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Drug

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Drug

  1. 1. DrugFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchFor other uses, see Drug (disambiguation).Coffee is the most widely used psychoactive drug beverage in the world. In 1999, the averageconsumption of coffee was 3.5 cups per day per U.S. citizen.[1]Wine is a common alcoholic beverage.[2]A drug is a substance which may have medicinal, intoxicating, performance enhancing orother effects when taken or put into a human body or the body of another animal and is notconsidered a food or exclusively a food.What is considered a drug rather than a food varies between cultures, and distinctionsbetween drugs and foods and between kinds of drug are enshrined in laws which varybetween jurisdictions and aim to restrict or prevent drug use. Even within a jurisdiction,however, the status of a substance may be uncertain or contested with respect to both whetherit is a drug and how it should be classified if at all. There is no single, precise definition, asthere are different meanings in drug control law, government regulations, medicine, andcolloquial usage.[3]In pharmacology, a drug is "a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, ordiagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being."[3] Drugsmay be prescribed for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.[4]The molecules of drugs are complex, and most of them consist of many hydrogen and carbonatoms, a few oxygen atoms, and one or a few nitrogen atoms. Drugs may also have nonitrogen atoms in it and many may have chlorine atoms in it, such as chloral hydrate.
  2. 2. Recreational drugs are chemical substances that affect the central nervous system, such asopioids or hallucinogens.[4] They may be used for perceived beneficial effects on perception,consciousness, personality, and behavior.[4][5] Some drugs can cause addiction and/orhabituation.[5]Drugs are usually distinguished from endogenous biochemicals by being introduced fromoutside the organism.[citation needed] For example, insulin is a hormone that is synthesized in thebody; it is called a hormone when it is synthesized by the pancreas inside the body, but if it isintroduced into the body from outside, it is called a drug.[citation needed] Many naturalsubstances, such as beers, wines, and psychoactive mushrooms, blur the line between foodand recreational drugs, as when ingested they affect the functioning of both mind and bodyand some substances normally considered drugs such as DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) areactually produced by the human body in trace amounts.Contents 1 Etymology 2 Medication 3 Spiritual and religious use 4 Self-improvement 5 Recreational drug use 6 Administering drugs 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEtymologyDrug is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving later into "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants preserved inthem.[6]Medication
  3. 3. Nexium pills 40 mg(esomeprazole magnesium)Main article: pharmaceutical drugA medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure and/or ameliorate any symptoms of anillness or medical condition, or may be used as preventive medicine that has future benefitsbut does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms.Dispensing of medication is often regulated by governments into three categories—over-the-counter (OTC) medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarkets withoutspecial restrictions, behind-the-counter (BTC), which are dispensed by a pharmacist withoutneeding a doctors prescription, and prescription only medicines (POM), which must beprescribed by a licensed medical professional, usually a physician.[citation needed]In the United Kingdom, BTC medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only besold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. These medicationsare designated by the letter P on the label.[7] The range of medicines available without aprescription varies from country to country.Medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented togive the developer exclusive rights to produce them. Those that are not patented (or withexpired patents) are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companieswithout restrictions or licenses from the patent holder.Spiritual and religious useMain article: EntheogenThe spiritual and religious use of drugs has been occurring since the dawn of our species.Drugs that are considered to have spiritual or religious use are called entheogens. Somereligions are based completely on the use of certain drugs. Entheogens are mostlyhallucinogens, being either psychedelics or deliriants, but some are also stimulants andsedatives.Self-improvementMain article: NootropicNootropics, also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed toimprove human cognitive abilities. Nootropics are used to improve memory, concentration,thought, mood, learning, and many other things. Some nootropics are now beginning to beused to treat certain diseases such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Parkinsonsdisease, and Alzheimers disease. They are also commonly used to regain brain function lostduring aging. Similarly, Drugs such as steroids improve human physical capabilities and aresometimes used (legally or not) for this purpose, often by professional athletes.Recreational drug use
  4. 4. The cigarette is the common pharmaceutical form of tobacco – one of the world’s best sellingdrugs.[8]Cannabis is another commonly used recreational drug.[9]Main article: Recreational drug useFurther information: Prohibition of drugsRecreational drugs use is the use of psychoactive substances to have fun, for the experience,or to enhance an already positive experience. National laws prohibit the use of many differentrecreational drugs and medicinal drugs that have the potential for recreational use are heavilyregulated. Many other recreational drugs on the other hand are legal, widely culturallyaccepted, and at the most have an age restriction on using and/or purchasing them. Theseinclude alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and caffeine products in the west, and in other localisedareas of the world drugs such as Khat are common. Because of the legal status of manydrugs, recreational drug use is controversial, with many governments not recognisingspiritual or other perceived uses for drugs and classing them under illegal recreational use.Administering drugsDrugs, both medicinal and recreational, can be administered in a number of ways. Manydrugs can be administered in a variety of ways rather than just one. Bolus Inhaled, (breathed into the lungs), as an aerosol or dry powder. (This includes smoking a substance) Injected as a solution, suspension or emulsion either: intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous. Insufflation, or snorted into the nose. Orally, as a liquid or solid, that is absorbed through the intestines.
  5. 5. Rectally as a suppository, that is absorbed by the rectum or colon.Sublingually, diffusing into the blood through tissues under the tongue.Topically, usually as a cream or ointment. A drug administered in this manner may begiven to act locally or systemically.[10]Vaginally as a suppository, primarily to treat vaginal infections.

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