a feeling of grandeur. It can also produce opposite effect, a
dreamy sensation of time seeming to stretch out.
Two Varieties of the cannabis plant
Resin – Producing – (female MJ) – THC is found most abundantly in upper leaves,
barks and flowers of the resin – producing plant.
Fiber – Producing – (male MJ) – contains lesser THC
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – most active and are considered responsible for
the hallucinogenic effect of MJ. THC contains the highest concentration of the
drug.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) – this drug was first synthesized by Dr. Albert
Hoffman and Dr. Arthur Steel from the ergot plant – a fungus that parasites rye and
other grains and diethylamide portion.
Peyote – This drug was derived from a small gray brown cactus. Peyote emits a
nauseating odor and its user is commonly those who suffer from nausea. The drug
causes no physical dependence and therefore, no withdrawal symptoms.
-
Mescaline – this is the active ingredient of peyote cactus.
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Phencyclidine (PCP) – known on the street as “angel dust” it is used as an intravenous
anesthetic and analgesic and used also as treatment for mental disorder.
Killer weed – It is a combination of angel dust and marijuana.
Psilocybin – This is a hallucinogenic alkaloid from small Mexican mushroom. This
mushroom induces nausea, muscular relaxation, mood changes with vision of bright
colors and shape.
Morning Glory Seed – known as lysergic acid amide. Hallucinogenic affect may last for
4-5 hours and later may be followed by depression, laziness, and complete loss of time
and space perception.
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SEVEN ADDITIONAL SUBSTANCES INCLUDED IN THE LIST OF DANGEROUS
DRUGS (PDEA, 2016)
1. ACETYLFENTANYL – This drug is a painkiller which is five times more powerful
than heroin. Also studies have estimated acetylfentanyl to be fifteen times more
potent than morphine.
This drug is the culprit of what appears to be heroin overdoses, acetylfentanyl is
an opiate that is mixed into street drugs marketed as heroin or may be sold in
pills disguised as oxycodone.
Street Name: Apache, Good fella, Jackpot, TNT, Murder 8 and Tango and Cash.
Routes of Administration: Oral, Intravenous, Insufflation
2. MT-45 is an Opioid analgesic drug invented in the 1970s by Dainippon
Pharmaceutical Co., It is a piperazine derivative with potent analgesic activity
comparable to morphine.
Recreational use of MT-45 has been associated with hearing loss and
unconsciousness.
Street name: IC-6, Wow
3. PARA-METHOXYMETHYLAMPHETAMINE – It is a stimulant and psychedelic
recreational drug which may be used as substitute to ecstasy. It can cause
hallucinations and fatal rise in body temperature.
Street name: Red Mitsubishi, PMMA
Routes of Administration: Oral
4. Alpha-PYRROLIDINOVALEROPHENONE is a psychomotor stimulant which may
cause cardio toxicity, violent behavior, and display of psychotic behavior.
Street name: a-PVP, Gravel or Flakka
Routes of Administration: Oral, Intranasal, Vaporization, Intravenous,
Rectal, Sublingual
5. Para-METHYLAMINOREX – This drug is a new and potentially lethal designer
drug. This has been available particularly in Europe since the end of 2012
predominantly in powdered form or sold in an Ecstasy like tablets, majority of
powders are white but others have also been described as pale yellow, pink, green
and blue colored powders. Tablets have been observed in various colors and
shapes some of which bore logos such as ‘Playboy’, ‘Heart’, ‘Mitsubishi’, ‘Star’,
‘Transformers’, ‘Cherries’, and ‘Cross’.
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Street name: 4-MAX, McN-822 and ‘ICE’. 4,4′-DMAR
Routes of Administration: nasal insufflation and oral administration.
The term “Bombing” as operationally defined in the way of consumption -
refers to the practice of wrapping powdered Para - Methylaminorex in cigarette
paper (or similar) before swallowing,
6. METHOXETAMINE (MXE) is a new recreational drug, structural analog of
ketamine (mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia) with potent
hallucinogenic properties. MXE is reported to have a similar effect to ketamine,
MXE may is an effective, fast-acting antidepressant like ketamine.
Street name: M-ket, K Max, Mexxy, or MXE
Routes of Administration: Oral, Sublingual, Nasal insufflation or snorting,
Rectal, IM (Intra Muscular)
7. PHENAZEPAM - it is a benzodiazepine (known as tranquilizers) with anxiolytic,
euphoric, anti-convulsant, amnestic, muscle relaxant, and hypnotic (sleep-
inducing) effects. This drug was developed by the Soviet Union in 1975.
Street name: Bonsai, Soviet Benzo, Fenaz, Panda
Routes of Administration: Oral, Intravenous, Intra Muscular
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“DRUG ABUSE JARGONS”
Jargon Meaning
“opiate” - narcotic
“on the nod/ nodding” - the state produced by opiates like being suspended
on the edge of sleep
“mainline/ to shoot” - injecting a drug into the vein
“a hit” - the street slang term for injection of drugs
“a work” - an apparatus for injecting drugs
“a fix” - one injection of opiate
“juni” - heroin
“junkie” - an opiate addict
“skin popping” - to inject a drug under the skin
“a bag” - a pocket of drug
“cold turkey” - withdrawal effects of opiate use
“track” - scars on the skin due to injection
“overdose” - death occurred
“speed” - amphetamines
“speed freaks” - amphetamine addict
“uppers” - street slang term for amphetamines
“rush” - the beginning of high
“high” - under the influence of drugs
“coke” - street slang term for cocaine
“flashback” - user can be thrown back into the drug experience
month after the original use of drugs
“acid” - street slang term for LSD
“acid head” - LSD user
“drop” - taking drug orally
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“joint” - an MJ cigar
“roach” - butt end of a joint
“stoned” - the intoxicating effect of a drug
“trip” - reaction that is caused by drugs
“head” - drug user
“downer” - street slang term for depressant
THE CONCEPT OF DRUG DEPENDENCE
Terms to ponder:
Drug Dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug
administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use
While Drug Addiction is a distinct concept of Drug Dependence, is defined as
compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences.
Drug Abuse – it is the illegal, wrongful or improper use of any drug.
Rehabilitation – it is a dynamic process directed towards the changes of health
of the person to prepare him from his fullest life potentials and capabilities, and making
him law abiding and productive member of the community without abusing drugs.
Treatment – a medical service rendered to a client for the effective management
of his total condition related to drug abuse
WHAT CAUSES DRUG ADDICTION
Drug Addiction maybe caused by the following;
Genetical tendency - Some people are more susceptible to developing an addiction.
The biological make up of other individual may play an important role in acquiring drug
addiction.
Peer pressure - Peer pressure affect young people because they place a high value on
what their friends think and do and they desire to ‘fit in’ with their peer group. Which
then, if that group takes drugs, or smokes cigarettes or enjoys drinking then the
pressure is there to do the same.
Stress – Working for longer hours to provide a decent standard of living without finding
time to relax. Going for a few drinks after work is one way of relaxing as is taking drugs
such as cocaine at parties. Many individuals use this way of coping with stress which
eventually turn into habits, and that habituation may turn into addiction.
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Experimentation - The tendency to experiment is a form of behavior commonly
observed in young people. Experimentation with drink, drugs or smoking may result in
addiction. The tendency of a person to try and explore the effects of drug due to curiosity
or other reason is other way of acquiring drug addiction.
Environment - Being exposed to addictive substances at young age may increases the
risk of an individual towards drug addiction. Another related factor is a chaotic
childhood and abuse. Those who suffered abuse in their childhood have a stronger
trigger towards addiction.
Use of highly potent drugs - Some drugs is much more addictive than others, for
example cocaine, heroin and amphetamines can cause addiction after just one use.
Other drugs require several sessions before they result in an addiction.
Availability of drugs - If a drug is easier to get hold it will show higher rates of addiction
than something which is difficult to obtain. The availability of the illicit drugs increases
the tendency of individuals residing on that area to use drugs.
Psychological problems - Individuals suffering from a mental illness such as anxiety,
depression or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at an increased risk of
developing drug addiction. This is mainly due to the fact that they believe that drugs
prescribed for their illness help them to cope with life than if they were without.
THE ONSET OF DRUG ADDICTION
Addiction had taken over a person already if these followings are present;
1. Compulsion/ Uncontrollable craving – A circumstance wherein a drug user
feels a compulsive craving to take drug repeatedly and tries to procure the same
by any means.
2. Tolerance – This refers to the tendency of the user to increase the dose of the
drug to produce the same effect as to that of the original effect.
3. Physical Dependence – It is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a
tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes
unpleasant physical symptoms.
4. Psychological Dependence – Emotional and mental discomfort exist to the
individual. The drug addict feels he cannot do without drug, consequently if he
does not take the drug his mental processes are affected. He cannot carry out his
work efficiently.
5. Withdrawal syndrome or Discontinuation Syndrome – It is the circumstances
wherein the drug user becomes nervous and restless occurring as a result of
discontinuing or dosage reduction of some types of medications and recreational
drugs. The risk of withdrawal syndrome increases with dosage and length of use.
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GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF DRUG ABUSERS
In order to understand the groups of people who abuse drugs, the group
classification of drug addict are presented as:
1. Situational users – Those users who use drug to keep them awake or for
additional energy to perform an important work. Such individual may or may not
exhibit psychological dependence.
2. Spree users – School age users who take drug for “kicks”, or adventurous daring
experience, or as a means of fun.
3. Hard core addicts – Those whose activities revolve almost entirely around the
drug experience and securing supplies. They show strong psychological
dependence on the drug.
4. Hippies – Those who are addicted to drug believing that drug is an integral part
of life.
IDENTIFICATION OF DRUG ABUSERS
A drug abuser will do everything possible to conceal his habit. To be able to
recognize the outward sign and symptoms, it’s equally important to remember that the
drug problem is so complex that we should not jump into conclusion immediately, we
should remember that some individuals might have a legitimate reason for possessing
a tablets, syringe and needle, or other drug paraphernalia. We must also understand
that unusual or odd behavior may not be connected in any way with drug use.
The symptoms of drug abuse will vary depending upon the substance, the
individual’s genetic makeup, the length of abuse, and the frequency of abuse. Some of
the common symptoms of drug abuse may include
WHAT TO OBSERVE?
The following markers can help in identifying drug abusers:
1. Change in interest – Users may lose interest in their studies and in their work,
They may fail in school, shift from one course to another, transfer of school of
lower standards until eventually drop out.
2. Frequent shifting of mood – Users may appear euphoric, elated and sometimes
even ecstatic when under the influence of drugs. They would be indifferent,
irritable and hostile when the effect of drug is winning from the system.
3. Change in behavior – They usually spend a lot of time in the company of known
drug users in the community.
A drug user under the influence of drugs may be observed to manifest the
following changes on behavior;
a. Lack of ambition, reduced attention span, poor quality of school work, and
impaired communication skills.
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b. Less care for the feeling of the others, lessening of accustomed family warmth
c. Secretive about money, disappearance of money and other valuable from the
house.
4. Changes in physical appearance – A drug user under the influence of drugs
may be observed to manifest the following changes;
a. Neglect of persons appearance and hygiene, pale face, red eyes, dilation or
constricted pupils, and wearing sunglasses at wrong place.
b. Friends defusing to identify themselves or hang up when you answer the
phone, and overreaction to mild conditions.
c. Knowledge on the lingo of drug abusers.
d. Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, muscular aches, insomnia
and convulsions.
e. Presence drug paraphernalia in the belongings
METHODS OF DETECTING DRUG ABUSERS
The detection of drug abusers involves the 4 processes namely:
1. OBSERVATION
Carefully observe the signs and symptoms of drug abuse such as but not
limited to;
a) Instant change in interest
b) Frequent shifting of mood
c) Sudden change in behavior
d) Changes in physical appearance
2. BACKGROUND CHECK
Information relative to drug use must be collected to determine whether
the suspected individual is indeed a drug user, it must be done through the
following means
Interview
The best information is from the patient himself, if not possible the parent
or close relative or close friend would be a good alternative to furnish useful
details that has a significant contribution to the possible cause of the patient
drug use.
3. LABORATORY EXAMINATION
If a person is suspected to have been involved in illegal drug use, he
must be subjected to drug test, for those person apprehended violating the law
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on drugs must be submitted for drug testing in accordance with the provision of
Republic Act 9165 which read as follows;
Sec. 38. Any person apprehended or arrested for violating the provisions
of RA 9165 shall be subjected to screening laboratory examination or test
within twenty-four (24) hours, if the apprehending or arresting officer has
reasonable ground to believe that the person apprehended or arrested, on
account of physical signs or symptoms or other visible or outward
manifestation, is under the influence of dangerous drugs. If found to be
positive, the results of the screening laboratory examination or test shall
be challenged within fifteen (15) days after receipt of the result through a
confirmatory test conducted in any accredited analytical laboratory
equipment with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry equipment or
some such modern and accepted method, if confirmed the same shall be
prima facie evidence that such person has used dangerous drugs, which
is without prejudice for the prosecution for other violations of the
provisions of this Act: Provided, That a positive screening laboratory test
must be confirmed for it to be valid in a court of law.
4. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION (Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST)
Psychological examination to determine whether a certain person is
using illegal drugs or not requires the expertise of trained psychologist. Usually
a set of questionnaires is given or interview sessions are scheduled.
The General Profile of Drug Abuser (Dangerous Drug Board)
Profile of Drug Abusers in Philippines
(Facility Based)*
CY 2015
Age: Mean age of 31 years
Sex: Ratio of male and female 14:1
Civil status: Single
Status of employment: Unemployed
Educational attainment: College Level
Economic status: Average Monthly Family Income Php 10,172.00
Place of residence: Urban (specifically NCR 43.89%)
Duration of drug – taking: More than six (6) years
Nature of drug – taking: Poly drug use
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DRUGS/SUBSTANCES OF ABUSE:
Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Shabu)
Cannabis (Marijuana)
Cocaine
*Residential Facilities
**Poly drug users – abuse of more than one (1) drug
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The Effect of Drug Abuse
The effects of addiction and abuse of drugs can be all-encompassing, leaving
virtually no part of the drug user’s life untouched.
Effect on the General Health of the Drug Addict
Malnutrition – the life of an addict revolves around drug use. He misses even
his regular meals. He losses appetite and eventually develops malnutrition.
Skin infection and skin rushes – often times the drug abuser neglects his
personal hygiene, uses unsterilized needle and syringes that result in skin
infection or even ulceration at the sites of the needle puncture. Skin rushes
even may occur as a side effect of sensitivity reaction to certain drug abuse.
Others may include the following;
 Accidents
 Changes in the structure or functioning of the brain
 Unintentional injuries
 Damage to all organ systems in the body
 Weakening of immune system
 Cardiovascular complications
 Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain
 Liver damage and/or failure
 Seizures
 Strokes
 Heart attacks
 Permanent brain damage
 Increasing medical problems
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Effects of Psyche of the Drug Addict
The abuse of drug can bring many psychological malfunctions such
as the following:
 Addiction
 Tolerance
 Impaired decision-making
 Worsening of emotional wellbeing
 Loss of drive and ambition
 Development of psychosis and depression
 Loss of interest to study
 Laziness, lethargy, boredom and restlessness
 Irritability, rebellious attitude
 Withdrawal forgetfulness
Effect of drug use on the social life of the Drug Addict
The drug abuser may also experience social malfunction such as the
following:
 Deterioration of interpersonal relationship and develop conflict with
authority.
 Commission of crime
 Social maladjustment; loss of desire to work study and participate
in activities or to face challenges.
 Crumbling interpersonal relationships which would eventually
result into Domestic abuse and Divorce.
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Effects of Drug use to the mental health of the Drug Addict
The drug abuser can experience adverse effect of the central nervous
system. Regular use or injection of large doses of substance reduces the activity
of the brain and depresses the central nervous system. The drug dependent then
manifest changes in his mind and behavior that are undesirable by people in his
environment.
Effects of Drug use to the financial stability of the drug addict
a. Inability to hold stable job
It’s impossible to drug abuser to hold a steady job since he spends his
time and money on drugs. If he does not have a regular job, he and his fried
steal to raise money.
b. Dependence on family resources
Instead of contributing to the economic stability of the family, a
dependent become an economic burden.
c. Work related accidents
In a state of agitation or dullness of a mind as a result of the drug he
has taken, the dependent become careless and lacks concentration on his job.
Consequently, an accident may occur in which may adversely affect both drug
abuser and his co-workers.
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INTERNATIONAL AND LOCAL DRUG TRAFFICKING
Drug trafficking refers to the global illicit drug trade involving that involves
cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of substances which are subject to drug
prohibition laws. At current levels, world heroin consumption (340 tons) and seizures
represent an annual flow of 430-450 tons of heroin into the global heroin market. Of
that total, opium from Myanmar and the Lao People's Democratic Republic yields some
50 tons, while the rest, some 380 tons of heroin and morphine, is produced exclusively
from Afghan opium. These drugs are commonly trafficked worldwide via routes flowing
into and through the countries neighboring Afghanistan.
The Balkan and northern routes are the main heroin trafficking corridors linking
Afghanistan to the huge markets of the Russian Federation and Western Europe. The
Balkan route traverses the Islamic Republic of Iran (often via Pakistan), Turkey, Greece
and Bulgaria across South-East Europe to the Western European market. While the
northern route runs mainly through Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan (or Uzbekistan or
Turkmenistan) to Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation.
Global heroin flows from Asian points of origin
Source: UNODC World Drug Report 2010
In 2008, global heroin seizures reached a record level of 73.7 metric tons. Most
of the heroin was seized in the near and Middle East and South-West Asia, South-East
Europe and Western and Central Europe. The global increase in heroin seizures over
the period 2006-2008 was driven mainly by continued increasing seizures in the Islamic
Republic of Iran and Turkey.
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In 2007 and 2008, cocaine was used by some 16 to 17 million people worldwide.
North America accounted for more than 40 per cent of global cocaine consumption,
while the 27 European Union and four European Free Trade Association countries
accounted for more than a quarter of total consumption.
For the North American market, cocaine is typically transported from Colombia
to Mexico or Central America by sea and then onwards by land to the United States and
Canada. Cocaine is trafficked to Europe mostly by sea, often in container shipments.
Colombia remains the main source of the cocaine found in Europe, but direct shipments
from Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia are far more common than in the United
States market.
Main global cocaine flows, 2008
Source: UNODC World Drug Report 2010
Following a significant increase over the period 2002-2005, global cocaine seizure
totals have recently followed a stable trend, amounting to 712 tons in 2007 and 711
tons in 2008. Seizures continued to be concentrated in the Americas and Europe.
However, the transition from 2007 to 2008 brought about a geographical shift in
seizures towards the source countries for cocaine. Seizures in South America accounted
for 59 per cent of the global total for 2008.
The prevalence of illegal drug use in the Philippines is lower than the global
average, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), two of
the most used and valuable illegal drugs in the country are methamphetamine
hydrochloride known for its common name “shabu” and marijuana. In 2012, the United
Nations reported that the Philippines had the highest rate of methamphetamine use in
East Asia, and according to a U.S. State Department report, 2.1 percent of Filipinos
aged 16 to 64 uses the drug. On the other hand Ecstasy is reported to be the third most
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abused drug that is next to cannabis and methamphetamine. Other drugs are also at
the verge of being abuse, for minors Inhalants are commonly abused, especially street
children. The involvement of the minors is not only limited to consumption, other drug
syndicates also use them as drug pushers and couriers.
Aside from the illegal drug production and manufacture, Illegal drug trafficking
is still the most pervasive drug activity in the Philippines. Drug traffickers never stop
formulating new ways to hide their illegal activities. In year 2013, PDEA observed some
common modus operandi adopted by illegal drug traffickers such as using milk boxes,
Chinese tea bags, slippers and cellphone charger, mail and parcel courier, or by
ingesting the drug itself in order to smuggle the drug into the country. What makes it
hard for the authority to suppress the illegal drug trafficking in our country is the
involvement of drug cartels, the role of drug syndicates in the manufacture and
distribution of illegal drugs is very significant in illicit drug trafficking business. They
serve as the foundation of the illegal drug trade. In the Philippines, international drug
trafficking organizations were identified to have been operating in the country, such as
the Sinaloa Drug Cartel, African Drug Syndicates and Filipino – Chinese Drug
Syndicates, what is more alarming were the incidents reported on some occasions that
these drug syndicate were working side by side.
Circumstances such as these, unites the majority of the Filipino people to attack
the issues on drugs heads on. This eventually resulted into cases of allegedly extra
judicial killings and other drug related killings.
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HISTORICAL DRUG TRAFFIC ROUTE
In Southeast Asia, the “Golden Triangle” composed by the countries
Burma/Myanmar, Laos, Thailand approximately produced 60 percent of opium in the
world, 90 percent of opium in the Eastern part of Asia. It is also the formerly
acknowledge as the source of South East Asian heroin.
This heroin’s produced by the Golden triangle passes through nearby countries
in relatively small quantities through air transport while through land transit to the
United States and European countries.
In Southwest Asia the “Golden crescent” composed by the countries Iran,
Afghanistan, Pakistan, India is the major supplier of opium poppy, marijuana and
heroin products. It produced at least 85% to 90% of all illicit heroin channeled in the
drug underworld market.
Significant Countries relative to drug trade
Afghanistan – Currently known to be the world’s main supplier of cannabis. It
produces between 10,000 and 24,000 hectares every year producing an
estimated 1,500 to 3,500 tons a year and production takes place in 17 of 34
provinces.
Spain – is known as the major transshipment point for international drug
traffickers in Europe – and became “the paradise of drug users in Europe”.
South America – Columbia, Peru, Uruguay and Panama are the principal
sources of all cocaine supply in the world due to the robust production of the
coca plants.
Mexico and Paraguay - Are known as the top two marijuana-producing countries
in the world
Philippines – Second to Mexico as to the production of marijuana. It also became
the major transshipment point for the worldwide distribution of illegal drugs
particularly shabu and cocaine from Taiwan and South America. It is also noted
that Philippines today is known as the drug paradise of drug abusers in Asia.
India – is the center of the world’s drug map, leading to the rapid addiction among
its people.
Indonesia – Northern Sumatra has traditionally been the main cannabis growing
area in Indonesia. Bali Indonesia is an important transit point for drugs en route
to Australia and New Zealand.
Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand – is the most favorable sites of drug
distribution from the “Golden Triangle” to Hong Kong. It’s also the country where
the “epedra” plant is cultivated – source of the drug ephedrine – the principal
chemical for producing the drug shabu.
Hong Kong – is the world’s transshipment point of all forms of heroin.
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Japan – became the major consumer of cocaine and shabu from the United States
and Europe.
THE ORGANIZED CRIME GROUPS BEHIND THE GLOBAL DRUG SCENE
The SINALOA CARTEL, Mexico - The biggest gang in Mexico right now is the Sinaloa,
whose leader, Joaquín Guzmán Loera, known as "El Chapo" or "Shorty", is considered
the most powerful drug lord in the world. The Sinaloa smuggles cocaine, marijuana,
methamphetamine and heroin by land or through tunnels into the US, often via Arizona.
YAMAGUCHI-GUMI, Japan - The largest of Japan's Yakuza groups, the Yamaguchi has
its base and origins in Kobe, but works on a global scale. With a membership running
into tens of thousands, they deal in drugs, weapons, gambling, extortion rackets and
prostitution.
SOLNTSEVSKAYA BRATVA, Russia - The term "Russian Mafia" describes a range of
criminal bratvas, or brotherhoods, the largest of which is from Solntsevo district on the
southern outskirts of Moscow. The group is known to have links to Semion Mogilevich,
Europe's and perhaps the worlds, most powerful criminal.
The 'NDRANGHETA, Italy - The 'Ndrangheta from Calabria has now eclipsed the nearby
Sicilian Cosa Nostra and the Neapolitan Camorra syndicates to become one of the
biggest drug gangs in the world. Its annual income from cocaine importation and other
businesses is estimated in the tens of billions of dollars.
ABERGIL FAMILY, Israel - The Abergils have been one of the world's largest exporters
of ecstasy, into the US and elsewhere, and prolific in gambling and embezzlement too.
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DRUG CARTELS IN PHILIPPINES
Drug trafficking in the Philippines are still dominated by the Mexican, African,
and Chinese Illicit Drug Traffickers. There has been a shift into the mode of operation
of drug traffickers, today the importation of illicit drugs into the country had been
decreasing due to the strict monitoring and security provided by the coast guards and
other responsible agencies. The most common way of smuggling drugs are transit
through air then dropped on the shorelines then the local members who acts as a
fisherman’s will collect them and deliver it to local drug groups for distributions to the
consumers.
“Shabu” or Methamphetamine Hydrochloride is still the most widely abused
drugs in the country followed by marijuana, due to this, the demand for “shabu”
continue to increase and the smuggled drugs could not sustain such demand so it gave
rise to the construction of “shabu” laboratories. These drug syndicates have been
producing methamphetamine in small-scale and kitchen-type laboratories to avoid
detection. Usually, drug syndicates rent warehouses for use as drug laboratories. These
syndicates have moved towards renting houses in private subdivisions, condominiums
and apartments to be used as bases for their illegal drug production. Private properties
are becoming more favorable to drug syndicates as sites of illegal drug production.
Drug Syndicate in the Philippines
The Binondo based Chinese syndicate has been identified as the nucleus of the Triad
society, the Bamboo gang is Taiwan and 14k based on Hong Kong. The Bamboo gang is
influenced of the green gang of the Chinese Triad while the 14k is the newest among the
Triad families established only in 1947.
The Filipino – Chinese drug syndicate are groups responsible in smuggling shabu
into the country. Most drug couriers use Hong Kong and Taiwan as their embarkation
pont for the Philippines. And recently, intelligence reports reveals that large quintets of
shabu are smuggled in the airlines and ocean – sea vessels.
The most common “modus operandi” by the syndicate – posing as fishermen
along Philippine seas, particularly, the Northern province of Luzon such as La Union,
Ilocos and Pangasinan where they drop their loads of shabu to shoreline based
members. The syndicate are famously involved in marijuana cultivation and other drug
smuggling including drug manufacture.
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ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF RA 9165
RA 9165
 The Comprehensive Dangerous Acts of 2002
 Signed by GMA on June 7, 2002
 Took effect July 4, 2002
RE-ORGANIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINE DRUG ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM
 Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) - policy and strategy formulating body.
 Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) - as its implementing arm
PHILIPPINE DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY (PDEA)
 Headed by Director General with the rank of Undersecretary, appointed by the
President.
 The head of the PDEA is assisted by 2 deputies Director General, with the rank
of Assistant Secretary, 1 for Operations and 1 for Administration, also
appointed by the President.
 In July 2002, PDDG Anselmo Avenido (Ret.) appointed as first Director General of
PDEA.
 On April 6, 2006, Gen. Dionisio R. Santiago (Ret) appointed as PDEA Director
General vice Anselmo Avenido.
 In January 2011, PCSUPT Jose Gutierrez (Ret) was appointed as PDEA Director
General vice Gen. Dionisio R. Santiago (Ret).
 the secretariat of the National Drug Law Enforcement and Prevention
Coordinating Center or DEP Center has been absorbed by the new agency
 Narcotics Group of the PNP;
 Narcotics Division of the NBI; and
 Narcotics Interdiction Unit of the Bureau of Customs have been abolished
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 218
“Strengthening the support mechanism for the Philippine Drug Enforcement
Agency”
 issued on June 18, 2003 by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.
 Creation of Task Forces: The Office of the President, the PNP, and other agencies
which were performing drug law enforcement and prevention function prior to
the enactment of RA 9165 shall organize anti-drug forces to support the PDEA.
 The PDEA shall exercise operational supervision and provide technical
support to the main task force created by the PNP
PDEA Academy
 Shall be established either in Baguio or Tagaytay, and in such other places as
may be necessary.
 responsible in the recruitment and training of all PDEA agents and personnel
 Recruits must be at least 21 years of age, with proven integrity and honesty and
a Baccalaureate degree holder.
 The graduates of the Academy shall later comprise the operating units of the
PDEA after the termination of the transition period of five years during which all
the intelligence network and standard operating procedure of the PDEA has been
set up and operationalized.
 The Academy shall be headed by a Superintendent, with the rank of Director. He
/she shall be appointed by the PDEA Director General.
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 The Narcotics Group of the PNP, the Narcotics Divisions of the NBI and the
customs narcotics Interdiction Unit are hereby abolished.
POWER AND DUTIES OF PDEA
 Cause the effective and efficient implementation of the national drug control
strategy,
 Enforcement of the provisions of Art II of this Act,
 Undertake investigation, make arrest and apprehension of violators and seizure
and confiscation of dangerous drugs,
 Administer oath and issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum relative to the
conduct of investigation involving the violations of RA 9165;
 Recommend to the DOJ the forfeiture of properties and other assets of persons
and/or corporations found to be violating the provisions of RA 9165 and in
accordance with the pertinent provisions of the Anti-Money Laundering Act of
2001
 Establish forensic laboratories,
 Filing of appropriate drug cases,
 Conduct eradication programs,
 Maintain a national drug intelligence system,
 Close coordination with local and international drug agencies.
DANGEROUS DRUG BOARD (DDB)
 Created by virtue of Republic Act 6425 otherwise known as Dangerous Drug
Act of 1972 subsequently repealed by RA 9165.
 The policy-making & strategy-formulating body in the planning & formulation of
policies & programs on drug prevention & control.
 It shall develop and adopt comprehensive, integrated, unified and balanced
national drug abuse prevention and control strategy.
POWER AND DUTIES OF DDB
 Formulation of Drug Prevention and Control Strategy,
 Promulgation of Rules and Regulation to carry out the purposes of this Act,
 Conduct policy studies and researches,
 Develop educational programs and info drive,
 Conduct continuing seminars and consultations,
 Design special training,
 Coordination with agencies for community service programs,
 Maintain international networking,
COMPOSITION
DDB composed of 17 members wherein 3 of which are permanent members, the
other 12 members are ex- officio capacity and 2 regular members.
THREE (3) PERMANENT MEMBERS
 At least 7 years of training and experience in the field of the ff: fields in law,
medicine, criminology, psychology or social work.
 Appointed by the president.
 One designated as the Chairman with the rank of Secretary and the two other
regular members as undersecretary. (with the term of 6 years)
TWELVE (12) EX- OFFICIO MEMBERS
 Secretary or representative of the following Department:
 DOJ, DOH, DND, DOF, DOLE, DILG, DSWD, DFA, DepEd,
 Chairman CHED, NYC
 Director General - PDEA
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TWO (2) REGULAR MEMBERS
 President of Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP).
 Chairman or President of a non- government organization involved in dangerous
drug campaign to be appointed by the President.
NOTE: The Director of NBI and Chief, PNP are the permanent consultant of the
DDB.
THE FOUR PILLARS OF ANTI-DRUG CAMPAIGN
1. Drug Supply Reduction Drive
 Reduce the supply of drugs
 Drive the prices high and create acute shortage of drugs
 Neutralize sources of drugs
2. Drug Demand Reduction Drive
 Reduce the demand side of the drug chain
 Concentrates on anti-drug advocacy efforts – public information and treatment
and rehabilitation
 Targets non-users, casual drug users and addicts/recovering persons
3. Alternative Development/Reform Programs
 Development/livelihood program
 Education program
 Family solidarity/development program
 Good governance program
 Legal reforms
4. International Cooperation
 Neutralize transnational drug syndicates
 Minimize drug trafficking to and from the country
 Exchange of information and technologies
 Multilateral, regional, sub-regional and bilateral assistance and cooperation
OPERATION “PRIVATE EYE”
• Operation “Private Eye” a citizen based information collection project of (former)
DEP Center and now the PDEA will continue what it has started.
• Launched on June 26, 2001
• It aims to counter fear and apathy as hindrances to citizenry participation in
reporting illegal drug activities by ensuring anonymity of the informant and giving
monetary rewards.
TERMS TO PONDER
 Administer – Any act of introducing any dangerous drug into the body of any
person, with or without his/her knowledge, by injection, inhalation, ingestion or
other means, or of committing any act of indispensable assistance to a person in
administering a dangerous drug to him/her unless administered by a duly
licensed practitioner for purposes of medication.
 Deliver– Any act of knowingly passing a dangerous drug to another, personally or
otherwise, and by any means, with or without consideration.
 Dispense – Any act of giving away, selling or distributing medicine or any
dangerous drug with or without the use of prescription.
 Sell – Any act of giving away any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor
and essential chemical whether for money or any other consideration.

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 Use– Any act of injecting, intravenously or intramuscularly, of consuming, either
by chewing, smoking, sniffing, eating, swallowing, drinking or otherwise
introducing into the physiological system of the body, and of the dangerous
drugs.
 Manufacture – The production, preparation, compounding or processing of any
dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical, either
directly or indirectly or by extraction from substances of natural origin.
 Cultivate or Culture – Any act of knowingly planting, growing, raising, or
permitting the planting, growing or raising of any plant which is the source of a
dangerous drug.
 Clandestine Laboratory – Any facility used for the illegal manufacture of any
dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical.
 Den, Dive or Resort– A place where any dangerous drug and/or controlled
precursor and essential chemical is administered, delivered, stored for illegal
purposes, distributed, sold or used in any form.
 Screening Test – A rapid test performed to establish potential/presumptive
positive result.
 Confirmatory Test – An analytical test using a device, tool or equipment with a
different chemical or physical principle that is more specific which will validate
and confirm the result of the screening test
 Drug Syndicate– Any organized group of two (2) or more persons forming or
joining together with the intention of committing any offense prescribed under
this Act.
 Financier – Any person who pays for, raises or supplies money for, or
underwrites any of the illegal activities prescribed under this Act
 Protector/Coddler – Any person who knowingly and willfully consents to the
unlawful acts provided for in this Act and uses his/her influence, power or
position in shielding, harboring, screening or facilitating the escape of any person
he/she knows, or has reasonable grounds to believe on or suspects, has violated
the provisions of this Act in order to prevent the arrest, prosecution and
conviction of the violator.
 Pusher – Any person, who sells, trades, administers, dispenses, delivers or gives
away to another, on any terms whatsoever, or distributes, dispatches in transit or
transports dangerous drugs or who acts as a broker in any of such transactions,
in violation of this Act.
 Center – any of the treatment and rehabilitation centers which undertake the
treatment, after-care and follow-up treatment of drug dependents.
 Confinement - refers to the residential treatment and rehabilitation of trainees,
clients and patients in a center.
 Rehabilitation – the dynamic process, including after-care and follow-up
treatment, directed towards the physical, emotional/psychological, vocational,
social and spiritual change/enhancement of a drug dependent to enable him/her
to live without dangerous drugs, enjoy the fullest life compatible with his/her
capabilities and potentials and render him/her able to become a law-abiding and
productive memberof the community.
 Controlled Delivery – the investigative technique of allowing an unlawful or
suspect consignment of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and
essential chemical, equipment or paraphernalia or property believed to be derived
directly or indirectly from any offense, to pass into, through or out of the country
under the supervision of an authorized officer, with a view to gathering evidence
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to identify any person involved in any dangerous drug related offense, or to
facilitate prosecution of that offense.
COMPARISON OF RA 6425 AND RA 9165
THE UNLAWFUL ACTS PUNISHABLE BY LIFE IMPRISONMENT AND FINE RANGING
FROM 500K TO 10M
A. Importation or bringing into the Philippines of dangerous drugs
B. Importation or bringing into the Philippines of any dangerous drug and/or
controlled precursor and essential chemical through using diplomatic passport
or facilities or any means involving his/her official status to facilitate unlawful
entry of the same (sec 4, Art II).
C. Upon any person who organizes, manages or acts as “financiers” of any of the
activities involving dangerous drugs (sec 4, 5, 6, 8 Art II).
D. Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Distribution and
transportation of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential
Chemicals within 100 meters from the school (sec 5, Art II).
E. Drugs pushers who use minors or mentally incapacitated individuals as runners,
couriers and messengers or in any other capacity directly connected to the
dangerous drug trade
RA 6425 of 1972 RA 9165 of 2002
1. Dangerous drugs are categorized
as Regulated & Prohibited
All drugs are categorized as
Dangerous
Drugs
2. Accused can avail of Parole, Pardon
and Probation
These privileges are curtailed
3. Planting of evidence as a violation
applies only to Law Enforcers
Applies to any person
4. Penalties are lower Penalties has increased
5. Quantity & quality of drugs is
considered in the imposition of penalties
It does not consider quality as basis
for the imposition of penalty
6. Procedures after arrest & confiscation
of drugs does not involve other
personalities
Procedure after arrest &
confiscation of drugs has become
complicated
it requires the presence of other
personalities
7. Destruction of Drugs is done in bulk Destruction Procedures on-
Dangerous
Drugs happens immediately except
retained samples
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F. If the victim of the offense is a minor or mentally incapacitated individual, or
should a dangerous drug and/or controlled precursors and essential chemical
involved in the offense be the proximate cause of death of the victim (sec 5, Art
II).
G. Any person or group of persons who shall maintain a den, dive or resort where
any dangerous drug is used or sold in any form.
H. When dangerous drug is administered, delivered or sold to a minor who is allowed
to use the same in such a place (sec 6, Art II).
I. Manufacture of Dangerous Drugs Sec 8)
J. Upon any person who uses a minor or mentally incapacitated individual to deliver
equipment, instrument, apparatus and other paraphernalia for dangerous drugs
(sec. 10, Art II).
K. Possession of dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings
(sec. 13), and Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and other
Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings
(sec. 14)
L. Cultivation or Culture of Plants Classified as Dangerous Drugs or are Sources
(Sec. 16)
M. Unlawful Prescription of Dangerous Drugs ( Sec. 19)
N. Any public officer or employee, who misappropriates, misapplies or fails to
account for confiscated, seized or surrendered dangerous drugs, plant sources of
dangerous drugs, controlled precursors and essential chemicals,
instruments/paraphernalia and/or laboratory equipment including the proceeds
or properties obtained from the unlawful acts. ( Sec. 27)
THE UNLAWFUL ACTS PUNISHABLE BY 12 YEARS AND 1 DAY TO 20 YEARS AND
FINE RANGING FROM 100K TO 500K
A. Shall import any controlled precursor and essential chemical. (sec 4, Art II)
B. Any person, who, unless authorized by law, shall sell, trade, administer, dispense,
deliver, give away to another, distribute, dispatch in transit or transport any
controlled precursor and essential chemical, or shall act as a broker in such
transactions.
C. Any person or group of persons who shall maintain a den, dive, or resort where any
controlled precursor and essential chemical is used or sold in any form. (sec 5)
D. Manufacture of Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals.(Sec 8)
E. Employees and Visitors of a Den, Dive or Resort (sec 7)
F. Illegal Chemical Diversion of Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals(sec 9)
G. Manufacture or Delivery of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus, and Other
Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential
Chemicals(sec 10)
H. Unnecessary Prescription of Dangerous Drugs (sec 18)
I. Any member of law enforcement agencies or any other government official and
employee who, after due notice, fails or refuses intentionally or negligently, to appear
as a witness for the prosecution in any proceedings, involving violations of this Act,
without any valid reason (sec 91)
J. Delay and Bungling in the Prosecution of Drug Cases –NO FINE (sec 92)
K. Any person, who acts as a "protector/coddler" of any violator of the provisions under
RA 9165
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CLANDESTINE LABORATORY ESTABLISHED UNDER THE FOLLOWING
CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL BE CONSIDERED AGGRAVTING CIRCUMSTANCES (Sec.
8)
 Conducted in the presence or with the help of minor/s:
 Established within one hundred (100) meters of a residential, business, church
or school premises.
 Secured or protected with booby traps
 Concealed with legitimate business operations
 Employment of a practitioner, chemical engineer, public official or foreigner
POSSESSION OF DANGEROUS DRUGS (Sec.11)
Elements:
A. Person is in possession which is identified to be a prohibited drug
B. Such possession is not authorized by law
C. Person freely & consciously possessed the said prohibited drug
PENALTY - Life imprisonment and fine ranging from Php 400K to 500K
 50 grams or more of shabu
 500 grams or more of marijuana
 10 grams or more for any Dangerous Drugs
PENALTY- Imprisonment of 20 years and 1 day to life imprisonment and fine
ranging from Php. 400k to 500k
 10 grams but not more than 50 grams of Shabu
 300 grams or more but less than 500 grams of Marijuana
 5 grams or more but less than 10 grams of any Dangerous Drugs
PENALTY- imprisonment of 12 years and 1 day to 20 years and a fine ranging from
Php 300K to 400K
 Less than 10 grams of Shabu
 Less than 300 grams of Marijuana
 Less than 5 grams of any Dangerous Drugs
USE OF DANGEROUS DRUGS (Sec.15)
 1st offense- minimum of six (6) months rehabilitation in a government center
 2nd offense- imprisonment ranging from 6 years and 1 day to 12 years and a fine
ranging from 50K to 200K, provided did not violated section 12
CUSTODY AND DISPOSITION OF CONFISCATED, SEIZED, AND/OR SURRENDERED
DANGEROUS DRUGS (SEC. 21)(RA 10640)
A. The apprehending team having initial custody and control of the drugs shall,
immediately after seizure and confiscation, physically inventory and
photograph the same in the presence of the accused or the person/s from
whom such items were confiscated and/or seized, or his/her representative or
counsel, a representative from the media and the Department of Justice
(DOJ), and any elected public official who shall be required to sign the copies
of the inventory and be given a copy thereof
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B. 24 hours- upon confiscation or seizure, quantitative or qualitative
examination
C. 24 hours-Certification of Examination results if the volume can’t be
completed within the time frame extended for another 24 hours.
D. 72 hours- after filling of criminal case, court shall conduct ocular inspection.
E. 24 hours- order of destruction
PLEA-BARGAINING PROVISION (SEC. 23)
Any person charged under any provision of this Act regardless of the imposable penalty
shall NOT be allowed to avail of the provision on plea-bargaining.
PLANTING OF EVIDENCE (SEC. 29)
ANY PERSON who is found guilty of “planting” any dangerous drug and/or controlled
precursor and essential chemical, regardless of quantity and purity, shall suffer the
penalty of DEATH. (Life Imprisonment)
AUTHORIZED DRUG TESTING
Authorized drug testing shall be done by any government forensic laboratory or by any
of the drug testing laboratories accredited and monitored by the DOH to safeguard the
quality of test results.
 The drug testing shall employ, among others, two (2) testing methods.
 Drug test certificates issued by accredited drug testing centers shall be valid
for a one- year period from the date of issue which may be used for other
purposes.
MANDATORY DRUG TESTING
A. applicants for drivers license ( Remove by RA 10586 “Anti – Drunk and Driving
Act of 2013”.)
B. applicants for Firearms license & PTCFOR
C. members of the PNP, AFP, & other LEA
D. All persons charged with criminal offense with penalty of not less than 6 years.
E. All candidates for public office national/ local
RANDOM DRUG TESTING
A. Students of secondary and tertiary schools
B. Officers and employees of public & private offices
LABORATORY EXAMINATION OF APPREHENDED OFFENDERS (SEC. 38)
If the apprehending or arresting officer has reasonable ground to believe that the
person apprehended or arrested, on account of physical signs or symptoms or other
visible or outward manifestation is under the influence of dangerous drugs.
A. 24 hours- subject to screening laboratory examination
B. 15 days- results of the screening laboratory examination or test shall be
challenged after receipt of the result through a confirmatory test
JURISDICTION OVER DANGEROUS DRUG CASES
 The Supreme Court shall designate special courts from among the existing RTC in
each judicial region to exclusively try and hear cases involving violation of RA
9165.

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 The DOJ shall designate special prosecutors to exclusively handle cases involving
violation of RA 9165.
APPLICATION FOR PROBATION
NOTE: As a General Rule Violations of RA 9165 shall disqualify an offender to avail of
the benefits of PD 968, as amended EXCEPT:
 Section 12. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Other
Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs.
 Section 14. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Other
Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings.
 Section 17. Maintenance and Keeping of Original Records of Transactions on
Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals.
 Section 70. Probation or Community Service for a First-Time Minor Offender in
Lieu of Imprisonment.
PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED IN VIOLATION OF RA 9165
 Regional Trial Court (RTC)- Holds the Jurisdiction of Violations of RA 9165
 30 days- Conduct of Preliminary Investigation
 24 hours- filling of information
 48 hours- Filling of information of the MTC judge who conduct PI to the
proper prosecutor.
 15 days-Termination of the reinvestigation when prosecutor disagree to the
MTC judge.
 60 days- Trial period of the case
 15 days- Decision shall be rendered
 15 days- If no appeal was taken the decision shall become final.
DRUGS INVESTIGATION PROCESSES
A. Initial Investigation
 Gathered information by personnel and from other sources – processing
 Use of informants or special agent (counter surveillance)
 Casing
 Tests buy
 Entrapment/Poseur buying/buy bust operation NOT INSTIGATION
PROCEDURES:
 Preparation of needs & coordination
 Coordinated instructions between all members of the team
 Test buy using marked money
 Pre-arranged signal
 Search Warrant and how it is enforced
 Arrest
B. Investigation Proper – completion of needed documents for inquest to include
crime lab examination of the confiscated contraband.
C. Filing of investigation records
D. Testimonies
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INVESTIGATION OF DRUG-RELATED CRIME AND ILLEGAL MANUFACTURE OF
DRUGS
The PDEA (Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency) is the lead agency in the
anti- illegal drug operations and the PNP must coordinate with the agency whenever it
launches operations against illegal drugs. However, there are also drug-related crimes
such as murder/homicide and rape. The following are checklists to help the police
investigator:
Crime scenes within crime scenes
There are instant drug test kits for tests of suspected amphetamine, heroin,
cocaine and cannabis. These tests can be performed on site and provide a preliminary
answer within a few minutes.
Do not use test kits in the following cases:
 If the powder is not soluble in water. The material may consist of explosives,
which may explode when they come into contact with the liquid in the test kit.
 If there is a very small quantity of material, i.e. trace quantities.
 If the suspected drugs are in liquid form
Drug laboratories
Extreme caution must be taken in connection with operations against illegal drug
laboratories, since the following may be present:
 Booby traps
 Persons who are armed
 Persons who use chemicals as weapons
 Corrosive, flammable, hazardous (toxic) and explosive substances
 Air that is polluted by solvents and chemicals
 Hydrogen gas, which forms explosive mixtures with air – do not switch on the
lights.
The chemicals that are handled in illegal drug laboratories occur in various
mixtures, in ongoing processes, in open vessels or in any form other than in closed
original packages. As a result, such substances/chemicals may be or become explosive,
flammable, corrosive or hazardous. In the event of any uncertainty, seek assistance of
experts.
Checklist for investigations in connection with production of illegal drugs
 Find out as much as possible about the accident both before going to the scene
and upon arrival.
 Decide whether you need help. Always contact the PDEA before action is taken
against a drug laboratory.
 Start keeping an action log.
 Cordon off the area or extend the existing cordon if necessary.
 Carry out a security check. Wearing appropriate protective clothing, scene-of-
crime officers are to check for traps, after which the chemist assesses the risks
associated with the handling of chemicals.
 Turn off the heat for the still, hot plate etc. NB: Do not turn off the water or
cooling and ventilation fans.
 Make sure that a list is made of the people who enter the crime scene.
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 Take a general photograph of the crime scene. Film the scene with a video
camera.
 Pause for thought and start planning.
 Make a sketch. Mark the places where evidence and reference samples are
collected.
 Search for and collect evidence, objects and reference samples etc. that are
relevant to the crime investigation.
 Write a continuous seizure report.

 Check the crime scene before the cordon is lifted. Make sure that you have not
forgotten anything important, such as interrogation reports. A suspect may enter
the crime scene area after the cordon has been lifted, and this must not be
allowed to destroy the value of the evidence collected.
SEARCH AND SEIZURE
 Seize any documents that indicate the extent of production, perpetrators or
buyers. Look for receipts, bills, delivery notes etc.
 Where drug production is suspected, take samples from the various stages of the
production process. Samples of ventilation ducts, fans and water seals may be
useful. Wipe any waste chemicals/drugs with a cotton compress soaked in an
alcohol mixture (about 80%).
 Seize packaging material, e.g. bags, rolls of plastic bags and tape. These can then
be used to compare with corresponding materials from other seizures and used
as a basis for calculation of the amounts produced
QUANTITY OF DRUGS USE FOR SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS
 Not more than five (5) grams per package/bag
 Not more than three (3) tablets for capsules or tablets
 Not more than fifty (50 ml) for liquid solution
 Not more than ten (10 grams) for dried leaves and not more than 2 plants.
OPERATIONAL PLANS AGAINST THE DRUG PROBLEM
 Oplan Thunderbolt I – operations to create impact to the underworld.
 Oplan Thunderbolt II – operations to neutralize suspected illegal drug
laboratories.
 Oplan Thunderbolt III – operations for the neutralization of big time drug
pushers, drug dealers and drug lords.
 Oplan Iceberg – special operations team in selected drug prone areas in order to
get rid of illegal drug activities in the area.
 Oplan Hunter – operations against suspected military and police personnel who
are engaged in illegal drug activities.
 Oplan Mercurio – Operations against drug stores, which are violating existing
regulations on the scale of regulated drugs in coordination with the DDB/DOH
and BFAD.
 Oplan Tornado – Operations in drug notorious and high profile places.
 Oplan Greengold – NARCOM’s nationwide MJ eradication operations in
coordination with the local governments and NGO’s.
 Oplan Sagip-Yagit – A civic program initiated by NGO’s and local government
offices to help eradicate drug syndicates involving street children as drug
conduits.
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 Oplan Banat – the newest operational plan against drug abuse focused in the
barangay level in cooperation with barangay officials.
CONCEPT OF VICES
VICE
 Any immoral conduct or habit, the indulgence of which leads to depravity,
wickedness and corruption of the minds and body.
 It comes from the Latin word vitium, meaning "failing or defect.
THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF VICES
 Drug Addiction, Alcoholism, Prostitution, and Gambling.
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY OF VICE
 The study of vice is important because these crimes are ever present and
persistent in all forms of society.
 It is important because its evil effects are more disastrous, morally and physically
that other crimes.
 It is important because commercialized vice disrupt the social make-up of the
community.
 It is important because vice effect the daily lives of more people that nay other
crime.
 It is important because its existence caused a serious problem in law
enforcement.
POLICE PROBLEMS IN VICE CONTROL
 Clandestine nature of the commission of the acts.
 Lack of cooperation from players, customers, and victims of vices,
 Enjoyment of goodwill by vice operators
 Public apathy and indifference
 Unwilling government officials to work against vice existence
I. ALCOHOLISM
TERMS TO PONDER
 Alcoholism – state or condition of a person produced by drinking intoxicating
liquors excessively and with habitual frequency. (State vs. Savage, 89 Ala. 17 LBA
426, 7 South, Rep. 183). It is a condition wherein a person is under the influence
or intoxicated with alcohol.
 Alcoholic Liquor – is any beverages or compound, whether distilled, fermented,
or otherwise, which will produce intoxication or which contains in excess of one
percentum of alcohol and is used as a beverage. (State vs. Oliver, 133 S.C. 125,
130 S.S. Rep. 213).
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 Drunkard – is a person who habitually takes or use any intoxicating alcoholic
liquor and while under the influence of such, or in consequence of the effect
thereof, is either dangerous to himself or to others, or is a cause of harm or serious
annoyance to his family or his affair, or of ordinary proper conduct.
 Chronic Alcoholics – person who, from the prolonged and excessive use alcoholic
beverages, finally develops physical and psycho-changes and dependence to
alcohol.
NOTE: This person develops physical and moral deterioration, difficulties with the law,
loss of his job and family problems.
DRUNKNESS AS A CRIME
 In the Philippines, drunkenness in itself is not a crime because a person may
drink to excess in the privacy of his home or in the party and commit no crime
at all.
 It is only when a drunken person exhibits his condition publicly, or disturbs,
endangers, or injured others, that he became an offender and therefore, subject
to arrest and punishment.
 Before and during elections, it is unlawful to sell or drink intoxicating liquor, as
provided in the election law.
 Under RA 4136, as amended, driving under the influence of liquor is prohibited.
THE LEGAL CONCEPT OF INTOXICATION AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY
The Revised Penal Code of the Philippine (Art. 15) provides that intoxication is an
alternative circumstance whenever present in the commission of crimes. An alternative
circumstance is one which must be taken into consideration as either MITIGATING (Art.
13, RPC) or AGGRAVATING (Art. 14, RPC) according to the nature and effects of the
crime and their other conditions attending its commission.
In order that intoxication maybe considered as a MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCE,
two elements are necessary to be present:
 First, that intoxication not be habitual, that is, that the person who commits the
offense in an intoxicated condition has become drunk by accident and not be
habit or custom. In the absence of proof to the contrary, drunkenness will be
presumed not to be habitual.
 Second, that the intoxication be not planted before the commission of crime,
because if the perpetrator deliberately seeks in alcohol the necessary courage to
execute the crime, or a means with which to suffocate any remorse, or as a
mitigation for his offense, then his intoxication would constitute a premeditation
and cannot afford him any excuse; instead it should aggravate his criminal
liability.
Intoxication is AGGRAVATING when it is habitual or intentional and
subsequent to the plan to commit a crime. But under our legal concept, intoxication
is no defense in the commission of a crime.
KINDS OF INTOXICATION
 Involuntary – when a drunken person does not know the intoxicating strength
of beverage he has taken.
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 Intentional – when a person deliberately drinks liquor fully knowing its effects,
either to obtain mitigation or to find the liquor as stimulant to commit crime.
 Habitual – when the person finds that drinking his a constant necessary and
the vice ultimately takes hold of him.
VARIOUS DEGREE OF INTOXICATION
 Slight Inebriation – there is reddening of the face. There is no sign of mental
impairment, in coordination and difficulty of speech.
 Moderate Inebriation – the person is argumentative and overconfident. There is
slight impairment of mental difficulties, difficulty of articulation, loss of
coordination of finer movements. The face is flushed with digested eyeball. He
is reckless and shows motor in coordination. The person maybe certified by the
doctor as being under the influence of liquor.
 Drunk – the mind is confused, behavior is irregular and the movement is
uncontrolled. The speech us thick and in coordinated. The behavior is
uncontrollable.
 Very drunk – the mind is confused and disoriented. There is difficulty in speech
and marked motor incoordination and often walking is impossible.
 Coma – the subject is stuperous or in comatous condition. Sometimes it is difficult
to differentiate this condition with other conditions having coma.
BRIEF EXPLANATION HOW A PERSON GETS DRUNK
Alcohol has its maximum period of absorption from 30 to 60 minutes after
ingestion and it is absorbed in the stomach and in the intestines. Technically, if alcohol
is only inside the stomach and instestine and not yet absorbed, it is practically outside
of the body because it cannot produce its physiologic and neurologic effects.
The rate of absorption of alcohol in the stomach and intestine depends upon the
following factors:
 Concentration and total quantity of alcohol taken.
 Nature of food present in the stomach and intestine.
 Fatty foods make absorption of alcohol slower as compared with sugar and other
carbohydrates and protein.
 The length of time the gastric contents are held in the stomach prior to the
opening of the pylorus
 Permeability of the stomach and intestinal membrane to alcohol.
 Chronic drinkers absorb alcohol faster than non-habitual drinkers.
 Concentration of alcohol in the beverages between 10 and 20% is the most rapidly
absorbed.
FORMS OF CHEMICAL AND SCIENTIFIC TESTS OF INTOXICATION
 Analysis of blood for alcohol contents
 Analysis of urine for alcohol contents
 Analysis of saliva for alcohol contents
 Analysis of breath to determine concentration of alcohol
 Analysis of body tissue and spinal fluid
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THE BLOOD-ALCOHOL TEST
This test is the most widely accepted and direct method of determining the concentration
of alcohol in the blood. This is done by physician, nurse or competent technician upon
request of the police investigator. The following are the present two presumptive
standards relating to the interpretation of blood alcohol contents:
 If there is 0.05 percent or less by weight of alcohol in a person’s blood, it shall be
presumed that he is not under the influence of intoxicating liquor.
 If there is 0.15 percent or more by weight of alcohol in a person’s blood, it shall
be presumed that he is under the influence of intoxicating liquor.
THE URINE-ALCOHOL TEST:
Urine examination to determine blood alcohol contents gives an acceptable result
to the court although the use of this chemical test is not yet widespread in our
jurisdiction. Sample of urine must not be taken at one time only because urinary
excretion of alcohol varies with time. Excretion is less during the early stage of
absorption and may be more than that in the blood during the later stage.
METHODS OF THERAPY ON ALCOHOLISM
A. The Aversion Treatment
 This treatment seeks to create an aversion from alcohol by the administration of
a Nauseating drug to be followed by a drink of liquor, and thus develops a dislike
of alcohol.
 The method maybe rather costly since hospitalization maybe required.
 Moreover, the effect is not always lasting and treatment must be repeated.
 Yet, it is said that this method has proven effective in more than half of the cases.
B. The Psychotherapy Method
 This cure depends upon showing that the real problem of the alcoholic is not the
 Alcoholitself but the emotional problem that led the alcoholics to drink.
 This method therefore, aims to eliminate these emotional tensions.
 Through therapeutic interviews, it undertakes to make the alcoholics aware of
why he drinks and to provide him with the strength necessary to combat his
problems.
C. The Program of Alcoholics Anonymous
 This method is based on conversion and fellowship.
 It emphasizes that alcoholics understand alcoholism better than anyone else
 man is dependent upon God and must turn to Him for help; that the alcoholic
must sincerely desire to stop drinking
 He must admit that he is an alcoholic and cannot drink in moderation.
II. GAMBLING
TERMS TO PONDER
 GAMBLING Wagering of money or something of material value on an event with
an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money
and/or material goods.
 Chance or Hazard – is the uncertainty of the result of the game or when the
outcome of the game is incapable of calculation by human reason, foresight,
sagacity or design.
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 WAGER – is the bet or consideration placed on gambling games.
 PRIZE – is the unequal amount due to the winner.
 ILLEGAL NUMBERS GAME Any form of illegal gambling activity which uses
numbers or combination as factors in giving out jackpots.
 JUETENG illegal numbers game that involves the combination of numbers as a
form of local lottery where bets are placed and accepted per combination .
 MASIAO illegal numbers game where the winning combination is derived from
the results of the last game of Jai Alai or the Special Llave portion
 LAST TWO - Illegal numbers game where the winning combination is derived
from the last two numbers of the first prize of the winning Sweepstakes ticket.
 BETTOR (Mananaya) Any person, who places bets for himself/herself or in
behalf of another person, other than the personnel or staff of any illegal numbers
game operation.
 COLLECTOR or AGENT (Cabo, Cobrador) Any person who collects, solicits or
produces bets in behalf of his/her principal for any illegal numbers game who is
usually in possession of gambling paraphernalia
 MAINTAINER, MANAGER OR OPERATOR Any person who maintains, manages,
or operates any illegal number game in a specific area.
 FINANCIERS OR CAPITALIST Any person who finances the operations of any
illegal numbers game.
 PROTECTOR OR CODDLER Any person who lends or provides protection, or
receives benefits in any manner in the operation of any illegal numbers game.
 GULLIBLE PERSON – person who easily deceived especially in crooked gambling.
 CONDUCTOR – is the person who manages or carries the gambling game.
 BANKER – is the person who keeps the money from which the winner is to be
paid.
 PAGCOR (Philippine Amusement and Gambling Corporation) – office that
controls/regulates gambling games.
CLASSIFICATION OF GAMBLING GAMES
1. Those who are absolutely or per se prohibited
 Under Art. 195, RPC – monte, jueteng, other form of lottery, policy, banking or
percentage game and dog races;
 Faro and roulette is absolutely prohibited by the Gambling Law.
2. Those which are regulated by law. These games are regulated in the sense that
the law allows the same to be played except on certain specified of the day.
 Cockfighting under Art. 199, Revised Penal Code
 Horse Racing under Art. 198, Revised Penal Code
 Panguingue, cuajo, domino, mahjong, entre cuatro, and other under Sec. 828,
Revised Ordinances of the City of Manila
REQUISITES/ELEMENTS OF THE CRIME OF GAMBLING
 That money or other consideration of value is at stake
 That the result of the games depends wholly or chiefly upon chance or hazrd
 In cases of lottery, there must be:
 consideration;
 chance, and;
 prize or the inequal amount due to the winner
NOTE: Lottery becomes punishable only when the participants buys ticket only for
purposes of participating in the lottery but not when the participation is only incidental
to buying a certain good wherein the participation entitles the buyer an equal value of
his money’s worth.
GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL
47 | P a g e
LAWS RELEVANT TO GAMBLING
Article 195 of RPC
 Acts punishable in gambling – any person directly or indirectly take part in any
game of Monte, jueteng, other form of lottery, policy, banking or percentage
game, dog races or any other game the result of which depends wholly upon a
chance wherein wagers consisting of money, articles of value, or representative
of value are made.
 Article 195 of RPC. The penalty of arresto mayor or a fine not exceeding two
hundred pesos, and, in case of recidivism, the penalty of arresto mayor or a fine
ranging from two hundred or six thousand pesos,
 The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum degree shall be imposed upon
the maintainer, conductor, or banker in a game of jueteng or any similar game.
Article 196 (RPC)
 Penalizing any person who shall import into the Philippine Islands from any
foreign place or port any lottery ticket or advertisement, or in connivance with
the importer, shall sell or distribute the same.
 The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its
minimum period or a fine ranging from 200 to 2,000 pesos, or both, in the
discretion of the court
Article 197 (RPC). Betting in sports Contest
 Penalizing any person who shall bet money or any object or article of value or
representative of value upon the result of any boxing or other sports contest.
 The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both,
Article 198 (RPC). Illegal betting on horse races
 Penalizing any person who, except during the periods allowed by law, shall bet
on horse races.
 The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both,
Article 199 (RPC). Illegal cockfighting –
 Penalizing any person who directly or indirectly participates in cockfights, at a
place other than a licensed cockpit.
 The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both, in the
discretion of the court
RA 3063 – Approved June 17, 1961
 authorizing licensed race tracks and racing clubs and their authorized agent to
offer, take or arrange bets outside the place, enclosure of track where the races
held.
 Penalty - fine of not less than one thousand pesos not more than two thousand
pesos or by imprisonment for not less than one month or more than six months,
or both, in the discretion of the court. If the offender is a partnership, corporation
or association, the criminal liability shall devolve upon its president, director, or
any other official responsible for the violation.
PD 449 – Cockfighting Law of 1974 – Approved May 9, 1974.
PD 483 - Penalizing Betting, Game-fixing or point shaving and Machinations in Sports
Contents. Approved on June 13, 1974.
PD 1602 – Approved June 11, 1978. prescribing stiffer penalties on illegal gambling.
RA 9287 – Approved 2, 2004An Act increasing the penalties for illegal numbers games,
amending certain provisions of P.D. 1602, and for other purposes.
Guide for Drug Education and Vice Control.docx
Guide for Drug Education and Vice Control.docx
Guide for Drug Education and Vice Control.docx

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Guide for Drug Education and Vice Control.docx

  • 1. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 1 | P a g e What is Drugs? Drug is defined as a chemical substance used as a medicine or in making medicines which affects the body and mind and have potential for abuse. The use of any drugs without an advice or prescription from a physician can be harmful. Drugs is any chemically active substance rendering a specific effect on the central nervous system of man. A chemical substance that affects the functions of living cells and alters body or mind processes when taken into the body or applied through the skin. Is a chemical substance that brings about physical, emotional or behavioral change in a person taking it. Any chemical substance, other than food, which is intended for used in the diagnosis, treatment, cure, mitigation or prevention of disease or symptoms World Health Organization also defines drug as any substance or product that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological system or pathological states for the benefits of the patient. Etymology of the word Drug The word "drug" is believe to had originated from Old French word "drogue", then later changed into the term "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels" that refers to medicinal plants preserved in them. (Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2000) What Is the Difference Between a Drug and a Medicine? Medicine is any substance that is designed to prevent or treat diseases while drug is designed to produce a specific reaction inside the body. Cocaine for example is a drug designed to create a specific mental reaction that leads to a "high" for the user. However, medical establishment does not recognize any medical benefits for cocaine, which means that cocaine is categorized as drug but not medicine. Over-the-counter anti- inflammatory medicines such as Advil are designed to treat pain, but they do not have a strong enough effect to fit into a controlled substance classification, unlike stronger pain relievers, this means that these are medicines and not drugs. Most of the medicines that are also drugs are considered "controlled substances." This means that there are laws governing their use and that using them in ways contrary to those laws can lead to criminal charges. Other distinctive characteristics of drug and medicine 1. Drugs have general effect of confusing the mind unlike medicines. 2. Drugs have a potential of addiction while medicines (in the general sense) don’t lead to such. 3. The term “drugs” (either for therapeutic or non-therapeutic purposes) is nowadays thought to have a more negative connotation.
  • 2. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 2 | P a g e 4. Drugs are substances that can still cure diseases to some extent but can have severe adverse effects if used more than what’s necessary.
  • 3. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 3 | P a g e GENERAL HISTORY OF DRUGS Drug use and abuse is as old as mankind itself. Human beings have always had a desire to eat or drink substances that make them feel relaxed, stimulated, or euphoric. Humans have used drugs of one sort or another for thousands of years. Wine was used at least from the time of early Egyptians, narcotics from 4000 B.C. and medicinal use of marijuana has been dated to 2737 B.C in china. As time went by, Home Remedies were discovered and used to alleviate aches, pains and other ailments. Most of these preparations were herbs, roots, mushrooms or fungi. They had to be eaten, drunk, rubbed on the skin, or inhaled to achieve the desired effect. One of the oldest records of such medicinal recommendations is found in the writing of the Chinese scholar-emperor Shen Nung who lived in 2735 BC. He compiled a book about herbs, a forerunner of the medieval pharmacopoeias that listed all the then-known medications. He was able to judge the value of some Chinese herbs. For example, he found that Ch’ang Shan was helpful in treating fevers; Ch’ang Shan is antimalarial in Chinese medicine and It has emetic effects. Pre-Columbian Mexicans used many substances varying from tobacco and other mind-expanding plants in their medicinal collections. The most fascinating among these substances is the Psilocybin mushroom. As the centuries unrolled and new civilizations appeared, cultural, artistic, and medical developments shifted towards the new center of power. A reversal of traditional botanical drugs occurred in Greece in the fourth century BC, when Hippocrates who is known as the “Father of Medicine,’’ became interested in inorganic salts as medications. Hippocrates authority lasted throughout the middle Ages and reminded alchemists and medical experimenters of the potential of inorganic drugs. South American Indians, especially those in the Peruvian Andes Mountains made several early discoveries of drug bearing plants. Two of these plants contain alkaloids of worldwide importance that have become a modern drugs. They are cocaine, and quinine. Cocaine ‘s potential for addiction was known and used with sinister intent by South American Indian chiefs hundreds of years ago. Sigmund Freud, the Austrian psychoanalyst [1859-1939] treated many deeply disturbed cocaine addicts. In the course of his practice, he noted the numbing effect of the drug. He called the attention of the clinical pharmacologist who introduced cocaine as a local anesthetic into surgical procedures. One interesting truth is that Freud was a cocaine user himself. Only that cocaine was not yet prohibited during his time, but was prescribed and used as euphoric. The harmful side of the substance had not been discovered yet. During the American Civil War, morphine was used freely by the soldiers during the war, and those wounded veterans returned home with their kits of morphine and hypodermic needles and continued to consume the mentioned drug. Cocaine and heroin were sold as patent medicines in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and marketed as treatment for a wide variety of ailments. Recreational use of opium was once common
  • 4. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 4 | P a g e in Asia and from there spread to the West, peaking in the 19th century, Opium dens flourished. Regarding marijuana, another notable herb that has its hallucinogenic effect, historians credited it [Cannabis Sativa] as the world‘s oldest cultivated plant started by the Incas of Peru. GENERAL DRUG CATEGORY 1. Analgesics: Drugs that relieve pain. There are two main types: a. non-narcotic analgesics for mild pain, and b. Narcotic analgesics for severe pain. 2. Antacids: Drugs that relieve indigestion and heartburn by neutralizing stomach acid. 3. Antihistamines – those that control or combat allergic reactions. 4. Contraceptives – drugs that prevent the meeting of the egg cell and sperm cell or prevent the ovary from releasing egg cells. 5. Decongestants –those that relieve congestion of the nasal passages. 6. Expectorants – those that can ease the expulsion of mucus and phlegm from the lungs and the throat. 7. Laxatives – those that stimulate defecation and encourage bowel movement. 8. Sedatives and Tranquilizer – are those that can calm and quiet the nerves and relieve anxiety without causing depression and clouding of the mind. 9. Vitamins – those substances necessary for normal growth and development and proper functioning of the body. 10. Antibiotics - are drugs that combat or control infectious organism. 11. Antipyretics – those that can lower body temperature or fever due to infection.
  • 5. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 5 | P a g e CRIMINOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS 1. PRESCRIPTIVE DRUGS These are drugs requiring written authorization from a doctor to allow its purchase. They are prescribed according to the individual’s age, weight and height and should not be taken by anyone else. 2. OVER – THE – COUNTER DRUGS These are non – prescriptive drugs, which may be purchased from any pharmacy or drugstore without written authorization from a doctor. They are used to treat minor and short-term illnesses. 3. UNRECOGNIZED DRUGS These are commercial products that have a psychoactive drug effects but are not usually considered as drugs. These substances are not generally regulated by the law except insofar as standards of sanitation and purity is required. 4. ILLICIT DRUGS These are drugs whose sale, purchase, use or manufacture is generally prohibited by law. Criminal penalties usually apply to violators of these laws. How Drugs Works In our Body? Drugs work in our body in a varied ways. They interfere with microorganisms (germs) that invade our body, destroy abnormal cells that cause illness, replace deficient substances (such as hormones or vitamins), or change the way that cells work in our body. Most drugs act within our cell. Similar to common body chemicals, drugs enters on cell and participates in the normal sequence of a cellular process. Thus, drug may later, interfere on the established cellular life cycle, hopefully for the betterment of the person. The actual action of a particular drug depends on its chemical makeup. When two drugs are taken together or taken within a few hours of each other, they have the tendency to interact with each other a d may yield an un-expected result. This is one of the reasons why a physician always asked the names of drugs the patient is using. DOSE A dose of drug refers to the amount taken by the patient at one time. The dose taken becomes extremely important part of developing drug abuse. There are many factors taken into consideration when deciding a dose of drug - including age of the patient, weight, sex, ethnicity, liver and kidney function and whether the patient smokes or drinks alcohol. Other medicines may also affect the drug dose. Classification of Drug Dosage 1. Minimal dose – The amount needed to treat or heal that is, the smallest amount of a drug that will produce a therapeutic effect.
  • 6. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 6 | P a g e 2. Maximal dose – largest amount of a drug that will produce a desired therapeutic effect without any accompanying symptoms of toxicity. 3. Toxic dose – amount of drug that produces untoward effects or symptoms of poisoning 4. Abusive dose – amount needed to produce the side effects and action desired by the individual who improperly uses it. 5. Lethal dose – the amount of drug that will cause death. How Drugs are administered? Methods of Administering Drugs- Drugs may be introduced into the body in several ways, each method serving a specific purpose. 1. ORAL—Among the advantages of administering medication orally) are the following: a. Oral medications are convenient. Oral medications are cheaper. b. Oral medications do not have to be pure or sterile. A wide variety of oral dosage forms is available. Oral medication administration may be disadvantageous for the following reasons: a. Some patients may have difficulty swallowing tablets or capsules. b. Oral medications are often absorbed too slowly. c. Oral medications may be partially or completely destroyed by the digestive system. 2. PARENTERAL— parenteral medications are introduced by injection. All drugs used by this route must be pure, sterile, pyrogen-free, and in a liquid state. There are several methods of parenteral administration, including subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, and intra thecal or intra spinal. a. SUBCUTANEOUS— — the drug is injected just below the skin’s cutaneous layers. Example: Insulin. b. INTRADERMAL— — the drug is injected within the dermis layer of the skin. Example: Purified protein derivative (PPD). c. INTRAMUSCULAR— The drug is injected into the muscle. Example: Procaine penicillin G.
  • 7. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 7 | P a g e d. INTRAVENOUS— The drug is introduced directly into the vein. Example: Intravenous fluids e. INTRATHECAL OR INTRASPINAL- — The drug is introduced into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column. Example: Procaine hydrochloride. 3. INHALATION— this route makes use of gaseous and volatile drugs, which are inhaled and absorbed rapidly through the cappillary system of the respiratory tract. It is probably the second most commonly-used route of drug administration. 4. TOPICAL— this refers to the application of drugs directly to a body site such as the skin and the mucous membrane. 5. Iontophoresis – the introduction of drugs into the deeper layers of the skin by the use of special type of electric current for local effect. 6. Snorting- Inhalation through the nose of drugs not in gaseous from. It is perform by inhaling a powder of liquid drug into the nose coats of the mucous membrane. 7. Buccal- The drug is administered by placing them into the buccal cavity just under the lips and the active ingredients of the drug will be absorbed into the bloodstream through the soft tissues lining the mouth. 8. Suppositories- The drug is administered through the vagina or rectum in suppository form and the drug will also be absorbed into the bloodstream. 9. TRANSDERMAL ROUTE- Some drugs are delivered body wide through a patch on the skin. These drugs are sometimes mixed with a chemical (such as alcohol) that enhances penetration through the skin into the bloodstream without any injection.
  • 8. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 8 | P a g e DANGEROUS DRUGS GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS ACCORDING TO IT’S THE EFFECTS 1. Depressant – These are drug that has the effect of depressing the central nervous system. They decrease or depress body function and nerve activity. Depressants drugs include sedative, hypnotics and tranquilizers. 2. Stimulant – These are drug having the effect of stimulating the central nervous system. These are drugs that produce a feeling of well-being. Cocaine and amphetamine are the most common stimulant. 3. Hallucinogens – These are drug that is considered as mind altering drugs and gives general effects of mood distortion. These drugs are capable of provoking change in sensation, thinking, self-awareness and emotion. 4. Inhalants – Although not a drug but these are household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth and produces intoxication, in a manner not intended by the manufacturer. DEPRESSANT (downer) These are drugs that suppresses the vital body function especially those of the brain or central nervous system with the resulting impairment of judgment, hearing, speech, and muscular coordination. They dull minds, slow down the body reactions to such an extent that accidental deaths and/or suicides usually happen. NOTABLE EXAMPLES OF DEPRESSANTS LEGAL DEPRESSANTS Alcohol – Alcohol is the most general legal depressant. There are different types of alcohol such as beer, wine and liquor. Alcohol acts a psychoactive drug that weakens attention and reduces reaction speed. Alcohol overdose affects the brain resulting in slurred speech, clumsiness and delayed reflexes. Other physiological impacts include altered insight of space and time, weakened psychomotor skills, affecting balance. Instant effects of alcohol intoxication include slurred speech, sleep problems, nausea and vomiting. Even when you consume low doses, alcohol impairs judgment and coordination considerably. Barbiturates – This group of drugs is also known as sedative-hypnotics. They help in sleep disorders and reduce anxiety. Barbiturates generate impacts ranging mild sedation to entire anesthesia. They can be injected directly into veins and muscles but regularly taken in pill form. Signs of intoxication comprise respiratory depression, low blood pressure, exhaustion, fever, strange excitement, irritability and seizures. The major risk of intoxication is respiratory depression. Other impacts of barbiturate overdoes include drowsiness, slurred speech and loss of inhibitions.
  • 9. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 9 | P a g e Benzodiazephine – This is a prescriptive drug used to treat anxiety problems, alcohol withdrawal signs or muscle spasm. It is at times applied with other medicines to cure seizures. The most common Benzoz include xanax, activan and valium. Benzodiazephine overdose can be dangerous. It can be very addictive. ILLEGAL DEPRESSANTS Inhalants – Inhalants normally include volatile substances that produce fumes or vapors at room temperature. They include glue, paint thinner o hair spray. They have the same effects as alcohol. Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (Rohypnol) – GHB is also known as “the date rape drug” GHB has a very fast onset and is swiftly removed from the body system. This is an illegal depressant regularly used to drug victims before sexually assaulting them because of its sedative components. Its effects include nausea, amnesia, drowsiness or coma. Street name: The forget-me pill, Mexican Valium, or Roofies Opium – narcotic drug produced from the drying resin of unripe capsule of the opium popy, papaver somniferum. Opium is grown mainly in Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Afghanistan Street name: weed, pot, dope, grass, reefer, herb, nuggets, blaze, rope etc. Morphine – most commonly used and best used opiate. It is effective as painkiller six times potent than opium, with a high dependence producing potential, morphine exerts action characterized by analgesia, drowsiness, mood changes and mental clouding. Street name: Dreamer, Gods Drug, Emsel, First line, Hows Heroin – it is derive from morphine. It is three to five times more powerful than morphine from which it is derived and the most addicting opium derivative. With continued use, addiction occurs within 14 days. It is the most powerful opium derivative. Discovered by ALDER WRIGHT Street Name: Dragon, Big H, White Nurse, White Lady and many others Codeine – a derivative of morphine, commonly available in cough preparations. These cough medicine have been widely abused by the youth whenever hard narcotics are difficult to obtain withdrawal symptoms are less severe than other drugs. Street Name: Cody, Captain Cody, or School boy Demerol and Methadone – methadone was first sensitized in Germany in 1943, when an opiate analgesic was not available because of war, it was first called “Dolophine” after Adolf Hitler. Demerol is widely used as a painkiller in childbirth while methadone is the drug of choice in the withdrawal treatment of heroin depends since it relieves the physical craving for heroin.
  • 10. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 10 | P a g e STIMULANT (uppers) These are drugs that produced excitation, alertness and wakefulness, intense feeling of “highness” and in some cases, a temporary rise in blood pressure and respiration. a. They produce the opposite to that of depressant. Instead of bringing about relaxation and sleep, they produce increase mental alertness, wakefulness, reduce hunger and provide a feeling of well-being. b. Their medical use includes treatment of narcolepsy – a condition characterized by an overwhelming desire to sleep. A person who has narcolepsy goes to sleep as frequently as 5 times a day. NOTABLE EXAMPLES OF STIMULANTS Amphetamine - Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887. Amphetamine is also used as a performance and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. Street name: Bennies, Ampes, Benzies, or Cartwheels Caffeine- Caffeine is a stimulant compound belonging to the xanthine class of chemicals naturally found in coffee, tea and (to a lesser degree) cocoa or chocolate. It is included in many soft drinks, as well as a larger amount in energy drinks. Caffeine is the world's most widely used psychoactive drug and by far the most common stimulant. Ephedrine- Ephedrine is commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, and decongestant and to treat hypertension associated with anesthesia. MDMA - This commonly known as Ecstasy, MDMA is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug. The desired recreational effects include increased empathy, euphoria, and heightened sensations. When taken by mouth, effects begin after 30–45 minutes and last 3–6 hours. MDMA was first synthesized in 1912 by Merck chemist Anton Kollisch. Mephedrone - It is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone. It is reported to be manufactured in China and is chemically similar to the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of Eastern Africa. It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort, or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA, Amphetamines and cocaine. Mephedrone was first synthesized in 1929, but did not become widely known until it was rediscovered in 2003. Street name: Drone or MCAT Cocaine- Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca shrub, which grows in the mountain regions of South American countries such as Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. In
  • 11. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 11 | P a g e Europe, North America, and some parts of Asia, the most common form of cocaine is a white crystalline powder. Cocaine is a stimulant but is not normally prescribed therapeutically for its stimulant properties, although it sees clinical use as a local anesthetic, in particular in ophthalmology. Street name: blanca, crack, flake, gold dust, haven dust, line Nicotine - It is the active chemical constituent in tobacco, which is available in many forms, including cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco and smoking cessation aids such as nicotine patches, nicotine gum and electronic cigarettes. Nicotine is used widely throughout the world for its stimulating and relaxing effects. HALLUCINOGEN (psychedelics) Hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent that can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion and consciousness. The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics, dissociative and deliriums. NOTABLE EXAMPLES OF HALLUCINOGENS Marijuana (Cannabis Sativa Lima) – the term marijuana is a Spanish-Mexican term used to refer to the Indian hemp plant. It is the most commonly abuse hallucinogen in the Philippines because it can be grown extensively in the country. The effect of marijuana includes having a feeling of grandeur. It can also produce opposite effect, a dreamy sensation of time seeming to stretch out. Two Varieties of the cannabis plant Resin – Producing – (female MJ) – THC is found most abundantly in upper leaves, barks and flowers of the resin – producing plant. Fiber – Producing – (male MJ) – contains lesser THC Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – most active and are considered responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of MJ. THC contains the highest concentration of the drug. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) – this drug was first synthesized by Dr. Albert Hoffman and Dr. Arthur Steel from the ergot plant – a fungus that parasites rye and other grains and diethylamide portion. Peyote – This drug was derived from a small gray brown cactus. Peyote emits a nauseating odor and its user is commonly those who suffer from nausea. The drug causes no physical dependence and therefore, no withdrawal symptoms. - Mescaline – this is the active ingredient of peyote cactus.
  • 12. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 12 | P a g e Phencyclidine (PCP) – known on the street as “angel dust” it is used as an intravenous anesthetic and analgesic and used also as treatment for mental disorder. Killer weed – It is a combination of angel dust and marijuana. Psilocybin – This is a hallucinogenic alkaloid from small Mexican mushroom. This mushroom induces nausea, muscular relaxation, mood changes with vision of bright colors and shape. Morning Glory Seed – known as lysergic acid amide. Hallucinogenic affect may last for 4-5 hours and later may be followed by depression, laziness, and complete loss of time and space perception.
  • 13. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 13 | P a g e SEVEN ADDITIONAL SUBSTANCES INCLUDED IN THE LIST OF DANGEROUS DRUGS (PDEA, 2016) 1. ACETYLFENTANYL – This drug is a painkiller which is five times more powerful than heroin. Also studies have estimated acetylfentanyl to be fifteen times more potent than morphine. This drug is the culprit of what appears to be heroin overdoses, acetylfentanyl is an opiate that is mixed into street drugs marketed as heroin or may be sold in pills disguised as oxycodone. Street Name: Apache, Good fella, Jackpot, TNT, Murder 8 and Tango and Cash. Routes of Administration: Oral, Intravenous, Insufflation 2. MT-45 is an Opioid analgesic drug invented in the 1970s by Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co., It is a piperazine derivative with potent analgesic activity comparable to morphine. Recreational use of MT-45 has been associated with hearing loss and unconsciousness. Street name: IC-6, Wow 3. PARA-METHOXYMETHYLAMPHETAMINE – It is a stimulant and psychedelic recreational drug which may be used as substitute to ecstasy. It can cause hallucinations and fatal rise in body temperature. Street name: Red Mitsubishi, PMMA Routes of Administration: Oral 4. Alpha-PYRROLIDINOVALEROPHENONE is a psychomotor stimulant which may cause cardio toxicity, violent behavior, and display of psychotic behavior. Street name: a-PVP, Gravel or Flakka Routes of Administration: Oral, Intranasal, Vaporization, Intravenous, Rectal, Sublingual 5. Para-METHYLAMINOREX – This drug is a new and potentially lethal designer drug. This has been available particularly in Europe since the end of 2012 predominantly in powdered form or sold in an Ecstasy like tablets, majority of powders are white but others have also been described as pale yellow, pink, green and blue colored powders. Tablets have been observed in various colors and shapes some of which bore logos such as ‘Playboy’, ‘Heart’, ‘Mitsubishi’, ‘Star’, ‘Transformers’, ‘Cherries’, and ‘Cross’.
  • 14. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 14 | P a g e Street name: 4-MAX, McN-822 and ‘ICE’. 4,4′-DMAR Routes of Administration: nasal insufflation and oral administration. The term “Bombing” as operationally defined in the way of consumption - refers to the practice of wrapping powdered Para - Methylaminorex in cigarette paper (or similar) before swallowing, 6. METHOXETAMINE (MXE) is a new recreational drug, structural analog of ketamine (mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia) with potent hallucinogenic properties. MXE is reported to have a similar effect to ketamine, MXE may is an effective, fast-acting antidepressant like ketamine. Street name: M-ket, K Max, Mexxy, or MXE Routes of Administration: Oral, Sublingual, Nasal insufflation or snorting, Rectal, IM (Intra Muscular) 7. PHENAZEPAM - it is a benzodiazepine (known as tranquilizers) with anxiolytic, euphoric, anti-convulsant, amnestic, muscle relaxant, and hypnotic (sleep- inducing) effects. This drug was developed by the Soviet Union in 1975. Street name: Bonsai, Soviet Benzo, Fenaz, Panda Routes of Administration: Oral, Intravenous, Intra Muscular
  • 15. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 15 | P a g e “DRUG ABUSE JARGONS” Jargon Meaning “opiate” - narcotic “on the nod/ nodding” - the state produced by opiates like being suspended on the edge of sleep “mainline/ to shoot” - injecting a drug into the vein “a hit” - the street slang term for injection of drugs “a work” - an apparatus for injecting drugs “a fix” - one injection of opiate “juni” - heroin “junkie” - an opiate addict “skin popping” - to inject a drug under the skin “a bag” - a pocket of drug “cold turkey” - withdrawal effects of opiate use “track” - scars on the skin due to injection “overdose” - death occurred “speed” - amphetamines “speed freaks” - amphetamine addict “uppers” - street slang term for amphetamines “rush” - the beginning of high “high” - under the influence of drugs “coke” - street slang term for cocaine “flashback” - user can be thrown back into the drug experience month after the original use of drugs “acid” - street slang term for LSD “acid head” - LSD user “drop” - taking drug orally
  • 16. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 16 | P a g e “joint” - an MJ cigar “roach” - butt end of a joint “stoned” - the intoxicating effect of a drug “trip” - reaction that is caused by drugs “head” - drug user “downer” - street slang term for depressant THE CONCEPT OF DRUG DEPENDENCE Terms to ponder: Drug Dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use While Drug Addiction is a distinct concept of Drug Dependence, is defined as compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences. Drug Abuse – it is the illegal, wrongful or improper use of any drug. Rehabilitation – it is a dynamic process directed towards the changes of health of the person to prepare him from his fullest life potentials and capabilities, and making him law abiding and productive member of the community without abusing drugs. Treatment – a medical service rendered to a client for the effective management of his total condition related to drug abuse WHAT CAUSES DRUG ADDICTION Drug Addiction maybe caused by the following; Genetical tendency - Some people are more susceptible to developing an addiction. The biological make up of other individual may play an important role in acquiring drug addiction. Peer pressure - Peer pressure affect young people because they place a high value on what their friends think and do and they desire to ‘fit in’ with their peer group. Which then, if that group takes drugs, or smokes cigarettes or enjoys drinking then the pressure is there to do the same. Stress – Working for longer hours to provide a decent standard of living without finding time to relax. Going for a few drinks after work is one way of relaxing as is taking drugs such as cocaine at parties. Many individuals use this way of coping with stress which eventually turn into habits, and that habituation may turn into addiction.
  • 17. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 17 | P a g e Experimentation - The tendency to experiment is a form of behavior commonly observed in young people. Experimentation with drink, drugs or smoking may result in addiction. The tendency of a person to try and explore the effects of drug due to curiosity or other reason is other way of acquiring drug addiction. Environment - Being exposed to addictive substances at young age may increases the risk of an individual towards drug addiction. Another related factor is a chaotic childhood and abuse. Those who suffered abuse in their childhood have a stronger trigger towards addiction. Use of highly potent drugs - Some drugs is much more addictive than others, for example cocaine, heroin and amphetamines can cause addiction after just one use. Other drugs require several sessions before they result in an addiction. Availability of drugs - If a drug is easier to get hold it will show higher rates of addiction than something which is difficult to obtain. The availability of the illicit drugs increases the tendency of individuals residing on that area to use drugs. Psychological problems - Individuals suffering from a mental illness such as anxiety, depression or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at an increased risk of developing drug addiction. This is mainly due to the fact that they believe that drugs prescribed for their illness help them to cope with life than if they were without. THE ONSET OF DRUG ADDICTION Addiction had taken over a person already if these followings are present; 1. Compulsion/ Uncontrollable craving – A circumstance wherein a drug user feels a compulsive craving to take drug repeatedly and tries to procure the same by any means. 2. Tolerance – This refers to the tendency of the user to increase the dose of the drug to produce the same effect as to that of the original effect. 3. Physical Dependence – It is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms. 4. Psychological Dependence – Emotional and mental discomfort exist to the individual. The drug addict feels he cannot do without drug, consequently if he does not take the drug his mental processes are affected. He cannot carry out his work efficiently. 5. Withdrawal syndrome or Discontinuation Syndrome – It is the circumstances wherein the drug user becomes nervous and restless occurring as a result of discontinuing or dosage reduction of some types of medications and recreational drugs. The risk of withdrawal syndrome increases with dosage and length of use.
  • 18. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 18 | P a g e GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF DRUG ABUSERS In order to understand the groups of people who abuse drugs, the group classification of drug addict are presented as: 1. Situational users – Those users who use drug to keep them awake or for additional energy to perform an important work. Such individual may or may not exhibit psychological dependence. 2. Spree users – School age users who take drug for “kicks”, or adventurous daring experience, or as a means of fun. 3. Hard core addicts – Those whose activities revolve almost entirely around the drug experience and securing supplies. They show strong psychological dependence on the drug. 4. Hippies – Those who are addicted to drug believing that drug is an integral part of life. IDENTIFICATION OF DRUG ABUSERS A drug abuser will do everything possible to conceal his habit. To be able to recognize the outward sign and symptoms, it’s equally important to remember that the drug problem is so complex that we should not jump into conclusion immediately, we should remember that some individuals might have a legitimate reason for possessing a tablets, syringe and needle, or other drug paraphernalia. We must also understand that unusual or odd behavior may not be connected in any way with drug use. The symptoms of drug abuse will vary depending upon the substance, the individual’s genetic makeup, the length of abuse, and the frequency of abuse. Some of the common symptoms of drug abuse may include WHAT TO OBSERVE? The following markers can help in identifying drug abusers: 1. Change in interest – Users may lose interest in their studies and in their work, They may fail in school, shift from one course to another, transfer of school of lower standards until eventually drop out. 2. Frequent shifting of mood – Users may appear euphoric, elated and sometimes even ecstatic when under the influence of drugs. They would be indifferent, irritable and hostile when the effect of drug is winning from the system. 3. Change in behavior – They usually spend a lot of time in the company of known drug users in the community. A drug user under the influence of drugs may be observed to manifest the following changes on behavior; a. Lack of ambition, reduced attention span, poor quality of school work, and impaired communication skills.
  • 19. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 19 | P a g e b. Less care for the feeling of the others, lessening of accustomed family warmth c. Secretive about money, disappearance of money and other valuable from the house. 4. Changes in physical appearance – A drug user under the influence of drugs may be observed to manifest the following changes; a. Neglect of persons appearance and hygiene, pale face, red eyes, dilation or constricted pupils, and wearing sunglasses at wrong place. b. Friends defusing to identify themselves or hang up when you answer the phone, and overreaction to mild conditions. c. Knowledge on the lingo of drug abusers. d. Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, muscular aches, insomnia and convulsions. e. Presence drug paraphernalia in the belongings METHODS OF DETECTING DRUG ABUSERS The detection of drug abusers involves the 4 processes namely: 1. OBSERVATION Carefully observe the signs and symptoms of drug abuse such as but not limited to; a) Instant change in interest b) Frequent shifting of mood c) Sudden change in behavior d) Changes in physical appearance 2. BACKGROUND CHECK Information relative to drug use must be collected to determine whether the suspected individual is indeed a drug user, it must be done through the following means Interview The best information is from the patient himself, if not possible the parent or close relative or close friend would be a good alternative to furnish useful details that has a significant contribution to the possible cause of the patient drug use. 3. LABORATORY EXAMINATION If a person is suspected to have been involved in illegal drug use, he must be subjected to drug test, for those person apprehended violating the law
  • 20. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 20 | P a g e on drugs must be submitted for drug testing in accordance with the provision of Republic Act 9165 which read as follows; Sec. 38. Any person apprehended or arrested for violating the provisions of RA 9165 shall be subjected to screening laboratory examination or test within twenty-four (24) hours, if the apprehending or arresting officer has reasonable ground to believe that the person apprehended or arrested, on account of physical signs or symptoms or other visible or outward manifestation, is under the influence of dangerous drugs. If found to be positive, the results of the screening laboratory examination or test shall be challenged within fifteen (15) days after receipt of the result through a confirmatory test conducted in any accredited analytical laboratory equipment with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry equipment or some such modern and accepted method, if confirmed the same shall be prima facie evidence that such person has used dangerous drugs, which is without prejudice for the prosecution for other violations of the provisions of this Act: Provided, That a positive screening laboratory test must be confirmed for it to be valid in a court of law. 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION (Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) Psychological examination to determine whether a certain person is using illegal drugs or not requires the expertise of trained psychologist. Usually a set of questionnaires is given or interview sessions are scheduled. The General Profile of Drug Abuser (Dangerous Drug Board) Profile of Drug Abusers in Philippines (Facility Based)* CY 2015 Age: Mean age of 31 years Sex: Ratio of male and female 14:1 Civil status: Single Status of employment: Unemployed Educational attainment: College Level Economic status: Average Monthly Family Income Php 10,172.00 Place of residence: Urban (specifically NCR 43.89%) Duration of drug – taking: More than six (6) years Nature of drug – taking: Poly drug use
  • 21. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 21 | P a g e DRUGS/SUBSTANCES OF ABUSE: Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Shabu) Cannabis (Marijuana) Cocaine *Residential Facilities **Poly drug users – abuse of more than one (1) drug
  • 22. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 22 | P a g e The Effect of Drug Abuse The effects of addiction and abuse of drugs can be all-encompassing, leaving virtually no part of the drug user’s life untouched. Effect on the General Health of the Drug Addict Malnutrition – the life of an addict revolves around drug use. He misses even his regular meals. He losses appetite and eventually develops malnutrition. Skin infection and skin rushes – often times the drug abuser neglects his personal hygiene, uses unsterilized needle and syringes that result in skin infection or even ulceration at the sites of the needle puncture. Skin rushes even may occur as a side effect of sensitivity reaction to certain drug abuse. Others may include the following;  Accidents  Changes in the structure or functioning of the brain  Unintentional injuries  Damage to all organ systems in the body  Weakening of immune system  Cardiovascular complications  Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain  Liver damage and/or failure  Seizures  Strokes  Heart attacks  Permanent brain damage  Increasing medical problems
  • 23. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 23 | P a g e Effects of Psyche of the Drug Addict The abuse of drug can bring many psychological malfunctions such as the following:  Addiction  Tolerance  Impaired decision-making  Worsening of emotional wellbeing  Loss of drive and ambition  Development of psychosis and depression  Loss of interest to study  Laziness, lethargy, boredom and restlessness  Irritability, rebellious attitude  Withdrawal forgetfulness Effect of drug use on the social life of the Drug Addict The drug abuser may also experience social malfunction such as the following:  Deterioration of interpersonal relationship and develop conflict with authority.  Commission of crime  Social maladjustment; loss of desire to work study and participate in activities or to face challenges.  Crumbling interpersonal relationships which would eventually result into Domestic abuse and Divorce.
  • 24. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 24 | P a g e Effects of Drug use to the mental health of the Drug Addict The drug abuser can experience adverse effect of the central nervous system. Regular use or injection of large doses of substance reduces the activity of the brain and depresses the central nervous system. The drug dependent then manifest changes in his mind and behavior that are undesirable by people in his environment. Effects of Drug use to the financial stability of the drug addict a. Inability to hold stable job It’s impossible to drug abuser to hold a steady job since he spends his time and money on drugs. If he does not have a regular job, he and his fried steal to raise money. b. Dependence on family resources Instead of contributing to the economic stability of the family, a dependent become an economic burden. c. Work related accidents In a state of agitation or dullness of a mind as a result of the drug he has taken, the dependent become careless and lacks concentration on his job. Consequently, an accident may occur in which may adversely affect both drug abuser and his co-workers.
  • 25. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 25 | P a g e INTERNATIONAL AND LOCAL DRUG TRAFFICKING Drug trafficking refers to the global illicit drug trade involving that involves cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws. At current levels, world heroin consumption (340 tons) and seizures represent an annual flow of 430-450 tons of heroin into the global heroin market. Of that total, opium from Myanmar and the Lao People's Democratic Republic yields some 50 tons, while the rest, some 380 tons of heroin and morphine, is produced exclusively from Afghan opium. These drugs are commonly trafficked worldwide via routes flowing into and through the countries neighboring Afghanistan. The Balkan and northern routes are the main heroin trafficking corridors linking Afghanistan to the huge markets of the Russian Federation and Western Europe. The Balkan route traverses the Islamic Republic of Iran (often via Pakistan), Turkey, Greece and Bulgaria across South-East Europe to the Western European market. While the northern route runs mainly through Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan (or Uzbekistan or Turkmenistan) to Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. Global heroin flows from Asian points of origin Source: UNODC World Drug Report 2010 In 2008, global heroin seizures reached a record level of 73.7 metric tons. Most of the heroin was seized in the near and Middle East and South-West Asia, South-East Europe and Western and Central Europe. The global increase in heroin seizures over the period 2006-2008 was driven mainly by continued increasing seizures in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Turkey.
  • 26. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 26 | P a g e In 2007 and 2008, cocaine was used by some 16 to 17 million people worldwide. North America accounted for more than 40 per cent of global cocaine consumption, while the 27 European Union and four European Free Trade Association countries accounted for more than a quarter of total consumption. For the North American market, cocaine is typically transported from Colombia to Mexico or Central America by sea and then onwards by land to the United States and Canada. Cocaine is trafficked to Europe mostly by sea, often in container shipments. Colombia remains the main source of the cocaine found in Europe, but direct shipments from Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia are far more common than in the United States market. Main global cocaine flows, 2008 Source: UNODC World Drug Report 2010 Following a significant increase over the period 2002-2005, global cocaine seizure totals have recently followed a stable trend, amounting to 712 tons in 2007 and 711 tons in 2008. Seizures continued to be concentrated in the Americas and Europe. However, the transition from 2007 to 2008 brought about a geographical shift in seizures towards the source countries for cocaine. Seizures in South America accounted for 59 per cent of the global total for 2008. The prevalence of illegal drug use in the Philippines is lower than the global average, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), two of the most used and valuable illegal drugs in the country are methamphetamine hydrochloride known for its common name “shabu” and marijuana. In 2012, the United Nations reported that the Philippines had the highest rate of methamphetamine use in East Asia, and according to a U.S. State Department report, 2.1 percent of Filipinos aged 16 to 64 uses the drug. On the other hand Ecstasy is reported to be the third most
  • 27. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 27 | P a g e abused drug that is next to cannabis and methamphetamine. Other drugs are also at the verge of being abuse, for minors Inhalants are commonly abused, especially street children. The involvement of the minors is not only limited to consumption, other drug syndicates also use them as drug pushers and couriers. Aside from the illegal drug production and manufacture, Illegal drug trafficking is still the most pervasive drug activity in the Philippines. Drug traffickers never stop formulating new ways to hide their illegal activities. In year 2013, PDEA observed some common modus operandi adopted by illegal drug traffickers such as using milk boxes, Chinese tea bags, slippers and cellphone charger, mail and parcel courier, or by ingesting the drug itself in order to smuggle the drug into the country. What makes it hard for the authority to suppress the illegal drug trafficking in our country is the involvement of drug cartels, the role of drug syndicates in the manufacture and distribution of illegal drugs is very significant in illicit drug trafficking business. They serve as the foundation of the illegal drug trade. In the Philippines, international drug trafficking organizations were identified to have been operating in the country, such as the Sinaloa Drug Cartel, African Drug Syndicates and Filipino – Chinese Drug Syndicates, what is more alarming were the incidents reported on some occasions that these drug syndicate were working side by side. Circumstances such as these, unites the majority of the Filipino people to attack the issues on drugs heads on. This eventually resulted into cases of allegedly extra judicial killings and other drug related killings.
  • 28. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 28 | P a g e HISTORICAL DRUG TRAFFIC ROUTE In Southeast Asia, the “Golden Triangle” composed by the countries Burma/Myanmar, Laos, Thailand approximately produced 60 percent of opium in the world, 90 percent of opium in the Eastern part of Asia. It is also the formerly acknowledge as the source of South East Asian heroin. This heroin’s produced by the Golden triangle passes through nearby countries in relatively small quantities through air transport while through land transit to the United States and European countries. In Southwest Asia the “Golden crescent” composed by the countries Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India is the major supplier of opium poppy, marijuana and heroin products. It produced at least 85% to 90% of all illicit heroin channeled in the drug underworld market. Significant Countries relative to drug trade Afghanistan – Currently known to be the world’s main supplier of cannabis. It produces between 10,000 and 24,000 hectares every year producing an estimated 1,500 to 3,500 tons a year and production takes place in 17 of 34 provinces. Spain – is known as the major transshipment point for international drug traffickers in Europe – and became “the paradise of drug users in Europe”. South America – Columbia, Peru, Uruguay and Panama are the principal sources of all cocaine supply in the world due to the robust production of the coca plants. Mexico and Paraguay - Are known as the top two marijuana-producing countries in the world Philippines – Second to Mexico as to the production of marijuana. It also became the major transshipment point for the worldwide distribution of illegal drugs particularly shabu and cocaine from Taiwan and South America. It is also noted that Philippines today is known as the drug paradise of drug abusers in Asia. India – is the center of the world’s drug map, leading to the rapid addiction among its people. Indonesia – Northern Sumatra has traditionally been the main cannabis growing area in Indonesia. Bali Indonesia is an important transit point for drugs en route to Australia and New Zealand. Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand – is the most favorable sites of drug distribution from the “Golden Triangle” to Hong Kong. It’s also the country where the “epedra” plant is cultivated – source of the drug ephedrine – the principal chemical for producing the drug shabu. Hong Kong – is the world’s transshipment point of all forms of heroin.
  • 29. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 29 | P a g e Japan – became the major consumer of cocaine and shabu from the United States and Europe. THE ORGANIZED CRIME GROUPS BEHIND THE GLOBAL DRUG SCENE The SINALOA CARTEL, Mexico - The biggest gang in Mexico right now is the Sinaloa, whose leader, Joaquín Guzmán Loera, known as "El Chapo" or "Shorty", is considered the most powerful drug lord in the world. The Sinaloa smuggles cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine and heroin by land or through tunnels into the US, often via Arizona. YAMAGUCHI-GUMI, Japan - The largest of Japan's Yakuza groups, the Yamaguchi has its base and origins in Kobe, but works on a global scale. With a membership running into tens of thousands, they deal in drugs, weapons, gambling, extortion rackets and prostitution. SOLNTSEVSKAYA BRATVA, Russia - The term "Russian Mafia" describes a range of criminal bratvas, or brotherhoods, the largest of which is from Solntsevo district on the southern outskirts of Moscow. The group is known to have links to Semion Mogilevich, Europe's and perhaps the worlds, most powerful criminal. The 'NDRANGHETA, Italy - The 'Ndrangheta from Calabria has now eclipsed the nearby Sicilian Cosa Nostra and the Neapolitan Camorra syndicates to become one of the biggest drug gangs in the world. Its annual income from cocaine importation and other businesses is estimated in the tens of billions of dollars. ABERGIL FAMILY, Israel - The Abergils have been one of the world's largest exporters of ecstasy, into the US and elsewhere, and prolific in gambling and embezzlement too.
  • 30. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 30 | P a g e DRUG CARTELS IN PHILIPPINES Drug trafficking in the Philippines are still dominated by the Mexican, African, and Chinese Illicit Drug Traffickers. There has been a shift into the mode of operation of drug traffickers, today the importation of illicit drugs into the country had been decreasing due to the strict monitoring and security provided by the coast guards and other responsible agencies. The most common way of smuggling drugs are transit through air then dropped on the shorelines then the local members who acts as a fisherman’s will collect them and deliver it to local drug groups for distributions to the consumers. “Shabu” or Methamphetamine Hydrochloride is still the most widely abused drugs in the country followed by marijuana, due to this, the demand for “shabu” continue to increase and the smuggled drugs could not sustain such demand so it gave rise to the construction of “shabu” laboratories. These drug syndicates have been producing methamphetamine in small-scale and kitchen-type laboratories to avoid detection. Usually, drug syndicates rent warehouses for use as drug laboratories. These syndicates have moved towards renting houses in private subdivisions, condominiums and apartments to be used as bases for their illegal drug production. Private properties are becoming more favorable to drug syndicates as sites of illegal drug production. Drug Syndicate in the Philippines The Binondo based Chinese syndicate has been identified as the nucleus of the Triad society, the Bamboo gang is Taiwan and 14k based on Hong Kong. The Bamboo gang is influenced of the green gang of the Chinese Triad while the 14k is the newest among the Triad families established only in 1947. The Filipino – Chinese drug syndicate are groups responsible in smuggling shabu into the country. Most drug couriers use Hong Kong and Taiwan as their embarkation pont for the Philippines. And recently, intelligence reports reveals that large quintets of shabu are smuggled in the airlines and ocean – sea vessels. The most common “modus operandi” by the syndicate – posing as fishermen along Philippine seas, particularly, the Northern province of Luzon such as La Union, Ilocos and Pangasinan where they drop their loads of shabu to shoreline based members. The syndicate are famously involved in marijuana cultivation and other drug smuggling including drug manufacture.
  • 31. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 31 | P a g e ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF RA 9165 RA 9165  The Comprehensive Dangerous Acts of 2002  Signed by GMA on June 7, 2002  Took effect July 4, 2002 RE-ORGANIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINE DRUG ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM  Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) - policy and strategy formulating body.  Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) - as its implementing arm PHILIPPINE DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY (PDEA)  Headed by Director General with the rank of Undersecretary, appointed by the President.  The head of the PDEA is assisted by 2 deputies Director General, with the rank of Assistant Secretary, 1 for Operations and 1 for Administration, also appointed by the President.  In July 2002, PDDG Anselmo Avenido (Ret.) appointed as first Director General of PDEA.  On April 6, 2006, Gen. Dionisio R. Santiago (Ret) appointed as PDEA Director General vice Anselmo Avenido.  In January 2011, PCSUPT Jose Gutierrez (Ret) was appointed as PDEA Director General vice Gen. Dionisio R. Santiago (Ret).  the secretariat of the National Drug Law Enforcement and Prevention Coordinating Center or DEP Center has been absorbed by the new agency  Narcotics Group of the PNP;  Narcotics Division of the NBI; and  Narcotics Interdiction Unit of the Bureau of Customs have been abolished EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 218 “Strengthening the support mechanism for the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency”  issued on June 18, 2003 by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.  Creation of Task Forces: The Office of the President, the PNP, and other agencies which were performing drug law enforcement and prevention function prior to the enactment of RA 9165 shall organize anti-drug forces to support the PDEA.  The PDEA shall exercise operational supervision and provide technical support to the main task force created by the PNP PDEA Academy  Shall be established either in Baguio or Tagaytay, and in such other places as may be necessary.  responsible in the recruitment and training of all PDEA agents and personnel  Recruits must be at least 21 years of age, with proven integrity and honesty and a Baccalaureate degree holder.  The graduates of the Academy shall later comprise the operating units of the PDEA after the termination of the transition period of five years during which all the intelligence network and standard operating procedure of the PDEA has been set up and operationalized.  The Academy shall be headed by a Superintendent, with the rank of Director. He /she shall be appointed by the PDEA Director General.
  • 32. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 32 | P a g e  The Narcotics Group of the PNP, the Narcotics Divisions of the NBI and the customs narcotics Interdiction Unit are hereby abolished. POWER AND DUTIES OF PDEA  Cause the effective and efficient implementation of the national drug control strategy,  Enforcement of the provisions of Art II of this Act,  Undertake investigation, make arrest and apprehension of violators and seizure and confiscation of dangerous drugs,  Administer oath and issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum relative to the conduct of investigation involving the violations of RA 9165;  Recommend to the DOJ the forfeiture of properties and other assets of persons and/or corporations found to be violating the provisions of RA 9165 and in accordance with the pertinent provisions of the Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2001  Establish forensic laboratories,  Filing of appropriate drug cases,  Conduct eradication programs,  Maintain a national drug intelligence system,  Close coordination with local and international drug agencies. DANGEROUS DRUG BOARD (DDB)  Created by virtue of Republic Act 6425 otherwise known as Dangerous Drug Act of 1972 subsequently repealed by RA 9165.  The policy-making & strategy-formulating body in the planning & formulation of policies & programs on drug prevention & control.  It shall develop and adopt comprehensive, integrated, unified and balanced national drug abuse prevention and control strategy. POWER AND DUTIES OF DDB  Formulation of Drug Prevention and Control Strategy,  Promulgation of Rules and Regulation to carry out the purposes of this Act,  Conduct policy studies and researches,  Develop educational programs and info drive,  Conduct continuing seminars and consultations,  Design special training,  Coordination with agencies for community service programs,  Maintain international networking, COMPOSITION DDB composed of 17 members wherein 3 of which are permanent members, the other 12 members are ex- officio capacity and 2 regular members. THREE (3) PERMANENT MEMBERS  At least 7 years of training and experience in the field of the ff: fields in law, medicine, criminology, psychology or social work.  Appointed by the president.  One designated as the Chairman with the rank of Secretary and the two other regular members as undersecretary. (with the term of 6 years) TWELVE (12) EX- OFFICIO MEMBERS  Secretary or representative of the following Department:  DOJ, DOH, DND, DOF, DOLE, DILG, DSWD, DFA, DepEd,  Chairman CHED, NYC  Director General - PDEA
  • 33. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 33 | P a g e TWO (2) REGULAR MEMBERS  President of Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP).  Chairman or President of a non- government organization involved in dangerous drug campaign to be appointed by the President. NOTE: The Director of NBI and Chief, PNP are the permanent consultant of the DDB. THE FOUR PILLARS OF ANTI-DRUG CAMPAIGN 1. Drug Supply Reduction Drive  Reduce the supply of drugs  Drive the prices high and create acute shortage of drugs  Neutralize sources of drugs 2. Drug Demand Reduction Drive  Reduce the demand side of the drug chain  Concentrates on anti-drug advocacy efforts – public information and treatment and rehabilitation  Targets non-users, casual drug users and addicts/recovering persons 3. Alternative Development/Reform Programs  Development/livelihood program  Education program  Family solidarity/development program  Good governance program  Legal reforms 4. International Cooperation  Neutralize transnational drug syndicates  Minimize drug trafficking to and from the country  Exchange of information and technologies  Multilateral, regional, sub-regional and bilateral assistance and cooperation OPERATION “PRIVATE EYE” • Operation “Private Eye” a citizen based information collection project of (former) DEP Center and now the PDEA will continue what it has started. • Launched on June 26, 2001 • It aims to counter fear and apathy as hindrances to citizenry participation in reporting illegal drug activities by ensuring anonymity of the informant and giving monetary rewards. TERMS TO PONDER  Administer – Any act of introducing any dangerous drug into the body of any person, with or without his/her knowledge, by injection, inhalation, ingestion or other means, or of committing any act of indispensable assistance to a person in administering a dangerous drug to him/her unless administered by a duly licensed practitioner for purposes of medication.  Deliver– Any act of knowingly passing a dangerous drug to another, personally or otherwise, and by any means, with or without consideration.  Dispense – Any act of giving away, selling or distributing medicine or any dangerous drug with or without the use of prescription.  Sell – Any act of giving away any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical whether for money or any other consideration. 
  • 34. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 34 | P a g e  Use– Any act of injecting, intravenously or intramuscularly, of consuming, either by chewing, smoking, sniffing, eating, swallowing, drinking or otherwise introducing into the physiological system of the body, and of the dangerous drugs.  Manufacture – The production, preparation, compounding or processing of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical, either directly or indirectly or by extraction from substances of natural origin.  Cultivate or Culture – Any act of knowingly planting, growing, raising, or permitting the planting, growing or raising of any plant which is the source of a dangerous drug.  Clandestine Laboratory – Any facility used for the illegal manufacture of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical.  Den, Dive or Resort– A place where any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical is administered, delivered, stored for illegal purposes, distributed, sold or used in any form.  Screening Test – A rapid test performed to establish potential/presumptive positive result.  Confirmatory Test – An analytical test using a device, tool or equipment with a different chemical or physical principle that is more specific which will validate and confirm the result of the screening test  Drug Syndicate– Any organized group of two (2) or more persons forming or joining together with the intention of committing any offense prescribed under this Act.  Financier – Any person who pays for, raises or supplies money for, or underwrites any of the illegal activities prescribed under this Act  Protector/Coddler – Any person who knowingly and willfully consents to the unlawful acts provided for in this Act and uses his/her influence, power or position in shielding, harboring, screening or facilitating the escape of any person he/she knows, or has reasonable grounds to believe on or suspects, has violated the provisions of this Act in order to prevent the arrest, prosecution and conviction of the violator.  Pusher – Any person, who sells, trades, administers, dispenses, delivers or gives away to another, on any terms whatsoever, or distributes, dispatches in transit or transports dangerous drugs or who acts as a broker in any of such transactions, in violation of this Act.  Center – any of the treatment and rehabilitation centers which undertake the treatment, after-care and follow-up treatment of drug dependents.  Confinement - refers to the residential treatment and rehabilitation of trainees, clients and patients in a center.  Rehabilitation – the dynamic process, including after-care and follow-up treatment, directed towards the physical, emotional/psychological, vocational, social and spiritual change/enhancement of a drug dependent to enable him/her to live without dangerous drugs, enjoy the fullest life compatible with his/her capabilities and potentials and render him/her able to become a law-abiding and productive memberof the community.  Controlled Delivery – the investigative technique of allowing an unlawful or suspect consignment of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical, equipment or paraphernalia or property believed to be derived directly or indirectly from any offense, to pass into, through or out of the country under the supervision of an authorized officer, with a view to gathering evidence
  • 35. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 35 | P a g e to identify any person involved in any dangerous drug related offense, or to facilitate prosecution of that offense. COMPARISON OF RA 6425 AND RA 9165 THE UNLAWFUL ACTS PUNISHABLE BY LIFE IMPRISONMENT AND FINE RANGING FROM 500K TO 10M A. Importation or bringing into the Philippines of dangerous drugs B. Importation or bringing into the Philippines of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical through using diplomatic passport or facilities or any means involving his/her official status to facilitate unlawful entry of the same (sec 4, Art II). C. Upon any person who organizes, manages or acts as “financiers” of any of the activities involving dangerous drugs (sec 4, 5, 6, 8 Art II). D. Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Distribution and transportation of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals within 100 meters from the school (sec 5, Art II). E. Drugs pushers who use minors or mentally incapacitated individuals as runners, couriers and messengers or in any other capacity directly connected to the dangerous drug trade RA 6425 of 1972 RA 9165 of 2002 1. Dangerous drugs are categorized as Regulated & Prohibited All drugs are categorized as Dangerous Drugs 2. Accused can avail of Parole, Pardon and Probation These privileges are curtailed 3. Planting of evidence as a violation applies only to Law Enforcers Applies to any person 4. Penalties are lower Penalties has increased 5. Quantity & quality of drugs is considered in the imposition of penalties It does not consider quality as basis for the imposition of penalty 6. Procedures after arrest & confiscation of drugs does not involve other personalities Procedure after arrest & confiscation of drugs has become complicated it requires the presence of other personalities 7. Destruction of Drugs is done in bulk Destruction Procedures on- Dangerous Drugs happens immediately except retained samples
  • 36. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 36 | P a g e F. If the victim of the offense is a minor or mentally incapacitated individual, or should a dangerous drug and/or controlled precursors and essential chemical involved in the offense be the proximate cause of death of the victim (sec 5, Art II). G. Any person or group of persons who shall maintain a den, dive or resort where any dangerous drug is used or sold in any form. H. When dangerous drug is administered, delivered or sold to a minor who is allowed to use the same in such a place (sec 6, Art II). I. Manufacture of Dangerous Drugs Sec 8) J. Upon any person who uses a minor or mentally incapacitated individual to deliver equipment, instrument, apparatus and other paraphernalia for dangerous drugs (sec. 10, Art II). K. Possession of dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings (sec. 13), and Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings (sec. 14) L. Cultivation or Culture of Plants Classified as Dangerous Drugs or are Sources (Sec. 16) M. Unlawful Prescription of Dangerous Drugs ( Sec. 19) N. Any public officer or employee, who misappropriates, misapplies or fails to account for confiscated, seized or surrendered dangerous drugs, plant sources of dangerous drugs, controlled precursors and essential chemicals, instruments/paraphernalia and/or laboratory equipment including the proceeds or properties obtained from the unlawful acts. ( Sec. 27) THE UNLAWFUL ACTS PUNISHABLE BY 12 YEARS AND 1 DAY TO 20 YEARS AND FINE RANGING FROM 100K TO 500K A. Shall import any controlled precursor and essential chemical. (sec 4, Art II) B. Any person, who, unless authorized by law, shall sell, trade, administer, dispense, deliver, give away to another, distribute, dispatch in transit or transport any controlled precursor and essential chemical, or shall act as a broker in such transactions. C. Any person or group of persons who shall maintain a den, dive, or resort where any controlled precursor and essential chemical is used or sold in any form. (sec 5) D. Manufacture of Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals.(Sec 8) E. Employees and Visitors of a Den, Dive or Resort (sec 7) F. Illegal Chemical Diversion of Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals(sec 9) G. Manufacture or Delivery of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus, and Other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals(sec 10) H. Unnecessary Prescription of Dangerous Drugs (sec 18) I. Any member of law enforcement agencies or any other government official and employee who, after due notice, fails or refuses intentionally or negligently, to appear as a witness for the prosecution in any proceedings, involving violations of this Act, without any valid reason (sec 91) J. Delay and Bungling in the Prosecution of Drug Cases –NO FINE (sec 92) K. Any person, who acts as a "protector/coddler" of any violator of the provisions under RA 9165
  • 37. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 37 | P a g e CLANDESTINE LABORATORY ESTABLISHED UNDER THE FOLLOWING CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL BE CONSIDERED AGGRAVTING CIRCUMSTANCES (Sec. 8)  Conducted in the presence or with the help of minor/s:  Established within one hundred (100) meters of a residential, business, church or school premises.  Secured or protected with booby traps  Concealed with legitimate business operations  Employment of a practitioner, chemical engineer, public official or foreigner POSSESSION OF DANGEROUS DRUGS (Sec.11) Elements: A. Person is in possession which is identified to be a prohibited drug B. Such possession is not authorized by law C. Person freely & consciously possessed the said prohibited drug PENALTY - Life imprisonment and fine ranging from Php 400K to 500K  50 grams or more of shabu  500 grams or more of marijuana  10 grams or more for any Dangerous Drugs PENALTY- Imprisonment of 20 years and 1 day to life imprisonment and fine ranging from Php. 400k to 500k  10 grams but not more than 50 grams of Shabu  300 grams or more but less than 500 grams of Marijuana  5 grams or more but less than 10 grams of any Dangerous Drugs PENALTY- imprisonment of 12 years and 1 day to 20 years and a fine ranging from Php 300K to 400K  Less than 10 grams of Shabu  Less than 300 grams of Marijuana  Less than 5 grams of any Dangerous Drugs USE OF DANGEROUS DRUGS (Sec.15)  1st offense- minimum of six (6) months rehabilitation in a government center  2nd offense- imprisonment ranging from 6 years and 1 day to 12 years and a fine ranging from 50K to 200K, provided did not violated section 12 CUSTODY AND DISPOSITION OF CONFISCATED, SEIZED, AND/OR SURRENDERED DANGEROUS DRUGS (SEC. 21)(RA 10640) A. The apprehending team having initial custody and control of the drugs shall, immediately after seizure and confiscation, physically inventory and photograph the same in the presence of the accused or the person/s from whom such items were confiscated and/or seized, or his/her representative or counsel, a representative from the media and the Department of Justice (DOJ), and any elected public official who shall be required to sign the copies of the inventory and be given a copy thereof
  • 38. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 38 | P a g e B. 24 hours- upon confiscation or seizure, quantitative or qualitative examination C. 24 hours-Certification of Examination results if the volume can’t be completed within the time frame extended for another 24 hours. D. 72 hours- after filling of criminal case, court shall conduct ocular inspection. E. 24 hours- order of destruction PLEA-BARGAINING PROVISION (SEC. 23) Any person charged under any provision of this Act regardless of the imposable penalty shall NOT be allowed to avail of the provision on plea-bargaining. PLANTING OF EVIDENCE (SEC. 29) ANY PERSON who is found guilty of “planting” any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical, regardless of quantity and purity, shall suffer the penalty of DEATH. (Life Imprisonment) AUTHORIZED DRUG TESTING Authorized drug testing shall be done by any government forensic laboratory or by any of the drug testing laboratories accredited and monitored by the DOH to safeguard the quality of test results.  The drug testing shall employ, among others, two (2) testing methods.  Drug test certificates issued by accredited drug testing centers shall be valid for a one- year period from the date of issue which may be used for other purposes. MANDATORY DRUG TESTING A. applicants for drivers license ( Remove by RA 10586 “Anti – Drunk and Driving Act of 2013”.) B. applicants for Firearms license & PTCFOR C. members of the PNP, AFP, & other LEA D. All persons charged with criminal offense with penalty of not less than 6 years. E. All candidates for public office national/ local RANDOM DRUG TESTING A. Students of secondary and tertiary schools B. Officers and employees of public & private offices LABORATORY EXAMINATION OF APPREHENDED OFFENDERS (SEC. 38) If the apprehending or arresting officer has reasonable ground to believe that the person apprehended or arrested, on account of physical signs or symptoms or other visible or outward manifestation is under the influence of dangerous drugs. A. 24 hours- subject to screening laboratory examination B. 15 days- results of the screening laboratory examination or test shall be challenged after receipt of the result through a confirmatory test JURISDICTION OVER DANGEROUS DRUG CASES  The Supreme Court shall designate special courts from among the existing RTC in each judicial region to exclusively try and hear cases involving violation of RA 9165. 
  • 39. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 39 | P a g e  The DOJ shall designate special prosecutors to exclusively handle cases involving violation of RA 9165. APPLICATION FOR PROBATION NOTE: As a General Rule Violations of RA 9165 shall disqualify an offender to avail of the benefits of PD 968, as amended EXCEPT:  Section 12. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs.  Section 14. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings.  Section 17. Maintenance and Keeping of Original Records of Transactions on Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals.  Section 70. Probation or Community Service for a First-Time Minor Offender in Lieu of Imprisonment. PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED IN VIOLATION OF RA 9165  Regional Trial Court (RTC)- Holds the Jurisdiction of Violations of RA 9165  30 days- Conduct of Preliminary Investigation  24 hours- filling of information  48 hours- Filling of information of the MTC judge who conduct PI to the proper prosecutor.  15 days-Termination of the reinvestigation when prosecutor disagree to the MTC judge.  60 days- Trial period of the case  15 days- Decision shall be rendered  15 days- If no appeal was taken the decision shall become final. DRUGS INVESTIGATION PROCESSES A. Initial Investigation  Gathered information by personnel and from other sources – processing  Use of informants or special agent (counter surveillance)  Casing  Tests buy  Entrapment/Poseur buying/buy bust operation NOT INSTIGATION PROCEDURES:  Preparation of needs & coordination  Coordinated instructions between all members of the team  Test buy using marked money  Pre-arranged signal  Search Warrant and how it is enforced  Arrest B. Investigation Proper – completion of needed documents for inquest to include crime lab examination of the confiscated contraband. C. Filing of investigation records D. Testimonies
  • 40. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 40 | P a g e INVESTIGATION OF DRUG-RELATED CRIME AND ILLEGAL MANUFACTURE OF DRUGS The PDEA (Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency) is the lead agency in the anti- illegal drug operations and the PNP must coordinate with the agency whenever it launches operations against illegal drugs. However, there are also drug-related crimes such as murder/homicide and rape. The following are checklists to help the police investigator: Crime scenes within crime scenes There are instant drug test kits for tests of suspected amphetamine, heroin, cocaine and cannabis. These tests can be performed on site and provide a preliminary answer within a few minutes. Do not use test kits in the following cases:  If the powder is not soluble in water. The material may consist of explosives, which may explode when they come into contact with the liquid in the test kit.  If there is a very small quantity of material, i.e. trace quantities.  If the suspected drugs are in liquid form Drug laboratories Extreme caution must be taken in connection with operations against illegal drug laboratories, since the following may be present:  Booby traps  Persons who are armed  Persons who use chemicals as weapons  Corrosive, flammable, hazardous (toxic) and explosive substances  Air that is polluted by solvents and chemicals  Hydrogen gas, which forms explosive mixtures with air – do not switch on the lights. The chemicals that are handled in illegal drug laboratories occur in various mixtures, in ongoing processes, in open vessels or in any form other than in closed original packages. As a result, such substances/chemicals may be or become explosive, flammable, corrosive or hazardous. In the event of any uncertainty, seek assistance of experts. Checklist for investigations in connection with production of illegal drugs  Find out as much as possible about the accident both before going to the scene and upon arrival.  Decide whether you need help. Always contact the PDEA before action is taken against a drug laboratory.  Start keeping an action log.  Cordon off the area or extend the existing cordon if necessary.  Carry out a security check. Wearing appropriate protective clothing, scene-of- crime officers are to check for traps, after which the chemist assesses the risks associated with the handling of chemicals.  Turn off the heat for the still, hot plate etc. NB: Do not turn off the water or cooling and ventilation fans.  Make sure that a list is made of the people who enter the crime scene.
  • 41. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 41 | P a g e  Take a general photograph of the crime scene. Film the scene with a video camera.  Pause for thought and start planning.  Make a sketch. Mark the places where evidence and reference samples are collected.  Search for and collect evidence, objects and reference samples etc. that are relevant to the crime investigation.  Write a continuous seizure report.   Check the crime scene before the cordon is lifted. Make sure that you have not forgotten anything important, such as interrogation reports. A suspect may enter the crime scene area after the cordon has been lifted, and this must not be allowed to destroy the value of the evidence collected. SEARCH AND SEIZURE  Seize any documents that indicate the extent of production, perpetrators or buyers. Look for receipts, bills, delivery notes etc.  Where drug production is suspected, take samples from the various stages of the production process. Samples of ventilation ducts, fans and water seals may be useful. Wipe any waste chemicals/drugs with a cotton compress soaked in an alcohol mixture (about 80%).  Seize packaging material, e.g. bags, rolls of plastic bags and tape. These can then be used to compare with corresponding materials from other seizures and used as a basis for calculation of the amounts produced QUANTITY OF DRUGS USE FOR SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS  Not more than five (5) grams per package/bag  Not more than three (3) tablets for capsules or tablets  Not more than fifty (50 ml) for liquid solution  Not more than ten (10 grams) for dried leaves and not more than 2 plants. OPERATIONAL PLANS AGAINST THE DRUG PROBLEM  Oplan Thunderbolt I – operations to create impact to the underworld.  Oplan Thunderbolt II – operations to neutralize suspected illegal drug laboratories.  Oplan Thunderbolt III – operations for the neutralization of big time drug pushers, drug dealers and drug lords.  Oplan Iceberg – special operations team in selected drug prone areas in order to get rid of illegal drug activities in the area.  Oplan Hunter – operations against suspected military and police personnel who are engaged in illegal drug activities.  Oplan Mercurio – Operations against drug stores, which are violating existing regulations on the scale of regulated drugs in coordination with the DDB/DOH and BFAD.  Oplan Tornado – Operations in drug notorious and high profile places.  Oplan Greengold – NARCOM’s nationwide MJ eradication operations in coordination with the local governments and NGO’s.  Oplan Sagip-Yagit – A civic program initiated by NGO’s and local government offices to help eradicate drug syndicates involving street children as drug conduits.
  • 42. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 42 | P a g e  Oplan Banat – the newest operational plan against drug abuse focused in the barangay level in cooperation with barangay officials. CONCEPT OF VICES VICE  Any immoral conduct or habit, the indulgence of which leads to depravity, wickedness and corruption of the minds and body.  It comes from the Latin word vitium, meaning "failing or defect. THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF VICES  Drug Addiction, Alcoholism, Prostitution, and Gambling. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY OF VICE  The study of vice is important because these crimes are ever present and persistent in all forms of society.  It is important because its evil effects are more disastrous, morally and physically that other crimes.  It is important because commercialized vice disrupt the social make-up of the community.  It is important because vice effect the daily lives of more people that nay other crime.  It is important because its existence caused a serious problem in law enforcement. POLICE PROBLEMS IN VICE CONTROL  Clandestine nature of the commission of the acts.  Lack of cooperation from players, customers, and victims of vices,  Enjoyment of goodwill by vice operators  Public apathy and indifference  Unwilling government officials to work against vice existence I. ALCOHOLISM TERMS TO PONDER  Alcoholism – state or condition of a person produced by drinking intoxicating liquors excessively and with habitual frequency. (State vs. Savage, 89 Ala. 17 LBA 426, 7 South, Rep. 183). It is a condition wherein a person is under the influence or intoxicated with alcohol.  Alcoholic Liquor – is any beverages or compound, whether distilled, fermented, or otherwise, which will produce intoxication or which contains in excess of one percentum of alcohol and is used as a beverage. (State vs. Oliver, 133 S.C. 125, 130 S.S. Rep. 213).
  • 43. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 43 | P a g e  Drunkard – is a person who habitually takes or use any intoxicating alcoholic liquor and while under the influence of such, or in consequence of the effect thereof, is either dangerous to himself or to others, or is a cause of harm or serious annoyance to his family or his affair, or of ordinary proper conduct.  Chronic Alcoholics – person who, from the prolonged and excessive use alcoholic beverages, finally develops physical and psycho-changes and dependence to alcohol. NOTE: This person develops physical and moral deterioration, difficulties with the law, loss of his job and family problems. DRUNKNESS AS A CRIME  In the Philippines, drunkenness in itself is not a crime because a person may drink to excess in the privacy of his home or in the party and commit no crime at all.  It is only when a drunken person exhibits his condition publicly, or disturbs, endangers, or injured others, that he became an offender and therefore, subject to arrest and punishment.  Before and during elections, it is unlawful to sell or drink intoxicating liquor, as provided in the election law.  Under RA 4136, as amended, driving under the influence of liquor is prohibited. THE LEGAL CONCEPT OF INTOXICATION AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY The Revised Penal Code of the Philippine (Art. 15) provides that intoxication is an alternative circumstance whenever present in the commission of crimes. An alternative circumstance is one which must be taken into consideration as either MITIGATING (Art. 13, RPC) or AGGRAVATING (Art. 14, RPC) according to the nature and effects of the crime and their other conditions attending its commission. In order that intoxication maybe considered as a MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCE, two elements are necessary to be present:  First, that intoxication not be habitual, that is, that the person who commits the offense in an intoxicated condition has become drunk by accident and not be habit or custom. In the absence of proof to the contrary, drunkenness will be presumed not to be habitual.  Second, that the intoxication be not planted before the commission of crime, because if the perpetrator deliberately seeks in alcohol the necessary courage to execute the crime, or a means with which to suffocate any remorse, or as a mitigation for his offense, then his intoxication would constitute a premeditation and cannot afford him any excuse; instead it should aggravate his criminal liability. Intoxication is AGGRAVATING when it is habitual or intentional and subsequent to the plan to commit a crime. But under our legal concept, intoxication is no defense in the commission of a crime. KINDS OF INTOXICATION  Involuntary – when a drunken person does not know the intoxicating strength of beverage he has taken.
  • 44. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 44 | P a g e  Intentional – when a person deliberately drinks liquor fully knowing its effects, either to obtain mitigation or to find the liquor as stimulant to commit crime.  Habitual – when the person finds that drinking his a constant necessary and the vice ultimately takes hold of him. VARIOUS DEGREE OF INTOXICATION  Slight Inebriation – there is reddening of the face. There is no sign of mental impairment, in coordination and difficulty of speech.  Moderate Inebriation – the person is argumentative and overconfident. There is slight impairment of mental difficulties, difficulty of articulation, loss of coordination of finer movements. The face is flushed with digested eyeball. He is reckless and shows motor in coordination. The person maybe certified by the doctor as being under the influence of liquor.  Drunk – the mind is confused, behavior is irregular and the movement is uncontrolled. The speech us thick and in coordinated. The behavior is uncontrollable.  Very drunk – the mind is confused and disoriented. There is difficulty in speech and marked motor incoordination and often walking is impossible.  Coma – the subject is stuperous or in comatous condition. Sometimes it is difficult to differentiate this condition with other conditions having coma. BRIEF EXPLANATION HOW A PERSON GETS DRUNK Alcohol has its maximum period of absorption from 30 to 60 minutes after ingestion and it is absorbed in the stomach and in the intestines. Technically, if alcohol is only inside the stomach and instestine and not yet absorbed, it is practically outside of the body because it cannot produce its physiologic and neurologic effects. The rate of absorption of alcohol in the stomach and intestine depends upon the following factors:  Concentration and total quantity of alcohol taken.  Nature of food present in the stomach and intestine.  Fatty foods make absorption of alcohol slower as compared with sugar and other carbohydrates and protein.  The length of time the gastric contents are held in the stomach prior to the opening of the pylorus  Permeability of the stomach and intestinal membrane to alcohol.  Chronic drinkers absorb alcohol faster than non-habitual drinkers.  Concentration of alcohol in the beverages between 10 and 20% is the most rapidly absorbed. FORMS OF CHEMICAL AND SCIENTIFIC TESTS OF INTOXICATION  Analysis of blood for alcohol contents  Analysis of urine for alcohol contents  Analysis of saliva for alcohol contents  Analysis of breath to determine concentration of alcohol  Analysis of body tissue and spinal fluid
  • 45. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 45 | P a g e THE BLOOD-ALCOHOL TEST This test is the most widely accepted and direct method of determining the concentration of alcohol in the blood. This is done by physician, nurse or competent technician upon request of the police investigator. The following are the present two presumptive standards relating to the interpretation of blood alcohol contents:  If there is 0.05 percent or less by weight of alcohol in a person’s blood, it shall be presumed that he is not under the influence of intoxicating liquor.  If there is 0.15 percent or more by weight of alcohol in a person’s blood, it shall be presumed that he is under the influence of intoxicating liquor. THE URINE-ALCOHOL TEST: Urine examination to determine blood alcohol contents gives an acceptable result to the court although the use of this chemical test is not yet widespread in our jurisdiction. Sample of urine must not be taken at one time only because urinary excretion of alcohol varies with time. Excretion is less during the early stage of absorption and may be more than that in the blood during the later stage. METHODS OF THERAPY ON ALCOHOLISM A. The Aversion Treatment  This treatment seeks to create an aversion from alcohol by the administration of a Nauseating drug to be followed by a drink of liquor, and thus develops a dislike of alcohol.  The method maybe rather costly since hospitalization maybe required.  Moreover, the effect is not always lasting and treatment must be repeated.  Yet, it is said that this method has proven effective in more than half of the cases. B. The Psychotherapy Method  This cure depends upon showing that the real problem of the alcoholic is not the  Alcoholitself but the emotional problem that led the alcoholics to drink.  This method therefore, aims to eliminate these emotional tensions.  Through therapeutic interviews, it undertakes to make the alcoholics aware of why he drinks and to provide him with the strength necessary to combat his problems. C. The Program of Alcoholics Anonymous  This method is based on conversion and fellowship.  It emphasizes that alcoholics understand alcoholism better than anyone else  man is dependent upon God and must turn to Him for help; that the alcoholic must sincerely desire to stop drinking  He must admit that he is an alcoholic and cannot drink in moderation. II. GAMBLING TERMS TO PONDER  GAMBLING Wagering of money or something of material value on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods.  Chance or Hazard – is the uncertainty of the result of the game or when the outcome of the game is incapable of calculation by human reason, foresight, sagacity or design.
  • 46. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 46 | P a g e  WAGER – is the bet or consideration placed on gambling games.  PRIZE – is the unequal amount due to the winner.  ILLEGAL NUMBERS GAME Any form of illegal gambling activity which uses numbers or combination as factors in giving out jackpots.  JUETENG illegal numbers game that involves the combination of numbers as a form of local lottery where bets are placed and accepted per combination .  MASIAO illegal numbers game where the winning combination is derived from the results of the last game of Jai Alai or the Special Llave portion  LAST TWO - Illegal numbers game where the winning combination is derived from the last two numbers of the first prize of the winning Sweepstakes ticket.  BETTOR (Mananaya) Any person, who places bets for himself/herself or in behalf of another person, other than the personnel or staff of any illegal numbers game operation.  COLLECTOR or AGENT (Cabo, Cobrador) Any person who collects, solicits or produces bets in behalf of his/her principal for any illegal numbers game who is usually in possession of gambling paraphernalia  MAINTAINER, MANAGER OR OPERATOR Any person who maintains, manages, or operates any illegal number game in a specific area.  FINANCIERS OR CAPITALIST Any person who finances the operations of any illegal numbers game.  PROTECTOR OR CODDLER Any person who lends or provides protection, or receives benefits in any manner in the operation of any illegal numbers game.  GULLIBLE PERSON – person who easily deceived especially in crooked gambling.  CONDUCTOR – is the person who manages or carries the gambling game.  BANKER – is the person who keeps the money from which the winner is to be paid.  PAGCOR (Philippine Amusement and Gambling Corporation) – office that controls/regulates gambling games. CLASSIFICATION OF GAMBLING GAMES 1. Those who are absolutely or per se prohibited  Under Art. 195, RPC – monte, jueteng, other form of lottery, policy, banking or percentage game and dog races;  Faro and roulette is absolutely prohibited by the Gambling Law. 2. Those which are regulated by law. These games are regulated in the sense that the law allows the same to be played except on certain specified of the day.  Cockfighting under Art. 199, Revised Penal Code  Horse Racing under Art. 198, Revised Penal Code  Panguingue, cuajo, domino, mahjong, entre cuatro, and other under Sec. 828, Revised Ordinances of the City of Manila REQUISITES/ELEMENTS OF THE CRIME OF GAMBLING  That money or other consideration of value is at stake  That the result of the games depends wholly or chiefly upon chance or hazrd  In cases of lottery, there must be:  consideration;  chance, and;  prize or the inequal amount due to the winner NOTE: Lottery becomes punishable only when the participants buys ticket only for purposes of participating in the lottery but not when the participation is only incidental to buying a certain good wherein the participation entitles the buyer an equal value of his money’s worth.
  • 47. GUIDE FOR DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL 47 | P a g e LAWS RELEVANT TO GAMBLING Article 195 of RPC  Acts punishable in gambling – any person directly or indirectly take part in any game of Monte, jueteng, other form of lottery, policy, banking or percentage game, dog races or any other game the result of which depends wholly upon a chance wherein wagers consisting of money, articles of value, or representative of value are made.  Article 195 of RPC. The penalty of arresto mayor or a fine not exceeding two hundred pesos, and, in case of recidivism, the penalty of arresto mayor or a fine ranging from two hundred or six thousand pesos,  The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum degree shall be imposed upon the maintainer, conductor, or banker in a game of jueteng or any similar game. Article 196 (RPC)  Penalizing any person who shall import into the Philippine Islands from any foreign place or port any lottery ticket or advertisement, or in connivance with the importer, shall sell or distribute the same.  The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period or a fine ranging from 200 to 2,000 pesos, or both, in the discretion of the court Article 197 (RPC). Betting in sports Contest  Penalizing any person who shall bet money or any object or article of value or representative of value upon the result of any boxing or other sports contest.  The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both, Article 198 (RPC). Illegal betting on horse races  Penalizing any person who, except during the periods allowed by law, shall bet on horse races.  The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both, Article 199 (RPC). Illegal cockfighting –  Penalizing any person who directly or indirectly participates in cockfights, at a place other than a licensed cockpit.  The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or both, in the discretion of the court RA 3063 – Approved June 17, 1961  authorizing licensed race tracks and racing clubs and their authorized agent to offer, take or arrange bets outside the place, enclosure of track where the races held.  Penalty - fine of not less than one thousand pesos not more than two thousand pesos or by imprisonment for not less than one month or more than six months, or both, in the discretion of the court. If the offender is a partnership, corporation or association, the criminal liability shall devolve upon its president, director, or any other official responsible for the violation. PD 449 – Cockfighting Law of 1974 – Approved May 9, 1974. PD 483 - Penalizing Betting, Game-fixing or point shaving and Machinations in Sports Contents. Approved on June 13, 1974. PD 1602 – Approved June 11, 1978. prescribing stiffer penalties on illegal gambling. RA 9287 – Approved 2, 2004An Act increasing the penalties for illegal numbers games, amending certain provisions of P.D. 1602, and for other purposes.