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Dependency Injection
with PHP 5.3

Fabien Potencier
Fabien Potencier
•  Serial entrepreneur and developer by passion
•  Founder of Sensio (in 1998)
   –  A services and consulting company
      specialized in Web technologies
      and Internet marketing (France and USA)
   –  70 people
   –  Open-Source specialists
   –  Big corporate customers
   –  Consulting, training, development, web design, … and more
   –  Sponsor of a lot of Open-Source projects
      like symfony and Doctrine
Fabien Potencier
•  Creator and lead developer of symfony…
•  and creator and lead developer of some more OSS:
   –  symfony components
   –  Swift Mailer : Powerful component based mailing library for PHP
   –  Twig : Fexible, fast, and secure template language for PHP
   –  Pirum : Simple PEAR Channel Server Manager
   –  Sismo : PHP continuous integration server
   –  Lime : Easy to use unit testing library for PHP
   –  Twitto : A web framework in a tweet
   –  Twittee : A Dependency Injection Container in a tweet
   –  Pimple : A small PHP 5.3 dependency injection container
Fabien Potencier

•  Read my technical blog: http://fabien.potencier.org/

•  Follow me on Twitter: @fabpot

•  Fork my code on Github: http://github.com/fabpot/
Dependency Injection

A real world « web » example
In most web applications, you need to manage the user preferences

   –  The user language
   –  Whether the user is authenticated or not
   –  The user credentials
   –  …
This can be done with a User object

   –  setLanguage(), getLanguage()
   –  setAuthenticated(), isAuthenticated()
   –  addCredential(), hasCredential()
   –  ...
The User information
         need to be persisted
        between HTTP requests

We use the PHP session for the Storage
class SessionStorage
{
  function __construct($cookieName = 'PHP_SESS_ID')
  {
    session_name($cookieName);
    session_start();
  }

    function set($key, $value)
    {
      $_SESSION[$key] = $value;
    }

    // ...
}
class User
{
  protected $storage;

    function __construct()                      Very hard to
    {                                            customize
      $this->storage = new SessionStorage();
    }

    function setLanguage($language)
    {
      $this->storage->set('language', $language);
    }

    // ...
}                           Very easy
                              to use
$user = new User();
class User
{
  protected $storage;                  Very easy to
                                        customize
    function __construct($storage)
    {
      $this->storage = $storage;
    }
}

$storage = new SessionStorage();
$user = new User($storage);
                                     Slightly more
                                     difficult to use
That’s Dependency Injection

      Nothing more
Let’s understand why the first example
is not a good idea
I want to change the session cookie name
class User
{
  protected $storage;

    function __construct()
                                                    Hardcode it in the
    {                                                   User class
      $this->storage = new SessionStorage('SESSION_ID');
    }

    function setLanguage($language)
    {
      $this->storage->set('language', $language);
    }

    // ...
}

$user = new User();
class User
{
  protected $storage;

    function __construct()
    {
        $this->storage = new SessionStorage(STORAGE_SESSION_NAME);
    }
}
                                                              Add a global
                                                             configuration?
define('STORAGE_SESSION_NAME', 'SESSION_ID');

$user = new User();
class User
{
  protected $storage;

    function __construct($sessionName)
    {
      $this->storage = new SessionStorage($sessionName);
    }
}

$user = new User('SESSION_ID');
                                         Configure via
                                             User?
class User
{
  protected $storage;

  function __construct($storageOptions)
  {
    $this->storage = new SessionStorage($storageOptions
['session_name']);

$user = new User(
   array('session_name' => 'SESSION_ID')
);
                                      Configure with an
                                            array?
I want to change the session storage implementation

                   Filesystem
                     MySQL
                   Memcached
                       …
class User
{
  protected $storage;

    function __construct()                             Use a global
    {                                                 registry object?
      $this->storage = Registry::get('session_storage');
    }
}

$storage = new SessionStorage();
Registry::set('session_storage', $storage);
$user = new User();
Now, the User depends on the Registry
Instead of harcoding
    the Storage dependency
inside the User class constructor

Inject the Storage dependency
       in the User object
class User
{
  protected $storage;

    function __construct($storage)
    {
      $this->storage = $storage;
    }
}

$storage = new SessionStorage('SESSION_ID');
$user = new User($storage);
What are the advantages?
Use different Storage strategies
class User
{
  protected $storage;

    function __construct($storage)
    {
      $this->storage = $storage;
    }
}                                                   Use a different
                                                    Storage engine
$storage = new MySQLSessionStorage('SESSION_ID');
$user = new User($storage);
Configuration becomes natural
class User
{
  protected $storage;

    function __construct($storage)
    {
      $this->storage = $storage;
    }
}                                                   Configuration
                                                      is natural
$storage = new MySQLSessionStorage('SESSION_ID');
$user = new User($storage);
Wrap third-party classes (Interface / Adapter)
class User
{
  protected $storage;
                                                      Add an interface
    function __construct(SessionStorageInterface $storage)
    {
      $this->storage = $storage;
    }
}

interface SessionStorageInterface
{
  function get($key);

    function set($key, $value);
}
Mock the Storage object (for testing)
class User
{
  protected $storage;

    function __construct(SessionStorageInterface $storage)
    {
      $this->storage = $storage;
    }
}
                                                      Mock the Session
class SessionStorageForTests implements SessionStorageInterface
{
  protected $data = array();

    static function set($key, $value)
    {
      self::$data[$key] = $value;
    }
}
Use different Storage strategies
       Configuration becomes natural
Wrap third-party classes (Interface / Adapter)
    Mock the Storage object (for testing)


Easy without changing the User class
« Dependency Injection is where
   components are given their dependencies
    through their constructors, methods, or
             directly into fields. »
http://www.picocontainer.org/injection.html
$storage = new SessionStorage();

// constructor injection
$user = new User($storage);

// setter injection
$user = new User();
$user->setStorage($storage);

// property injection
$user = new User();
$user->storage = $storage;
A slightly more complex
web example
$request = new Request();
$response = new Response();

$storage = new FileSessionStorage('SESSION_ID');
$user = new User($storage);

$cache = new FileCache(
   array('dir' => dirname(__FILE__).'/cache')
);
$routing = new Routing($cache);
class Application
{
  function __construct()
  {
    $this->request = new WebRequest();
    $this->response = new WebResponse();

        $storage = new FileSessionStorage('SESSION_ID');
        $this->user = new User($storage);

        $cache = new FileCache(
           array('dir' => dirname(__FILE__).'/cache')
        );
        $this->routing = new Routing($cache);
    }
}

$application = new Application();
Back to square 1
class Application
{
  function __construct()
  {
    $this->request = new WebRequest();
    $this->response = new WebResponse();

        $storage = new FileSessionStorage('SESSION_ID');
        $this->user = new User($storage);

        $cache = new FileCache(
           array('dir' => dirname(__FILE__).'/cache')
        );
        $this->routing = new Routing($cache);
    }
}

$application = new Application();
We need a Container
     Describes objects
  and their dependencies

 Instantiates and configures
     objects on-demand
A container
SHOULD be able to manage
  ANY PHP object (POPO)


The objects MUST not know
  that they are managed
      by a container
•  Parameters
   –  The SessionStorageInterface implementation we want to use (the class name)
   –  The session name
•  Objects
   –  SessionStorage
   –  User
•  Dependencies
   –  User depends on a SessionStorageInterface implementation
Let’s build a simple container with PHP 5.3
DI Container

Managing parameters
class Container
{
  protected $parameters = array();

    public function setParameter($key, $value)
    {
      $this->parameters[$key] = $value;
    }

    public function getParameter($key)
    {
      return $this->parameters[$key];
    }
}
Decoupling


$container = new Container();                             Customization
$container->setParameter('session_name', 'SESSION_ID');
$container->setParameter('storage_class', 'SessionStorage');




$class = $container->getParameter('storage_class');
$sessionStorage = new $class($container->getParameter('session_name'));
$user = new User($sessionStorage);
                                                        Objects creation
class Container                            Using PHP
{                                         magic methods
  protected $parameters = array();

    public function __set($key, $value)
    {
      $this->parameters[$key] = $value;
    }

    public function __get($key)
    {
      return $this->parameters[$key];
    }
}
Interface
                                                          is cleaner


$container = new Container();
$container->session_name = 'SESSION_ID';
$container->storage_class = 'SessionStorage';

$sessionStorage = new $container->storage_class($container->session_name);
$user = new User($sessionStorage);
DI Container

Managing objects
We need a way to describe how to create objects,
    without actually instantiating anything!

      Anonymous functions to the rescue!
Anonymous Functions / Lambdas


               A lambda is a function
                   defined on the fly
                    with no name

function () { echo 'Hello world!'; };
Anonymous Functions / Lambdas

                A lambda can be stored
                      in a variable

$hello = function () { echo 'Hello world!'; };
Anonymous Functions / Lambdas

                And then it can be used
                as any other PHP callable

$hello();


call_user_func($hello);
Anonymous Functions / Lambdas

                    You can also pass a lambda
               as an argument to a function or method

function foo(Closure $func)
{
  $func();
}

foo($hello);
Fonctions anonymes
$hello = function ($name) { echo 'Hello '.$name; };

$hello('Fabien');

call_user_func($hello, 'Fabien');

function foo(Closure $func, $name)
{
  $func($name);
}

foo($hello, 'Fabien');
DI Container

Managing objects
class Container
{
  protected $parameters = array();
  protected $objects = array();

    public function __set($key, $value)
    {
      $this->parameters[$key] = $value;
    }

    public function __get($key)                           Store a lambda
    {
      return $this->parameters[$key];                    able to create the
                                                         object on-demand
    }

    public function setService($key, Closure $service)
    {
      $this->objects[$key] = $service;
    }

    public function getService($key)            Ask the closure to create
    {
      return $this->objects[$key]($this);        th e object and pass the
}
    }                                                current Container
$container = new Container();
$container->session_name = 'SESSION_ID';               Description
$container->storage_class = 'SessionStorage';
$container->setService('user', function ($c)
{
  return new User($c->getService('storage'));
});
$container->setService('storage', function ($c)
{
  return new $c->storage_class($c->session_name);
});


                                              Creating the User
                                          is now as easy as before
$user = $container->getService('user');
class Container
{
  protected $values = array();               Simplify the code
    function __set($id, $value)
    {
      $this->values[$id] = $value;
    }

    function __get($id)
    {
      if (is_callable($this->values[$id]))
      {
        return $this->values[$id]($this);
      }
      else
      {
        return $this->values[$id];
      }
    }
}
$container = new Container();
                                            Unified interface
$container->session_name = 'SESSION_ID';
$container->storage_class = 'SessionStorage';
$container->user = function ($c)
{
   return new User($c->storage);
};
$container->storage = function ($c)
{
   return new $c->storage_class($c->session_name);
};




$user = $container->user;
DI Container

Scope
For some objects, like the user,
   the container must always
    return the same instance
spl_object_hash($container->user)



            !==
spl_object_hash($container->user)
$container->user = function ($c)
{
  static $user;

  if (is_null($user))
  {
    $user = new User($c->storage);
  }

  return $user;
};
spl_object_hash($container->user)



            ===
spl_object_hash($container->user)
$container->user = $container->asShared(function ($c)
{
  return new User($c->storage);
});
A closure is a lambda
that remembers the context
      of its creation…
class Article
{
  public function __construct($title)
  {
    $this->title = $title;
  }

    public function getTitle()
    {
      return $this->title;
    }
}

$articles = array(
   new Article('Title 1'),
   new Article('Title 2'),
);
$mapper = function ($article)
{
   return $article->getTitle();
};

$titles = array_map($mapper, $articles);
$method = 'getTitle';

$mapper = function ($article) use($method)
{
   return $article->$method();
};

$method = 'getAuthor';

$titles = array_map($mapper, $articles);
$mapper = function ($method)
{
   return function ($article) use($method)
   {
      return $article->$method();
   };
};
$titles = array_map($mapper('getTitle'), $articles);


$authors = array_map($mapper('getAuthor'), $articles);
$container->user = $container->asShared(function ($c)
{
  return new User($c->storage);
});
function asShared(Closure $lambda)
{
  return function ($container) use ($lambda)
  {
    static $object;

      if (is_null($object))
      {
        $object = $lambda($container);
      }
      return $object;
    };
}
class Container
{
  protected $values = array();

    function __set($id, $value)
    {
      $this->values[$id] = $value;
    }

    function __get($id)
    {                                                            Error management
      if (!isset($this->values[$id]))
      {
        throw new InvalidArgumentException(sprintf('Value "%s" is not defined.', $id));
      }

        if (is_callable($this->values[$id]))
        {
          return $this->values[$id]($this);
        }
        else
        {
          return $this->values[$id];
        }
    }
}
class Container
{
  protected $values = array();

    function __set($id, $value)
    {
      $this->values[$id] = $value;
    }

    function __get($id)
    {
      if (!isset($this->values[$id]))
      {
        throw new InvalidArgumentException(sprintf('Value "%s" is not defined.', $id));
      }

        if (is_callable($this->values[$id]))
        {
          return $this->values[$id]($this);
        }
        else
        {
          return $this->values[$id];
        }
    }

    function asShared($callable)
    {


                                                                                          40 LOC for a fully-
      return function ($c) use ($callable)
      {
        static $object;

          if (is_null($object))
          {
            $object = $callable($c);
                                                                                          featured container
          }
          return $object;
        };
    }
}
I’m NOT advocating
the usage of lambdas everywhere


   This presentation is about
    showing how they work
     on practical examples
A DI Container
does NOT manage
 ALL your objects
Good rule of thumb:
    It manages “Global” objects

Objects with only one instance (!= Singletons)
LIKE
        a User, a Request,
a database Connection, a Logger, …
UNLIKE
Model objects (a Product, a blog Post, …)
Symfony Components
Dependency Injection
Rock-solid implementation of a DIC in PHP 5.3
At the core of the Symfony 2.0 framework

  … which is the fastest framework
         for a “Hello World” app
(about 4-5 times faster than symfony 1.4)
Very flexible

Configuration in PHP, XML, YAML, or INI
$container = new Builder();
                                                                                         PHP
$container->register('output', 'FancyOutput');
$container->
  register('message', 'Message')->
  setArguments(array(new sfServiceReference('output'), array('with_newline' => true)))
;

$container->message->say('Hello World!');


services:
  output: { class: FancyOutput }
                                                                                         YAML
  message:
    class: Message
    arguments:
      - @output
      - { with_newline: true }

<container xmlns="http://symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services">
  <services>
    <service id="output" class="FancyOutput" />                                          XML
    <service id="message" class="Message">
      <argument type="service" id="output" />
      <argument type="collection">
        <argument key="with_newline">true</argument>
      </argument>
    </service>
  </services>
</container>
<container xmlns="http://symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services">
  <import resource="parameters.yml" />
  <import resource="parameters.ini" />
  <import resource="services.xml" />
</container>


imports:
 - { resource: parameters.yml }
 - { resource: parameters.ini }
 - { resource: services.xml }
Fast as hell
The container can be
  “compiled” down
  to plain PHP code
use SymfonyComponentsDependencyInjectionContainer;
use SymfonyComponentsDependencyInjectionReference;
use SymfonyComponentsDependencyInjectionParameter;

class ProjectServiceContainer extends Container
{
  protected $shared = array();

    protected function getOutputService()
    {
      if (isset($this->shared['output'])) return $this->shared['output'];

        $instance = new FancyOutput();

        return $this->shared['output'] = $instance;
    }

    protected function getMessageService()
    {
      if (isset($this->shared['message'])) return $this->shared['message'];

        $instance = new Message($this->getOutputService(), array('with_newline' => true));

        return $this->shared['message'] = $instance;
    }
}
Semantic configuration
Thanks to an extension mechanism
<container xmlns="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services">

  <zend:logger
     priority="debug"
     path="%kernel.root_dir%/logs/%kernel.environment%.log" />

  <doctrine:dbal dbname="dbname" username="root" password="" />

  <swift:mailer transport="gmail">
    <swift:username>fabien.potencier</swift:username>
    <swift:password>xxxxxx</swift:password>
  </swift:mailer>

</container>
<container xmlns="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:swift="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/swiftmailer"
    xmlns:doctrine="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/doctrine"
    xmlns:zend="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/zend"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services http://www.symfony-
project.org/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd
                        http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/doctrine http://www.symfony-
project.org/schema/dic/doctrine/doctrine-1.0.xsd
                        http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/swiftmailer http://
www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/swiftmailer/swiftmailer-1.0.xsd">

  <zend:logger priority="debug" path="%kernel.root_dir%/logs/%kernel.environment%.log" />

                                                         auto-completion
  <doctrine:dbal dbname="dbname" username="root" password="" />

  <swift:mailer transport="gmail">                        and validation
    <swift:username>fabien.potencier</swift:username>
    <swift:password>xxxxxx</swift:password>                  with XSD
  </swift:mailer>

</container>
zend.logger:
  level: debug
  path:   %kernel.root_dir%/logs/%kernel.environment%.log

doctrine.dbal:
  dbname: dbname
  username: root
  password: ~

swift.mailer:
  transport: gmail
  username: fabien.potencier
  password: xxxxxxx
Everything is converted by the extension
     to plain services and parameters
            no overhead
Loader::registerExtension(new SwiftMailerExtension());
Loader::registerExtension(new DoctrineExtension());
Loader::registerExtension(new ZendExtension());

$loader = new XmlFileLoader(__DIR__);
$config = $loader->load('services.xml');

$container = new Builder();
$container->merge($config);

$container->mailer->...

$dumper = new PhpDumper($container);
echo $dumper->dump();
More about Dependency Injection
http://fabien.potencier.org/article/17/on-php-5-3-lambda-functions-and-closures


http://components.symfony-project.org/dependency-injection/ (5.2)


http://github.com/fabpot/symfony/tree/master/src/Symfony/Components/DependencyInjection/(5.3)



http://github.com/fabpot/pimple


http://twittee.org/
Remember, most of the time,
 you don’t need a Container
to use Dependency Injection
You can start to use and benefit from
    Dependency Injection today
by implementing it
        in your projects

  by using externals libraries
      that already use DI
without the need of a container
Symfony
Zend Framework
 ezComponents
    Doctrine
  Swift Mailer
      …
symfony-live.com
         with Matthew Weier O’Pheinney




    I will reveal the first alpha release of Symfony 2.0!
Questions?

My slides will be available on
slideshare.com/fabpot
Sensio S.A.
    92-98, boulevard Victor Hugo
        92 115 Clichy Cedex
              FRANCE
       Tél. : +33 1 40 99 80 80

               Contact
           Fabien Potencier
    fabien.potencier at sensio.com




  http://www.sensiolabs.com/
http://www.symfony-project.org/
 http://fabien.potencier.org/

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Dependency Injection with PHP 5.3

  • 1. Dependency Injection with PHP 5.3 Fabien Potencier
  • 2. Fabien Potencier •  Serial entrepreneur and developer by passion •  Founder of Sensio (in 1998) –  A services and consulting company specialized in Web technologies and Internet marketing (France and USA) –  70 people –  Open-Source specialists –  Big corporate customers –  Consulting, training, development, web design, … and more –  Sponsor of a lot of Open-Source projects like symfony and Doctrine
  • 3. Fabien Potencier •  Creator and lead developer of symfony… •  and creator and lead developer of some more OSS: –  symfony components –  Swift Mailer : Powerful component based mailing library for PHP –  Twig : Fexible, fast, and secure template language for PHP –  Pirum : Simple PEAR Channel Server Manager –  Sismo : PHP continuous integration server –  Lime : Easy to use unit testing library for PHP –  Twitto : A web framework in a tweet –  Twittee : A Dependency Injection Container in a tweet –  Pimple : A small PHP 5.3 dependency injection container
  • 4. Fabien Potencier •  Read my technical blog: http://fabien.potencier.org/ •  Follow me on Twitter: @fabpot •  Fork my code on Github: http://github.com/fabpot/
  • 5. Dependency Injection A real world « web » example
  • 6. In most web applications, you need to manage the user preferences –  The user language –  Whether the user is authenticated or not –  The user credentials –  …
  • 7. This can be done with a User object –  setLanguage(), getLanguage() –  setAuthenticated(), isAuthenticated() –  addCredential(), hasCredential() –  ...
  • 8. The User information need to be persisted between HTTP requests We use the PHP session for the Storage
  • 9. class SessionStorage { function __construct($cookieName = 'PHP_SESS_ID') { session_name($cookieName); session_start(); } function set($key, $value) { $_SESSION[$key] = $value; } // ... }
  • 10. class User { protected $storage; function __construct() Very hard to { customize $this->storage = new SessionStorage(); } function setLanguage($language) { $this->storage->set('language', $language); } // ... } Very easy to use $user = new User();
  • 11. class User { protected $storage; Very easy to customize function __construct($storage) { $this->storage = $storage; } } $storage = new SessionStorage(); $user = new User($storage); Slightly more difficult to use
  • 13. Let’s understand why the first example is not a good idea
  • 14. I want to change the session cookie name
  • 15. class User { protected $storage; function __construct() Hardcode it in the { User class $this->storage = new SessionStorage('SESSION_ID'); } function setLanguage($language) { $this->storage->set('language', $language); } // ... } $user = new User();
  • 16. class User { protected $storage; function __construct() { $this->storage = new SessionStorage(STORAGE_SESSION_NAME); } } Add a global configuration? define('STORAGE_SESSION_NAME', 'SESSION_ID'); $user = new User();
  • 17. class User { protected $storage; function __construct($sessionName) { $this->storage = new SessionStorage($sessionName); } } $user = new User('SESSION_ID'); Configure via User?
  • 18. class User { protected $storage; function __construct($storageOptions) { $this->storage = new SessionStorage($storageOptions ['session_name']); $user = new User( array('session_name' => 'SESSION_ID') ); Configure with an array?
  • 19. I want to change the session storage implementation Filesystem MySQL Memcached …
  • 20. class User { protected $storage; function __construct() Use a global { registry object? $this->storage = Registry::get('session_storage'); } } $storage = new SessionStorage(); Registry::set('session_storage', $storage); $user = new User();
  • 21. Now, the User depends on the Registry
  • 22. Instead of harcoding the Storage dependency inside the User class constructor Inject the Storage dependency in the User object
  • 23. class User { protected $storage; function __construct($storage) { $this->storage = $storage; } } $storage = new SessionStorage('SESSION_ID'); $user = new User($storage);
  • 24. What are the advantages?
  • 26. class User { protected $storage; function __construct($storage) { $this->storage = $storage; } } Use a different Storage engine $storage = new MySQLSessionStorage('SESSION_ID'); $user = new User($storage);
  • 28. class User { protected $storage; function __construct($storage) { $this->storage = $storage; } } Configuration is natural $storage = new MySQLSessionStorage('SESSION_ID'); $user = new User($storage);
  • 29. Wrap third-party classes (Interface / Adapter)
  • 30. class User { protected $storage; Add an interface function __construct(SessionStorageInterface $storage) { $this->storage = $storage; } } interface SessionStorageInterface { function get($key); function set($key, $value); }
  • 31. Mock the Storage object (for testing)
  • 32. class User { protected $storage; function __construct(SessionStorageInterface $storage) { $this->storage = $storage; } } Mock the Session class SessionStorageForTests implements SessionStorageInterface { protected $data = array(); static function set($key, $value) { self::$data[$key] = $value; } }
  • 33. Use different Storage strategies Configuration becomes natural Wrap third-party classes (Interface / Adapter) Mock the Storage object (for testing) Easy without changing the User class
  • 34. « Dependency Injection is where components are given their dependencies through their constructors, methods, or directly into fields. » http://www.picocontainer.org/injection.html
  • 35. $storage = new SessionStorage(); // constructor injection $user = new User($storage); // setter injection $user = new User(); $user->setStorage($storage); // property injection $user = new User(); $user->storage = $storage;
  • 36. A slightly more complex web example
  • 37. $request = new Request(); $response = new Response(); $storage = new FileSessionStorage('SESSION_ID'); $user = new User($storage); $cache = new FileCache( array('dir' => dirname(__FILE__).'/cache') ); $routing = new Routing($cache);
  • 38. class Application { function __construct() { $this->request = new WebRequest(); $this->response = new WebResponse(); $storage = new FileSessionStorage('SESSION_ID'); $this->user = new User($storage); $cache = new FileCache( array('dir' => dirname(__FILE__).'/cache') ); $this->routing = new Routing($cache); } } $application = new Application();
  • 40. class Application { function __construct() { $this->request = new WebRequest(); $this->response = new WebResponse(); $storage = new FileSessionStorage('SESSION_ID'); $this->user = new User($storage); $cache = new FileCache( array('dir' => dirname(__FILE__).'/cache') ); $this->routing = new Routing($cache); } } $application = new Application();
  • 41. We need a Container Describes objects and their dependencies Instantiates and configures objects on-demand
  • 42. A container SHOULD be able to manage ANY PHP object (POPO) The objects MUST not know that they are managed by a container
  • 43. •  Parameters –  The SessionStorageInterface implementation we want to use (the class name) –  The session name •  Objects –  SessionStorage –  User •  Dependencies –  User depends on a SessionStorageInterface implementation
  • 44. Let’s build a simple container with PHP 5.3
  • 46. class Container { protected $parameters = array(); public function setParameter($key, $value) { $this->parameters[$key] = $value; } public function getParameter($key) { return $this->parameters[$key]; } }
  • 47. Decoupling $container = new Container(); Customization $container->setParameter('session_name', 'SESSION_ID'); $container->setParameter('storage_class', 'SessionStorage'); $class = $container->getParameter('storage_class'); $sessionStorage = new $class($container->getParameter('session_name')); $user = new User($sessionStorage); Objects creation
  • 48. class Container Using PHP { magic methods protected $parameters = array(); public function __set($key, $value) { $this->parameters[$key] = $value; } public function __get($key) { return $this->parameters[$key]; } }
  • 49. Interface is cleaner $container = new Container(); $container->session_name = 'SESSION_ID'; $container->storage_class = 'SessionStorage'; $sessionStorage = new $container->storage_class($container->session_name); $user = new User($sessionStorage);
  • 51. We need a way to describe how to create objects, without actually instantiating anything! Anonymous functions to the rescue!
  • 52. Anonymous Functions / Lambdas A lambda is a function defined on the fly with no name function () { echo 'Hello world!'; };
  • 53. Anonymous Functions / Lambdas A lambda can be stored in a variable $hello = function () { echo 'Hello world!'; };
  • 54. Anonymous Functions / Lambdas And then it can be used as any other PHP callable $hello(); call_user_func($hello);
  • 55. Anonymous Functions / Lambdas You can also pass a lambda as an argument to a function or method function foo(Closure $func) { $func(); } foo($hello);
  • 56. Fonctions anonymes $hello = function ($name) { echo 'Hello '.$name; }; $hello('Fabien'); call_user_func($hello, 'Fabien'); function foo(Closure $func, $name) { $func($name); } foo($hello, 'Fabien');
  • 58. class Container { protected $parameters = array(); protected $objects = array(); public function __set($key, $value) { $this->parameters[$key] = $value; } public function __get($key) Store a lambda { return $this->parameters[$key]; able to create the object on-demand } public function setService($key, Closure $service) { $this->objects[$key] = $service; } public function getService($key) Ask the closure to create { return $this->objects[$key]($this); th e object and pass the } } current Container
  • 59. $container = new Container(); $container->session_name = 'SESSION_ID'; Description $container->storage_class = 'SessionStorage'; $container->setService('user', function ($c) { return new User($c->getService('storage')); }); $container->setService('storage', function ($c) { return new $c->storage_class($c->session_name); }); Creating the User is now as easy as before $user = $container->getService('user');
  • 60. class Container { protected $values = array(); Simplify the code function __set($id, $value) { $this->values[$id] = $value; } function __get($id) { if (is_callable($this->values[$id])) { return $this->values[$id]($this); } else { return $this->values[$id]; } } }
  • 61. $container = new Container(); Unified interface $container->session_name = 'SESSION_ID'; $container->storage_class = 'SessionStorage'; $container->user = function ($c) { return new User($c->storage); }; $container->storage = function ($c) { return new $c->storage_class($c->session_name); }; $user = $container->user;
  • 63. For some objects, like the user, the container must always return the same instance
  • 64. spl_object_hash($container->user) !== spl_object_hash($container->user)
  • 65. $container->user = function ($c) { static $user; if (is_null($user)) { $user = new User($c->storage); } return $user; };
  • 66. spl_object_hash($container->user) === spl_object_hash($container->user)
  • 67. $container->user = $container->asShared(function ($c) { return new User($c->storage); });
  • 68. A closure is a lambda that remembers the context of its creation…
  • 69. class Article { public function __construct($title) { $this->title = $title; } public function getTitle() { return $this->title; } } $articles = array( new Article('Title 1'), new Article('Title 2'), );
  • 70. $mapper = function ($article) { return $article->getTitle(); }; $titles = array_map($mapper, $articles);
  • 71. $method = 'getTitle'; $mapper = function ($article) use($method) { return $article->$method(); }; $method = 'getAuthor'; $titles = array_map($mapper, $articles);
  • 72. $mapper = function ($method) { return function ($article) use($method) { return $article->$method(); }; };
  • 73. $titles = array_map($mapper('getTitle'), $articles); $authors = array_map($mapper('getAuthor'), $articles);
  • 74. $container->user = $container->asShared(function ($c) { return new User($c->storage); });
  • 75. function asShared(Closure $lambda) { return function ($container) use ($lambda) { static $object; if (is_null($object)) { $object = $lambda($container); } return $object; }; }
  • 76. class Container { protected $values = array(); function __set($id, $value) { $this->values[$id] = $value; } function __get($id) { Error management if (!isset($this->values[$id])) { throw new InvalidArgumentException(sprintf('Value "%s" is not defined.', $id)); } if (is_callable($this->values[$id])) { return $this->values[$id]($this); } else { return $this->values[$id]; } } }
  • 77. class Container { protected $values = array(); function __set($id, $value) { $this->values[$id] = $value; } function __get($id) { if (!isset($this->values[$id])) { throw new InvalidArgumentException(sprintf('Value "%s" is not defined.', $id)); } if (is_callable($this->values[$id])) { return $this->values[$id]($this); } else { return $this->values[$id]; } } function asShared($callable) { 40 LOC for a fully- return function ($c) use ($callable) { static $object; if (is_null($object)) { $object = $callable($c); featured container } return $object; }; } }
  • 78. I’m NOT advocating the usage of lambdas everywhere This presentation is about showing how they work on practical examples
  • 79. A DI Container does NOT manage ALL your objects
  • 80. Good rule of thumb: It manages “Global” objects Objects with only one instance (!= Singletons)
  • 81. LIKE a User, a Request, a database Connection, a Logger, …
  • 82. UNLIKE Model objects (a Product, a blog Post, …)
  • 84. Rock-solid implementation of a DIC in PHP 5.3
  • 85. At the core of the Symfony 2.0 framework … which is the fastest framework for a “Hello World” app (about 4-5 times faster than symfony 1.4)
  • 86. Very flexible Configuration in PHP, XML, YAML, or INI
  • 87. $container = new Builder(); PHP $container->register('output', 'FancyOutput'); $container-> register('message', 'Message')-> setArguments(array(new sfServiceReference('output'), array('with_newline' => true))) ; $container->message->say('Hello World!'); services: output: { class: FancyOutput } YAML message: class: Message arguments: - @output - { with_newline: true } <container xmlns="http://symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services"> <services> <service id="output" class="FancyOutput" /> XML <service id="message" class="Message"> <argument type="service" id="output" /> <argument type="collection"> <argument key="with_newline">true</argument> </argument> </service> </services> </container>
  • 88. <container xmlns="http://symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services"> <import resource="parameters.yml" /> <import resource="parameters.ini" /> <import resource="services.xml" /> </container> imports: - { resource: parameters.yml } - { resource: parameters.ini } - { resource: services.xml }
  • 89. Fast as hell The container can be “compiled” down to plain PHP code
  • 90. use SymfonyComponentsDependencyInjectionContainer; use SymfonyComponentsDependencyInjectionReference; use SymfonyComponentsDependencyInjectionParameter; class ProjectServiceContainer extends Container { protected $shared = array(); protected function getOutputService() { if (isset($this->shared['output'])) return $this->shared['output']; $instance = new FancyOutput(); return $this->shared['output'] = $instance; } protected function getMessageService() { if (isset($this->shared['message'])) return $this->shared['message']; $instance = new Message($this->getOutputService(), array('with_newline' => true)); return $this->shared['message'] = $instance; } }
  • 91. Semantic configuration Thanks to an extension mechanism
  • 92. <container xmlns="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services"> <zend:logger priority="debug" path="%kernel.root_dir%/logs/%kernel.environment%.log" /> <doctrine:dbal dbname="dbname" username="root" password="" /> <swift:mailer transport="gmail"> <swift:username>fabien.potencier</swift:username> <swift:password>xxxxxx</swift:password> </swift:mailer> </container>
  • 93. <container xmlns="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:swift="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/swiftmailer" xmlns:doctrine="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/doctrine" xmlns:zend="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/zend" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/services http://www.symfony- project.org/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/doctrine http://www.symfony- project.org/schema/dic/doctrine/doctrine-1.0.xsd http://www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/swiftmailer http:// www.symfony-project.org/schema/dic/swiftmailer/swiftmailer-1.0.xsd"> <zend:logger priority="debug" path="%kernel.root_dir%/logs/%kernel.environment%.log" /> auto-completion <doctrine:dbal dbname="dbname" username="root" password="" /> <swift:mailer transport="gmail"> and validation <swift:username>fabien.potencier</swift:username> <swift:password>xxxxxx</swift:password> with XSD </swift:mailer> </container>
  • 94. zend.logger: level: debug path: %kernel.root_dir%/logs/%kernel.environment%.log doctrine.dbal: dbname: dbname username: root password: ~ swift.mailer: transport: gmail username: fabien.potencier password: xxxxxxx
  • 95. Everything is converted by the extension to plain services and parameters no overhead
  • 96. Loader::registerExtension(new SwiftMailerExtension()); Loader::registerExtension(new DoctrineExtension()); Loader::registerExtension(new ZendExtension()); $loader = new XmlFileLoader(__DIR__); $config = $loader->load('services.xml'); $container = new Builder(); $container->merge($config); $container->mailer->... $dumper = new PhpDumper($container); echo $dumper->dump();
  • 97. More about Dependency Injection http://fabien.potencier.org/article/17/on-php-5-3-lambda-functions-and-closures http://components.symfony-project.org/dependency-injection/ (5.2) http://github.com/fabpot/symfony/tree/master/src/Symfony/Components/DependencyInjection/(5.3) http://github.com/fabpot/pimple http://twittee.org/
  • 98. Remember, most of the time, you don’t need a Container to use Dependency Injection
  • 99. You can start to use and benefit from Dependency Injection today
  • 100. by implementing it in your projects by using externals libraries that already use DI without the need of a container
  • 101. Symfony Zend Framework ezComponents Doctrine Swift Mailer …
  • 102. symfony-live.com with Matthew Weier O’Pheinney I will reveal the first alpha release of Symfony 2.0!
  • 103. Questions? My slides will be available on slideshare.com/fabpot
  • 104. Sensio S.A. 92-98, boulevard Victor Hugo 92 115 Clichy Cedex FRANCE Tél. : +33 1 40 99 80 80 Contact Fabien Potencier fabien.potencier at sensio.com http://www.sensiolabs.com/ http://www.symfony-project.org/ http://fabien.potencier.org/